Antioch University Los Angeles
Antioch University Santa Barbara
Program Standards for Education Spec...
READ ME FIRST
This document now contains a bookmark entitled “Supplemental Documentation in
Response to Program Assessment...
The first column of the Grid identifies the elements as stated by the CTC as needing
additional evidence. The second colum...
Program Standards for Education Specialist
Teaching Credentials
Program Standards
Program Standard 1: Program Design, Rati...
in place. This structure allows for input and feedback, including placement and progress
of student teachers, credential c...
lack consideration of human dignity. Antioch University is committed to providing its
special education credential student...
credentials; or 4) traditional candidates with no teaching credentials. Candidates have
multiple points of entry to earn t...
The program describes a plan that allows for multiple points of entry.
Candidates enter the program in multiple entry poin...
Program Standard 2: Professional, Legal and Ethical Practices
Each program must provide instruction in the philosophy, his...
knowledge gained by candidates in TEP 601A. The focus of this course is to learn to
implement special education law, speci...
responsiveness in working with diverse families. They study the IEP and IFSP process
from the perspective of parent involv...
learning from other courses and demonstrate their knowledge, skills, and abilities in all of
the Antioch Domains of Practi...
Program Standard 3: Educating Diverse Learners
The program provides instruction in understanding and acceptance of differe...
equity issues in local, state and national schools. Propositions related to inclusion or
exclusion of minority populations...
In HDV 458A Language Development and Acquisition (SB) (LA) students learn and
discuss the acquisition of language and its ...
Program Standard 4: Effective Communication and Collaborative Partnerships
The program provides instruction in communicati...
the environments in which they work and are able to reflect on the effectiveness of their
practice.
In TEP 533 Field Pract...
Individualized planning; vocational assessment, counseling, and training; academic
remediation; counseling in advocacy tra...
Program Standard 5: Assessment of Students
The program provides opportunities for candidates to acquire the knowledge and ...
individual assessment data. They also learn to give a variety of reading assessments and
surveys to determine student skil...
demonstrate the knowledge and application of comparing and contrasting various
methods of assessment, and demonstrating a ...
In TEP 509 -With regard to NCLB & IDEA candidates are taught the requirements for
statewide testing, including accommodati...
Program Standard 6: Using Educational and Assistive Technology
The program provides opportunities for candidates to acquir...
organizing instruction, and integration of technology, including assistive technology.
Emphasis is on adapting instruction...
Program Standard 7: Transition and Transitional Planning
The program provides opportunities for candidates to plan, implem...
Each candidate collaborates with personnel from other educational and community
agencies to plan for successful transition...
Program Standard 8: Participating in ISFP/IEPs and Post-Secondary Transition
Planning
The program provides candidates oppo...
Student Teaching and Professional Seminar I (SB) (LA) and TESE 515A/B Student
Teaching and Professional Seminar II (SB) (L...
Program Standard 9: Preparation to Teach Reading/Language Arts
The preparation program provides substantive, research-base...
Reading Writing Listening and
Speaking
These strands include:
word analysis
fluency
vocabulary, academic
language, and
bac...
Reading Writing Listening and
Speaking
monitoring measures within the three basic types
of assessments to determine studen...
for special education, TESE 516 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild to
Moderate Disabilities I (SB) (LA) follows...
accommodations. Content areas include research based practices, observable phenomena
and ways to manage them, ecological a...
Moderate Disabilities (SB) (LA), which builds on and expands candidates' knowledge of
language arts research and theory in...
The TEP 505 Reading Instruction in Elementary School Classrooms (SB) (LA)
instructors also review the domains of the RICA,...
Letter Recognition
Systematic, Explicit Phonics and other Word Identification Strategies
Spelling Instruction
Vocabulary D...
Instructional Delivery/ Listening and Speaking
Demonstrate knowledge of components of effective instructional delivery in ...
In TEP 505 Reading Instruction in Elementary School Classrooms (SB) (LA), candidates
are required to develop and teach a l...
Knowledge of the following assessments is crucial to achieving the English Language
Arts Content Standards:
entry level as...
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2
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Au education specialist mild moderate 2012 revised 2013-2

  1. 1.           Antioch University Los Angeles Antioch University Santa Barbara Program Standards for Education Specialist Mild/Moderate Submitted to the Commission on Teacher Credentialing November, 2012 Luis Pedraja, Ph.D. Provost, Vice President of Academic Affairs Antioch University Los Angeles 400 Corporate Pointe Culver City, CA 90230 (310) 578-1080 ext 408 lpedraja@antioch.edu Marianne D’Emidio-Caston, Ph.D. Antioch University Santa Barbara 801 Garden Street Santa Barbara, CA 93101 (805) 962-8179 ext 5327 mcaston@antioch.edu J. Cynthia McDermott, Ed.D. Antioch University Los Angeles (310) 578-1080 ext 352 cmcdermott@antioch.edu Resubmitted June, 2013 Resubmitted November, 2013
  2. 2. READ ME FIRST This document now contains a bookmark entitled “Supplemental Documentation in Response to Program Assessment Feedback.” This bookmark leads to a “Grid” that directly responds to the CTC request for additional information and the syllabi and other documents that serve as evidence.   Note to Reader: In order to access the full functionality of this document, the reader must first make sure that Adobe Reader software is configured correctly. Please follow the following instructions to make sure this is done. For PC: By default, Adobe Reader is configured to open hyperlinks that link to somewhere else in the document in the same window. To make these links open up in a new window, follow these steps: 1. Click Edit and select Preferences. 2. When the Preferences window appears, choose the category named Documents. 3. In the right section of the window, there will be a section labeled "Open Settings." Uncheck the box next to Open cross-document links in same window. Cross-document links will now open in a new window. For Mac: By default, Adobe Reader is configured to open hyperlinks that link to somewhere else in the document in the same window. To make these links open up in a new window, follow these steps: 1. Click Adobe Reader and select Preferences. 2. When the Preferences window appears, choose the category named Documents. 3. In the right section of the window, there will be a section labeled "Open Settings." Uncheck the box next to Open cross-document links in same window. Cross-document links will now open in a new window.
  3. 3. The first column of the Grid identifies the elements as stated by the CTC as needing additional evidence. The second column of the Grid provides the source of this evidence (such as syllabi) and the corresponding Antioch University campus (either SB or LA). The third column provides line numbers in each document that enable easy access to the evidence that has been identified. The fourth column contains brief comments, as needed, regarding the source of the evidence such as “class activity”, “required reading”, etc.            
  4. 4. Program Standards for Education Specialist Teaching Credentials Program Standards Program Standard 1: Program Design, Rationale and Coordination Each program of professional preparation is coordinated effectively in accordance with a cohesive design and sound evidence-based practices relevant to the contemporary conditions of schools. The design must reflect the full range of service delivery options, including general education, and the knowledge and skills to meet the needs of students in the specific areas authorized by the credential. The program has an organizational structure that forms a logical sequence between the instructional components and field work, and that provides for coordination of the components of the program. The program describes a plan that allows for multiple points of entry. Each program of professional preparation is coordinated effectively in accordance with a cohesive design and sound evidence-based practices relevant to the contemporary conditions of schools. Antioch’s Response: The Educational Specialist: Mild/Moderate Credential Program relies on the program chair and credentials analyst to adhere to all state laws and University policies regarding advice, assistance, and admission of candidates, selection of faculty, design and implementation of curriculum, collaboration with practicing professionals, program evaluation, and determination of candidate competence. The program chair advises the Vice President for Academic Affairs (VPAA) and other Antioch officials in regard to credentials and policies, student and teacher recruitment. The Credential Analyst maintains and distributes credential advisement information and answers questions for students. Antioch University maintains an advisory council composed of local special and regular educators in public schools as well as representatives from local institutions of higher education. The advisory council members make recommendations with regard the design evidence based school practices, and the relevance to conditions of local schools in both communities in which Antioch campuses are located. The program chair serves on campus committees which enable and maintain a coordination and communication function. Campus governance and administrative committees serve to assist the seamless interaction among departments. Specifically, the admission director, registrar, financial aid, and credential analyst, are in regular communication with each other and the program chair as it relates to effectively coordinating the program. Through the advisory council, university supervisors and faculty and on-going communication with field based teachers, a system of communication and coordination is 1
  5. 5. in place. This structure allows for input and feedback, including placement and progress of student teachers, credential clarification, and evaluation of the program design. The design must reflect the full range of service delivery options, including general education, and the knowledge and skills to meet the needs of students in the specific areas authorized by the credential. Embedded field experiences in the full range of delivery options and in all specific areas authorized by the credential are offered in TESE 536A Field Exploration in Special Education (in Santa Barbara) and TEP 565 Adaptation Pedagogy (in Los Angeles). In these respective courses on each campus candidates observe multiple service delivery options and reflect on the benefits of each for students who qualify for a variety of disability categories. In addition, all candidates in Santa Barbara have a field placement for one quarter in a general education setting, TEP 533 Field Practicum (SB) (LA), and two quarters of student teaching, TESE 512A/B and 515A/B Student Teaching Mild/Moderate with Professional Seminar I and II (SB) (LA), in a special education mild/moderate setting. In Los Angeles, candidates have field experience in TEP 565 Adaptation Pedagogy. Knowledge and skills to meet the needs of students in the mild to moderate disability designations are learned in TESE 516 (SB) (LA) and TESE 517 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities I and II (SB) (LA) on both campuses, and are demonstrated in the student teaching field courses TESE 512A/B and TESE 515A/B. The program has an organizational structure that forms a logical sequence between the instructional components and fieldwork, and that provides for coordination of the components of the program. The conceptual framework of the Special Education programs at Antioch University is consistent with both the spirit and the letter of special education laws. Inherent in Antioch's program for special education credentialing is Antioch's firm commitment to social justice and equity. Both the letter of the laws and the spirit of humanity with which they were conceived (PL 94-142, PL 99-457, IDEA, PL 101-476, IDEA 2004) are a part of the instructional program. The concept of special education has changed a great deal over the last two and a half decades. These changes both in regards to service delivery models and expectations for students with disabilities have expanded the challenges faced by special educators. Additionally, research has supported the trend to move away from isolated and segregated service delivery models to all-inclusive educational environments including the use of positive and specialized supports. The goals for postsecondary students with disabilities now stresses inclusion in the mainstream and the fabric of economic life rather than placement in sheltered workshops that may be inappropriate, demeaning, and 2
  6. 6. lack consideration of human dignity. Antioch University is committed to providing its special education credential students with opportunities to develop ethical and moral standards so that they may act as advocates and provide leadership in local schools and beyond. Antioch's graduates are models for the value and dignity of students with disabilities regardless of service delivery model or disability category. In so doing, our graduates are confident in their knowledge of current research and evidence based practices. Antioch graduates provide clear and comprehensive understanding of local and federal laws that support individualized education practices. In acquiring these characteristics, Antioch students complete a course of study that includes collaboration with local schools, institutions of higher education, parents, and community agencies. They take several courses with their Multiple Subject credential candidate counterparts at Antioch, often working together on collaborative projects or discussing real world student issues as they arise in the field experiences. Collaboration between all the stakeholders in the education of students with disabilities and their successful transition to the community and the workforce is emphasized throughout the specific education specialist courses in the credentialing program. The conceptual framework of the credential program to prepare teachers in Special Education is consistent with the new TPEs for education specialist programs all of which are embodied in the Antioch Domains of Practice (in Santa Barbara) and the Developmental Rubric (Los Angeles). The program prepares candidates to meet these sets of standards, and in some cases, earn both the Education Specialist: Mild/Moderate credential and the Multiple Subject credential. Field experiences and course curricula are interwoven throughout all courses in the program. Antioch candidates have field assignments for all courses starting in the early foundational courses. This fundamental philosophy is that practice and doing are essential for learning has roots that date as far back as the mid-1800s with the establishment of Antioch College’s innovative work study curriculum based on the belief that scholarship and life experience are strengthened when linked, that diversity in all its manifestations is a fundamental component of excellence in education, and that authentic social and community engagement is vital for those who strive to win victories for humanity. Organizational Structure: Program Design and Curriculum The Education Specialist: Mild/Moderate credential program is designed with three primary concepts in mind. These include best practices as described in current literature, a belief that the spirit of special education laws is intended to provide equity to individuals with disabilities, and Antioch University's commitment to social justice for all people regardless of their characteristics. Antioch University's mild/moderate credential program guides students to participate in sequentially and graduated field and course experiences. The design of these experiences is purposefully cohesive, with each phase moving candidates incrementally toward professional competence. Candidates may enter the program as 1) teachers with a basic multiple or single subject credential, 2) interns who possess multiple or single subject credentials; 3) interns who have no basic teaching 3
  7. 7. credentials; or 4) traditional candidates with no teaching credentials. Candidates have multiple points of entry to earn the Education Specialist Mild/Moderate Preliminary Credential only or both the Education Specialist and the Multiple Subject credentials. The course sequence for a typical full time candidate without a preliminary credential is presented below. The Curriculum Chart documents the courses within each of these pathways. Preliminary MILD/MODERATE EDUCATION SPECIALIST Full Time candidate Course Number Course Title Quarter for SB Candidates Quarter for LA Candidates HDV 458A Language Development and Acquisition 1 1 HDV 455 Child Development and Learning 1 1 TEP 536 Foundations of Social Justice (and lab) 1 1 TESE 536A (SB) or TEP 565 (LA ) Field Exploration in Special Education (SB) or Adaptation Pedagogy (LA) 1 2 TEP 601A Social and Legal Dimensions of Special Education 1 1 TEP 537 (SB only) Mediation and Conflict Resolution in Schools 1 2 TESE 601C (SB) or TESE 601B (LA) Individualized Education Design and Policy Implementation 2 1 TESE 536 B Field Exploration in Special Education 2 TESE 538 Comprehensive Behavior Assessment and Positive Behavior Support 2 3 TEP 505 Reading Instruction in the Elementary School Classroom 2 3 TEP 533 Field Practicum 2 2 TEP 507 Real World Mathematics 2 2 TESE 509 Assessment in Special Education 3 4 TESE 516 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild and Moderate Disabilities I 3 3 TESE 512A/B Student Teaching Mild/Moderate with Professional Seminar I 3 3 TESE 519A Educational Technology for Universal Design 3 4 TESE 541 Introduction to Autism Spectrum Disorder 2 4 TESE 515A/B Student Teaching Mild/Moderate with Professional Seminar II 4 4 TESE 518 Family Dynamics and Communication for Special Education Services 4 4 TESE 517 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild and Moderate Disabilities II 4 4 TEP602A (SB) or TEP 602 (LA) Advocacy and Activity for Healthy Children 4 3 * Through advisement, candidates who already possess a basic credential or who already have credit for equivalent courses in the program may be approved for substitutions from specific course requirements in the program. 4
  8. 8. The program describes a plan that allows for multiple points of entry. Candidates enter the program in multiple entry points. In Santa Barbara, the traditional entry is at the beginning of a four-quarter sequence in which candidates begin in a cohort of candidates earning both the multiple subject and education specialist Mild/Moderate credential. Candidates who already hold a basic teaching credential begin in the second quarter, as the first quarter courses consist of more basic foundational coursework. The one exception is that the exploratory course (TESE 536A Field Exploration in Special Education) is offered for the traditional entry students in the first quarter. This course is still taken in the candidates’ first quarter in the program, but for those candidates who hold the basic teaching credential, the first quarter is in fall rather than summer. At the Los Angeles campus, candidates in the Multiple Subject credential program may begin in any quarter; candidates for the Education Specialist credential enter only in summer quarter and join the cohort of multiple subject credential candidates for courses required in both programs. The exploratory course in Los Angeles (TEP 565 Adaptation Pedagogy) is scheduled differently and is not affected by the points of entry as in Santa Barbara. Traditional Intern candidates must begin in summer, as this is when they take the required preservice course hours. Interns who already hold a basic teaching credential are evaluated to determine if they have already met the preservice course requirement and, therefore, they may begin the program in the fall quarter (if they have already satisfied the summer quarter course offerings), joining those who have started the traditional program in the summer. 5
  9. 9. Program Standard 2: Professional, Legal and Ethical Practices Each program must provide instruction in the philosophy, history and legal requirements, and ethical practices of special education. This curriculum includes state and federal mandates, legal requirements for assessment, Individualized Family Service Program, Individualized Education Program (IEP) development and monitoring, services, and instruction of students with disabilities. The program provides candidates information on laws and regulations as they pertain to promoting teacher behavior that is positive and self-regulatory as well as promoting safe educational environments. The program provides opportunities for demonstration of ethical standards, of teaching, of evidence based educational practices in relation to theories, research and regulations necessary to the provision of services to individuals with disabilities and their families. Antioch’s Response: Candidates in the Education Specialist: Mild/Moderate Credential Program experience instruction that includes a complete discussion of current laws and practices pertinent to special education and their application with individuals with disabilities, parents, general educators, and community entities. Passage of courses that address legal and ethical issues in the field provides evidence that candidates possess this knowledge. In addition they demonstrate knowledge of legal mandates as well as ethical standards and abilities to use evidence based educational practices in their supervised field placements. Before completing their course of study candidates in Antioch University’s Education Specialist program demonstrate their proficiency in the development of Individual Education Plans and Individual Transition Plans. Furthermore, Antioch candidates are able to articulate the procedural safeguards and legal protections that apply to individuals with disabilities and their families and caregivers. Antioch candidates are confident in areas of assessment (including legal processes for accommodating and modifying standardized tests), teaching and collaboration. Each program must provide instruction in the philosophy, history and legal requirements, and ethical practices of special education. This curriculum includes state and federal mandates, legal requirements for assessment, Individualized Family Service Program, Individualized Education Program (IEP) development and monitoring, services, and instruction of students with disabilities. In TEP 601A Social and Legal Dimensions of Special Education (SB) (LA), candidates learn historical and legal perspectives of special education services. In particular, IDEA 2004, and other current state and federal laws and case decisions are presented. Candidates learn about the IEP process (including IFSP and transition plans), including the role of teachers (general and special), specialists, administrators, family members, caregivers, advocates, and community agencies. They become familiar with professional organizations that support families and individuals with exceptional needs. TESE 601B Individualized Education Design and Policy Implementation (LA) or TESE 601C Individualized Education Design and Policy Implementation (SB) builds upon the 6
  10. 10. knowledge gained by candidates in TEP 601A. The focus of this course is to learn to implement special education law, specifically the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), and its implications for school contexts. Specific topics covered in class and pertinent to philosophy, history and legal requirements, and ethical practices of special education include the IEP timeline, writing goals, use of assessment for eligibility and for goal-writing, case management, IFSP and IEP development, and transition planning. Students learn how to prepare for and coordinate IEP meetings. In TESE 509 Assessment in Special Education (SB) (LA) candidates learn the legal issues and regulations regarding individual assessment of students with special needs, including assessment biases, legislation related to assessment, ethical protocol for standardized instrument use, and appropriate reporting to parents. They learn about current practices of Response to Intervention (RtI). They also become familiar with legal aspects of accommodations and modifications on statewide assessments in California. The course syllabus for TESE 509 includes lecture and readings pertaining to the history of Special Education, and reviewing case law in both state and federal courts shaping the current legal requirements within Special Education under the Individuals with Disabilities in Education (IDEA) federal law. Also related to legal implications within Special Education, candidates learn about the referral process, including providing interventions, and the legal timeline for completing formal assessments under IDEA. Students participate in class lecture and discussion related to the California state adoption and practices which legally guide Special Education practices under the state adoption of IDEA. Coursework is designed with an emphasis on the legal requirements, including timelines as well as understanding and demonstrating competence administering appropriate forms of assessment, both norm-referenced and curriculum based forms of standardized assessment, as well as using both norm referenced and curriculum based assessment results to make instructional recommendations based on evidence. Candidates complete several assignments, including a large scale final project, in which they need to demonstrate knowledge of evidence based assessment and instruction, and demonstrate an understanding of how to apply both to their teaching methods and practices. In addition to an emphasis on legal guidelines governing Special Education under IDEA, candidates are provided with several hours of in-class instruction on selecting appropriate assessments from an ethical standpoint. Candidates must demonstrate an understanding and knowledge base pertaining to ethical considerations of assessment; namely the use of assessments with current norms, which are valid measures of assessment for a particular students when taking into consideration a variety of factors including language proficiency, culture, school attendance, socio-economic factors, and age. Candidates participate in several activities related to types of disability under IDEA, and instructed as to choosing assessments with ethical consideration of individual students’ disabilities, language, race and culture. In TESE 518 Family Dynamics and Communication for Special Education Services (SB) (LA) candidates learn about parent-professional partnerships, family systems theory, impact of exceptionality on family functions, disability service providers and community support services, and communication with parents as empowered allies. They learn to advocate for and with parents and families. Candidates examine their cultural 7
  11. 11. responsiveness in working with diverse families. They study the IEP and IFSP process from the perspective of parent involvement. In TESE 518 Family Dynamics and Communication for Special Education Services, candidates learn the theory, general principles and procedures for fostering collaborative partnerships among families and students, professionals, and other stakeholders that lead to outcomes of individual and mutual empowerment. In TESE 518 Family Dynamics and Communication for Special Education Services they learn how to work closely with families, students, colleagues in general and special education and outside service providers. These topics are supported, by the Case Study assignment. They understand the connections between assessment and instruction, and are able to design effective instructional plans to meet student needs. They learn to write appropriate short and long-term goals and objectives and plan comprehensive programs to coordinate all aspects of a student’s educational program. Candidates are reminded of confidentiality and permission issues with respect to observations and reports on students in special education, and those who are permitted in their field placements to participate in IEP planning and meetings are encouraged to do so. The program provides candidates information on laws and regulations as they pertain to promoting teacher behavior that is positive and self-regulatory as well as promoting safe educational environments. Candidates learn laws and regulation pertaining to student as well as professional behavior in TESE 538. This course also covers the ethical standards and professional conduct related to behavior management practice for individuals with disabilities. In addition, legal requirements, practices and procedures related to Title 5, California Code of Regulations “Behavioral Interventions for Special Education Students,” is infused throughout this course and students have a working knowledge of the requirements of state and federal laws. Candidates develop and apply positive behavior supports in the classroom, including, participating in at least one functional behavior assessment, and participating in the planning of emergency procedures for students who represent a threat to themselves or others. They demonstrate an ability to describe and select appropriate observational techniques and develop baseline data, select appropriate strategies or curriculum for social skills, self-help and self-advocacy, and articulate adaptations to behavioral interventions in consideration of cultural differences. As part of this course they take a proactive role in developing a social skills curriculum to facilitate students learning appropriate social behavior in a range of school and non-school settings. They learn to promote safe educational environments. The program provides opportunities for demonstration of ethical standards, of teaching, of evidence based educational practices in relation to theories, research and regulations necessary to the provision of services to individuals with disabilities and their families. Candidates demonstrate their knowledge, skills and abilities in their student teaching placements, TESE 512A/B Student Teaching Mild/Moderate with Professional Seminar I (SB) (LA) and TESE 512A/B Student Teaching Mild/Moderate with Professional Seminar II (SB) (LA). As a field based course, candidates are required to integrate their 8
  12. 12. learning from other courses and demonstrate their knowledge, skills, and abilities in all of the Antioch Domains of Practice (SB)/Developmental Rubric (LA). Both traditional student teachers and interns demonstrate their practice, including ethical standards, evidence based educational practices, and the provision of services to student with disabilities in this culminating field based course. They are observed by both their field based supervisor and the university supervisor regularly. Observation notes are collected as evidence of teaching skills and stored in candidate files. Evaluation processes are conducted at regularly scheduled intervals throughout the field practica to collect data on level of performance on the Domains/Rubric. Data from these scored evaluations is used to inform not only the candidate of his or her level of proficiency; data inform the program in reports and activities throughout the CTC accreditation cycle. 9
  13. 13. Program Standard 3: Educating Diverse Learners The program provides instruction in understanding and acceptance of differences in culture, cultural heritage, ethnicity, language, age, religion, social economic status, gender identity/expression, sexual orientation, and abilities and disabilities of individuals served. In addition, the program provides knowledge and application of pedagogical theories, development of academic language and principles/practices for English language usage leading to comprehensive literacy in English. Antioch’s Response: Antioch University has a long tradition of social justice mission driven programs and education. This standard, in particular, addresses one of the strong aspects of any Antioch education. Specifically, the special education credential program ensures each candidate is able to demonstrate knowledge, skills and abilities to become proficient in implementing evidence based and culturally responsive pedagogies necessary in teaching and engaging all students with or without disabilities. Antioch candidates in the Mild/Moderate Specialist program address the needs of diverse learners throughout their course and fieldwork. As it is Antioch's mission to educate candidates to be advocates for human rights and social justice, each course addresses some aspect of education and human equity. In particular, the courses described in this standard include the consideration of culture, ethnicity, gender identity, age, religion, socioeconomic status, language, abilities and disabilities in the American education system and in individual classrooms in which the candidates participate in field experiences. The program provides instruction in understanding and acceptance of differences in culture, cultural heritage, ethnicity, language, age, religion, social economic status, gender identity/expression, sexual orientation, and abilities and disabilities of individuals served. In TEP 536 Foundations of Social Justice Education (SB) (LA) Antioch candidates are exposed to the early historical and social conditions that have shaped the current K-12 curriculum and environment. Course readings and class discussions focus on the current and historical mission of public education with considerable focus on access to the system. Laws and court cases that have limited or expanded access to public education are also discussed. Contemporary authors such as Sonia Nieto along with Paulo Freire, Maria Montessori and John Dewey are introduced as candidates learn the foundations of American education. Antioch candidates are also exposed to influential philosophical constructs (Progressive, Essentialist, Romantic, Social Constructivist) and how those constructs may have impacted the practices of assessment, curriculum development, and instruction. Most relevant to the Ed Specialist candidates, the course provides a background for understanding the present laws related to the inclusion of children with special needs in public schools. Additionally, Antioch candidates learn about current 10
  14. 14. equity issues in local, state and national schools. Propositions related to inclusion or exclusion of minority populations (CA Propositions 8 and 229, and the Dream Act for example) or by the introduction of current events, such as the killing of a local gay student, relevant to appreciation of diversity are also discussed. National initiatives such as No child Left Behind, and Race to the Top are researched and discussed in class. During TEP 601A Social and Legal Dimensions of Special Education (SB) (LA), candidates learn to recognize the differences and similarities of exceptional and non- exceptional students and are able to discuss interpersonal relationships and human relationships problems and issues with students and parents. Additionally candidates are able to evaluate the concept of least restrictive environment (LRE) and its implications for the instructional process. Pertinent to this standard, they learn about issues of civil rights that provide the foundations of many special education laws, the research that supported those practices, and the current issues of overrepresentation of minority students in special education programs, specifically in more restrictive environments. TESE 509 Assessment in Special Education (SB) (LA) addresses issues of diversity related to appropriateness of standardized, formal, and informal assessment instruments and practices on students from varying language and cultural backgrounds. Candidates are asked to review commercially available assessment instruments for bias factors, and must consider students’ backgrounds in designing and interpreting assessment plans and data. The weekly seminars in TESE 512A/B Student Teaching Mild/Moderate with Professional Seminar I (SB) (LA) and TESE 515A/B Student Teaching Mild/Moderate with Professional Seminar II (SB) (LA) allow candidates to examine a variety of issues and situations that arise in the field. Issues of diversity are typically discussed as they emerge. Candidates take TESE 518 Family Dynamics and Communication for Special Education Services (SB) (LA) which addresses a wide variety of diverse family structures in addition to understanding how culture, language, religion, and sexual orientation affect family dynamics for student learning, behavior and social acceptance. Candidates learn to communicate and work with families with different compositions and practices. They understand when interpreters or translators are required for communication as well as how to mediate differences among family members. Antioch University has an approved Multiple Subject program which meets the CTC standard on diverse learners and language, including some of the aforementioned coursework. Coursework, observation, and student teaching experiences all address and satisfy the requirements of learning about educating students with disabilities and their families who represent a diverse local population. In addition, the program provides knowledge and application of pedagogical theories, development of academic language and principles/practices for English language usage leading to comprehensive literacy in English. 11
  15. 15. In HDV 458A Language Development and Acquisition (SB) (LA) students learn and discuss the acquisition of language and its pragmatic use in communicating with a diverse array of people. In this course, emphasis is placed on effective interpersonal communication skills and the critical social justice issues that pertain to effective communication. Additionally Antioch candidates enrolled in this course are exposed to relevant federal and state laws governing the teaching of second language learners. They learn about language testing, SDAIE strategies, and how to teach English Language Development. In TEP 505 Reading in the Elementary Classroom, (SB) (LA) candidates learn fundamental methods of literacy assessment and instruction. Practices that are relevant for English Learners are addressed more explicitly in TESE 516 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild/Moderate Disabilities I, but the foundation for those evidence based practices are established in the initial reading methods course in which candidates learn fundamentals of teaching reading. In the special education methods course, TESE 516 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild/Moderate Disabilities I, (SB) (LA) candidates learn to address English Learners in their teaching. They prepare to teach exceptional learners using research based approaches, and to adapt instruction to teach English learners language and other content areas. 12
  16. 16. Program Standard 4: Effective Communication and Collaborative Partnerships The program provides instruction in communicating effectively with (1) individuals with disabilities and their parents, and primary caregivers, (2) general/special education teachers, and co-teachers, related service personnel, and administrators, (3) trans- disciplinary teams including but not limited to multi-tiered intervention, Section 504, IEP/IFSP/ITP. The program provides opportunities for the candidate to establish and work in partnerships to design, implement, and evaluate appropriate, integrated services based on individual student needs. The program informs candidates of the importance of communicating effectively with the business community, public and non-public agencies, to provide the cohesive delivery of services, and bridge transitional stages across the life span for all learners. Antioch’s Response: Interpersonal communication is a priority for all Antioch educators, and the program supports coursework and field based experiences that engage candidates in opportunities to communicate with a variety of stakeholders in writing and in person. Instruction is specifically provided in conflict resolution, collaboration strategies, and group communication. Opportunities for practice in the field are both planned and spontaneous. In HDV 455 Child Development and Learning (SB) (LA), candidates learn about typical and atypical development across the lifespan and child and adolescent development, including the needs for transitions from each stage of development to the next. During TEP 601A Social and Legal Dimensions of Special Education (SB) (LA), candidates learn about the IEP and student study team processes. They participate in mock IEPs, evaluating the roles of all related service personnel and parents who serve on these teams. They understand the role of the family with regard to these legal requirements as well as understanding the parent perspectives of education for children with disabilities. Candidates learn about designing appropriate lifespan plans for students through this IEP and transition planning process. Candidates also are presented with information about RtI as part of the process potentially leading to transition to the special education process. In TESE 601B (LA) and TESE 601C (SB) Individualized Education Design and Policy Implementation, candidates are presented with an overview of the various types of individual plans for students with disabilities including the IEP, ITP and IFSP. Designated Instructional Services are introduced in this course. They learn about the collaborative nature of team decision making. In TEP 537 Mediation and Conflict Resolution in Schools (SB) (LA) Antioch candidates learn basic conflict resolution, communication and counseling skills. They also learn how to apply the skills when working within a diverse population. Students demonstrate that they are aware of their own character, attitudes and biases and how these may affect communication. Students have the opportunity to apply their conflict resolution skills in 13
  17. 17. the environments in which they work and are able to reflect on the effectiveness of their practice. In TEP 533 Field Practicum (SB) (LA), candidates are introduced to diverse general education classroom settings in order to gain a better understanding of teacher and student communication styles and how to work as a team. These experiences broaden their understanding of teaching and provide a basis for their role as special educators, collaborators, and colleagues. In TESE 512A Student Teaching Mild/Moderate with Professional Seminar I (SB) (LA) and 515A Student Teaching Mild/Moderate with Professional Seminar II (SB) (LA), candidates begin to work directly with their cooperating teachers to develop the collaborative and communication skills necessary to become successful teachers. University supervisors and cooperating teachers (or field based supervisors) provide feedback as needed to ensure success of the candidates, especially as it relates to their ability to collaborate with general education teachers and other related services, such as regional centers, departments of mental health or the department of rehabilitation. Candidates demonstrate their abilities to work with school personnel and with families in the school community in support of student needs. Candidates demonstrate their abilities to work with paraprofessionals, peer tutors, volunteers, and families during their student teaching. As a requirement of the student teaching courses, they must participate in at least one IEP meeting, demonstrating their abilities not only to prepare goals and objectives for students, but to collaborate and communicate with families and caregivers and other professionals (including those from outside service agencies). If appropriate they work with interpreters/translators to enhance communication with families. One assignment for TESE 515A (SB) (LA) is a collaboration project in which they must communicate and collaborate with general education teachers to support their students in accessing the core curriculum. In TESE 518 Family Dynamics and Communication for Special Education Services (SB) (LA) candidates are provided with theory, general principles, and procedures for fostering collaborative partnerships among families, professionals, students, and other stakeholders that lead to outcomes of individual and mutual empowerment. In-class activities, discussions, course readings, and assignments are used to facilitate candidate understanding of research, recommended practices, and family perspectives concerning family-professional partnerships. In addition, the interaction of culture and disability are also be explored. Frameworks for addressing problems or conflicts that often arise between service providers and clients from different cultures are discussed. In TESE 517 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild and Moderate Disabilities (SB) (LA) candidates learn about independent living related development stages (preschool, elementary, middle school, high school), and types of transitions (grade to grade; school to school; school to community; school to employment or postsecondary education). They learn about the following transition program components: 14
  18. 18. Individualized planning; vocational assessment, counseling, and training; academic remediation; counseling in advocacy training and social skills; formation of support systems (vocational educators); systemic job-seeking curriculum; functional tasks across the curriculum; skill oriented instruction; and content oriented instruction. 15
  19. 19. Program Standard 5: Assessment of Students The program provides opportunities for candidates to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to assess students in a comprehensive manner within the breadth of the credential authorization. Each candidate understands and uses multiple sources of information in order to participate in progress monitoring and in decision-making regarding eligibility and services. The program provides candidates with the knowledge and skills to assess students from diverse backgrounds and varying language, communication, and cognitive abilities. The program provides opportunities for using both formal and informal assessments to evaluate students' needs and strengths for the purpose of making accommodations, modifications, instructional decisions and ongoing program improvements. The program provides the opportunities for each candidate to demonstrate the knowledge of required statewide assessments and local, state and federal accountability systems. Antioch’s Response: All Antioch candidates enrolled in the mild to moderate credential program experience repeated exposure to the principles and strategies relevant to assessment, curriculum and instruction. Exposure to these vital topics occurs frequently during coursework as well as during fieldwork. Candidates’ abilities to demonstrate competencies relevant to assessment, curriculum, and instruction are documented both by relevant coursework and by evaluations conducted in fieldwork sites. The program provides opportunities for candidates to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to assess students in a comprehensive manner within the breadth of the credential authorization. Each candidate understands and uses multiple sources of information in order to participate in progress monitoring and in decision-making regarding eligibility and services. Early in the program, candidates learn observation strategies as their first assessment opportunity. Observation is taught in HDV 455 Child and Adolescent Development (SB) (LA) in which candidates observe individuals as different ages. Candidates complete a Descriptive Review or Case Study of a student in which they collect data using ethnographic methods, in multiple settings. Particular focus for the Descriptive Review/Case Study are six dimensions of student development including language and literacy (expressive and receptive), social interaction, academic achievement and formal learning. Structured observation with data collection is an essential aspect of this assignment. The Descriptive Review, and the Case Study (in TESE 601B/C) with the particular focus on a child with special needs introduces and develops the candidate’s observation skills, and the ability to make inferences from data. In TEP 505 Reading Instruction in Elementary School Classrooms (SB) (LA) all candidates learn multiple forms of reading assessment. They complete a multi-faceted assessment of reading abilities on an individual student in their placement. This initial assessment experience teaches candidates how to plan and adapt instruction based on 16
  20. 20. individual assessment data. They also learn to give a variety of reading assessments and surveys to determine student skills. In TEP 507 Real World Mathematics (SB) (LA) candidates learn to analyze errors and error patterns in students’ math work. A theoretical frame is generated where candidates can determine whether an error is made because of a technical or careless mistake or whether the error is made because of lack of conceptual understanding. In this class, candidates also perform Piagetian protocols on individual students to help identify their level of development with respect to skills pertinent to mathematical thinking. In TESE 601B Individualized Education Design and Policy Implementation (LA) or TESE 601C Individualized Education Design and Policy Implementation (SB) candidates learn how to write specific goals and objectives based on assessment. TESE 601B/C also provides units of instruction on Testing, CMA, IEP Based Accommodations vs Modifications and Alternate Assessments; CAPA. Candidates understand how teacher made criterion referenced assessment tools can be used to provide evidence of student achievement on IEP goals; this content is supported by additional instruction in TESE 509 Assessment in Special Education. In TESE 509 Assessment in Special Education (SB) (LA), candidates learn to make appropriate educational decisions on the basis of a variety of non-biased standardized and non-standardized techniques, instruments and processes that are functional, curriculum- referenced, and appropriate to the diverse needs of individual students. Candidates utilize these approaches to assess the developmental, academic, social/behavior performance- based, social, communication, vocational and community life skill needs of students, and the outcomes of instruction. Each candidate demonstrates knowledge and skills related to using and communicating the results of a variety of individualized assessment and evaluation approaches appropriate for students with mild/moderate disabilities. They have multiple opportunities to learn and practice informal and formal assessment strategies, and a culminating assignment in which they complete a full assessment of a student with a mild/moderate disability. This assignment includes collaborating with teachers (both general and specialist personnel), administering, scoring, and interpreting formal assessment instruments, modifying existing assessment tools to accommodate language needs, determining current level of functioning, discussing the results with the family, and making evidence based determinations about instruction based on the assessment. Candidates also learn vocational/transitional assessment techniques, including choosing appropriate tools and adapting for cultural and family differences. These include informal procedures as well as interest and aptitude instruments. Course requirements for candidates to earn credit include a final research project or case study, in which candidates must implement the assessment process from start to finish, and include various assessment methods in their results. Assessment methods include student ecological assessments and observations, review of the student’s cumulative educational records with an emphasis on background information, and longitudinal progress the student’s records indicate based on report cards and test scores present in the file, administration of curriculum based measures, with progress monitoring and reporting of results, and administration of a standardized academic achievement test. Candidates 17
  21. 21. demonstrate the knowledge and application of comparing and contrasting various methods of assessment, and demonstrating a knowledge of how the assessments chosen may guide instructional recommendations using evidence based practices. The program provides candidates with the knowledge and skills to assess students from diverse backgrounds and varying language, communication, and cognitive abilities. As described above, the program provides candidates with knowledge and skills to assess students. Specific to students from diverse backgrounds, candidates also learn to assess students with varying English language and communication skills in HDV 458. They understand the statewide testing of students whose first language is other than English. In TESE 509 they learn about cultural bias and ways to assess students and interpret assessment results for students from backgrounds other than the majority culture and language. In TESE 538 Comprehensive Behavior Assessment and Positive Behavior Support (SB) (LA), candidates develop and apply positive behavior supports in the classroom, including, participating in at least one functional behavior assessment. They demonstrate an ability to describe and select appropriate observational techniques and develop baseline data. The program provides opportunities for using both formal and informal assessments to evaluate students' needs and strengths for the purpose of making accommodations, modifications, instructional decisions and ongoing program improvements. In TESE 516 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities I (SB) (LA) candidates learn to make instructional decisions based on assessment information. In collaboration with TESE 509 candidates complete a progress monitoring learning segment in which they use Curriculum Based Measures to monitor student progress. Candidates use ongoing progress monitoring data to evaluate the appropriateness of current instruction, to identify adjustments to instruction, and to determine further instruction needed. Teacher candidates develop and implement an instructional learning sequence based on instructional decisions made from the progress monitoring learning segment. Candidates must explain their rationale for instruction and how the progress monitoring data supported their decisions. In TESE 517 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities II (SB) (LA) candidates have an assignment to create a unit of instruction. One of the requirements within the unit includes three elements for differentiation: pre-assessment, ongoing assessment, and post assessment. Candidates must explain why they chose the specific assessments and differentiated aspects, and discuss how they will interpret results. The program provides the opportunities for each candidate to demonstrate the knowledge of required statewide assessments and local, state and federal accountability systems. 18
  22. 22. In TEP 509 -With regard to NCLB & IDEA candidates are taught the requirements for statewide testing, including accommodations and modifications for students with disabilities. Considerations in assessing diverse exceptional learners are presented, such as disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education and alternative methods of assessment. In TESE 515A/B, candidates participate in statewide standardized test proctoring. In the seminar course associated with the student teaching for TESE 512A/B Student Teaching and Professional Seminar I (SB) (LA) and TESE 515A/B Student Teaching and Professional Seminar II (SB) (LA), specific seminar topics address the CST, CMA, CAPA and CASHEE. Candidates typically are provided information on statewide assessment processes and the accommodation and modifications allowable as well as the procedures for deciding on those accommodations and modifications and the connection to the IEP process. 19
  23. 23. Program Standard 6: Using Educational and Assistive Technology The program provides opportunities for candidates to acquire the ability to use computer-based technology to facilitate the teaching and learning process. Each candidate demonstrates knowledge and understanding of the appropriate use of computer-based technology for information collection, analysis and management in the instructional setting. Candidates demonstrate knowledge of assistive technology including low and high equipment and materials to facilitate communication, curriculum access, and skill development of students with disabilities. Antioch’s Response: Technology is used in the teacher education program as a communication tool, with all candidates developing or demonstrating abilities to use appropriate computer-based communication and teaching skills. In addition, specific instruction in educational and assistive technology skills are learned and practiced in the particular courses cited below. The program provides opportunities for candidates to acquire the ability to use computer-based technology to facilitate the teaching and learning process. Each candidate demonstrates knowledge and understanding of the appropriate use of computer-based technology for information collection, analysis and management in the instructional setting. The purpose of TEP 519A Educational Technology for Universal Design (Santa Barbara) or TEP 519 Educational Technology (Los Angeles) is to empower credential candidates to develop skills, and gain knowledge enabling them to use technology as a teaching and learning tool in today's schools. Issues surrounding technology in the classroom are discussed, including the Digital Divide, gender and equity issues, safe Internet use, social networking, and the effectiveness of technology as an educational tool. Strategies are developed to integrate educational technology to support curricular standards. Special attention is given to universal design as technology becomes a powerful way to address accessibility. Candidates also learn cutting edge hardware and software use as it pertains to effectiveness in teaching and learning. Assistive technology in which candidates learn high and low tech assistive hard and soft ware technological accommodations is presented in this course. In TESE 601B Individual Educational Planning and Policy Implementation (LA) and TESE 601C Individual Educational Planning and Policy Implementation (SB) candidates learn to write IEPs, learn about the various computer data systems used in local districts. Candidates become familiar with the forms and processes necessary to complete and secure student electronic IEP records. TESE 517 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild and Moderate Disabilities II (SB) (LA) focuses on meeting the needs of students with mild and moderate disabilities, through effective teaching methodologies, instructional strategies, interventions, and accommodations. Content areas include research based practices, observable phenomena and ways to manage them, ecological assessment and considerations, planning and 20
  24. 24. organizing instruction, and integration of technology, including assistive technology. Emphasis is on adapting instructional techniques and materials for learners with diverse needs and backgrounds to enhance development in areas of written expression, spelling, social studies, science, art, study skills, and transition related skills. They write curriculum, adapt curriculum and instruction, plan lessons in content areas as well as for transition, and identify instructional uses for computer software and hardware across settings in special education. Universal design is a strong philosophical guiding force throughout this course. Candidates demonstrate knowledge of assistive technology including low and high equipment and materials to facilitate communication, curriculum access, and skill development of students with disabilities. Assignments in the courses mentioned above provide evidence of candidate demonstration of knowledge with regard to assistive technology including low and high technological equipment. In addition, candidates demonstrate use of such technologies with regard to communication and curriculum and instruction in their field placements for TESE 512A/B Student Teaching and Professional Seminar I (SB) (LA) and TESE 515A/B Student Teaching and Professional Seminars II (SB) (LA). Field based and university supervisors observe candidates’ demonstrated use in the field. In addition, technology use specific to students with mild/moderate disabilities is a required aspect of the lesson plans submitted for the unit requirement and/or the case study assignment in the same course. 21
  25. 25. Program Standard 7: Transition and Transitional Planning The program provides opportunities for candidates to plan, implement, and evaluate transitional life experiences for students with disabilities across the lifespan. Each candidate collaborates with personnel from other educational and community agencies to plan for successful transitions by students. Each candidate demonstrates the knowledge and ability to teach students appropriate self-determination and expression skills. Antioch’s Response: In addition to the first hand experiences candidates have in their classroom placements, the opportunities for candidates to plan, implement and evaluate transitional life experiences across the lifespan are incorporated in the topics and assignments in their coursework taken concurrent with student teaching field placements. Details of the planned experiences are found in the following descriptions of courses and the corresponding syllabi. While some candidates are placed in the elementary grades, understanding their responsibility to create transition plans is an important function of those who hold this credential, and all candidates plan and implement appropriate transition experiences for their students. The program provides opportunities for candidates to plan, implement, and evaluate transitional life experiences for students with disabilities across the lifespan. In TESE 517 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild/Moderate Disabilities II (SB) (LA), candidates address assessment for vocational and community life skill needs of students as they prepare transition plans. They also write units of study that include assessment for individual lessons (task analysis, process monitoring, and final assessment of skills). In this course, candidates learn about teaching self-advocacy, and they create a transition plans as one of their assignments. Transition is one of the main topics for the course. Through lecture and readings, candidates learn about issues related to transition as well as how to effectively teach transition goals. As appropriate for the students in their field placement, they create and implement instructional plans relevant for transitional life experiences. In TESE 601B/C Individualized Education Design and Policy Implementation (SB) (LA), candidates begin their journey into the implementation of legal practices in special education. In this course they learn how to prepare for and coordinate IEP meetings, including working closely with families, students, colleagues in regular and special education, and outside service providers. They learn about individual transition plans (ITP). As part of learning all legal aspects of IEP planning and development, candidates are taught legally mandates transition requirements and protocols as well as the purpose of student centered transition planning. 22
  26. 26. Each candidate collaborates with personnel from other educational and community agencies to plan for successful transitions by students. In TESE 512A/B Student Teaching Mild/Moderate with Professional Seminar I (SB) (LA), and TESE 515A/B Student Teaching Mild/Moderate with Professional Seminar II (SB) (LA), candidates begin to work directly with their field based supervisors to develop the collaborative and communication skills necessary to become successful teachers. University and field based supervisors provide feedback as needed to ensure success of the candidates, especially as it relates to their ability to collaborate with general education teachers, families, and other related service providers, including those in appropriate community agencies. Candidates demonstrate their ability to work with school personnel and with families in the school community in support of student needs, including the assessment process. Candidates are evaluated on their ability to work with paraprofessionals, peer tutors, families, and volunteers during their student teaching. Antioch candidates participate in transition goal setting for students in their student teaching placements, whether from elementary to middle school/junior high, to high school, or for students transitioning to adult post-secondary environments. In the seminar part of this student teaching sequence, candidates learn about, though field trips or guest speakers, various community agencies that provide services to students in the transition process. Representatives from Department of Rehabilitation, Regional Center, Association for Retarded Citizens, and the local community college Disabled Students Programs and Services office are all involved in presenting their services to Antioch’s credential candidates. In TESE 518 Family Dynamics and Communication for Special Education Services (SB) (LA), candidates learn to communicate regarding development and coordination of educational support services to assist parents and families in academic as well as transition planning and programming. As part of a home school collaboration project/case study they are required to review the assessment data from a variety of assessment procedures and prepare to communicate the results and implications to parents. A major topic for family communication centers on future goals for students, including deliberate conversations about transition. Candidates establish relationships with a variety of educational and community personnel. Each candidate demonstrates the knowledge and ability to teach students appropriate self-determination and expression skills. Through coursework in TESE 517 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild/Moderate Disabilities II (SB) (LA), TESE 509 Assessment in Special Education (SB) (LA), and fieldwork in TESE 515A/B Student Teaching Mild/Moderate with Professional Seminar II (SB) (LA), candidates demonstrate their ability to administer standardized and informal assessment instruments for transition planning, including self- determination and expression skills. 23
  27. 27. Program Standard 8: Participating in ISFP/IEPs and Post-Secondary Transition Planning The program provides candidates opportunities to demonstrate the ability to participate effectively as a team member and/or case manager for the IFSP/IEP/transition planning process, from pre-referral interventions and requisite assessment processes, through planning specially-designed instruction to support access to the core curriculum, developing appropriate IFSP/IEP/transition planning goals based on standards and following all legal requirements of the IFSP/IEP/transition planning process. Antioch’s Response: The content and practice associated with this program standard is developmentally presented and practiced throughout the program. Ideally, candidates practice all aspects of the special education process in their placements. Due, however, to the confidentiality of the mandated proceedings, often opportunities to demonstrate skills in case management and team participation need to be provided through carefully designed case studies, mock meetings, and class assignments. Candidates begin learning about the pre-referral through IEP process in their first quarter in TEP 601A Social and Legal Dimensions of Special Education (SB) (LA). Their text and lectures give them an overview of the process which is reinforced through assignments to observe Pre-referral Intervention Team or IEP meetings (when possible), and culminating in a simulated IEP meeting in which all candidates role play a demonstration IEP meeting based on fictional case study students. (The IEP simulation activity is conducted in TESE 601B Individualized Education Design and Policy Implementation in Los Angeles) Candidates complete assignments that allow them to demonstrate understanding of the full IEP process from pre-referral through assessment, IEP meetings, and the implementation process for the student in their case study. In TESE 601B/C Individualized Education Design and Policy Implementation (SB) (LA), candidates continue to practice IEP meeting management as well as writing the individualized plans (IEP, EFSP, ITPs). There is another IEP assignment that includes transition planning and IFSPs in the families’ course, TESE 518 Family Dynamics and Communication for Special Education Services (SB) (LA). It is in the seminar for the student teaching courses, TESE 512A/B Student Teaching and Professional Seminar I (SB) (LA) and TESE 515A/B Student Teaching and Professional Seminar II (SB) (LA), that candidates are expected to participate in their own IEPs/transition plans with their cooperating teachers, if allowed (or as interns). The seminar course allows dialog and reflection about their experiences in these meetings. RtI as a pre-referral intervention is presented in TEP 601A Social and Legal Dimensions of Special Education (SB) (LA). It is revisited in TESE 601B/C Individualized Education Design and Policy Implementation (SB) (LA). Pre-referral intervention and assessment is presented again as part of the assessment course as related to assessment data and decision making. RtI is also a topic for the seminar courses, TESE 512A/B 24
  28. 28. Student Teaching and Professional Seminar I (SB) (LA) and TESE 515A/B Student Teaching and Professional Seminar II (SB) (LA). In TESE 516 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild/Moderate Disabilities I (SB) (LA) and TESE 517 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild/Moderate Disabilities II (SB) (LA), instruction focuses specifically on specially-designed instruction to support access to the core curriculum. Candidates learn to write the objectives that support the core curriculum, including state standards based goals that allow students to access the California Modified Assessment (CMA) for students whose IEPs require it. Specifically, TESE 516 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild and Moderate Disabilities I (SB) (LA) focuses on meeting the needs of students with mild and moderate disabilities, through effective teaching methodologies, instructional strategies, interventions, and accommodations. Content areas include research based practices, ecological assessment and considerations, planning and organizing instruction, and integrating technology. Emphasis is on adapting instructional techniques and materials for learners with diverse needs and backgrounds to enhance development in areas of reading, literacy, mathematics, and metacognition. Candidates learn planning and organizing instruction, setting up the classroom, instructional grouping arrangements specific to learners with mild/moderate disabilities. Candidates write lesson plans for students of diverse backgrounds, including how the instruction will meet assessed needs as stated in individual IEPs, and assessment of learning. They address how to accommodate learners through differentiated instruction and the use of technology for learning. Instruction is delivered in field placements and observed by university supervisors (TESE 512A/B and TESE 515A/B Student Teaching Mild/Moderate Disabilities and Professional Seminar I and II). All legal aspects of the processes addressed in the IEP process related to this program standard are reinforced in student teaching seminars, TESE 512A/B Student Teaching and Professional Seminar I (SB) (LA) and TESE 515A/B Student Teaching and Professional Seminar II (SB) (LA). Prior to the student teaching placement, candidates learn about the IFSP, IEP and transition planning, writing goals and objectives, addressing standards and core curriculum, and appropriate strategies. The student teaching experience and seminar are the culminating experiences that allow candidates to practice and develop the skills that have been taught in the former courses in the program. They are evaluated on their abilities with respect to the IEP process (including pre- referral through instruction and evaluation) by university supervisors, field based supervisors. The Domains of Practice (SB) and Developmental Rubric (LA) address these processes of special education and are used to assess each candidate in these abilities. 25
  29. 29. Program Standard 9: Preparation to Teach Reading/Language Arts The preparation program provides substantive, research-based instruction that effectively prepares each candidate to teach reading/language arts. Candidates in the other education specialist credential programs will be prepared to deliver a comprehensive program of systematic instruction in reading, writing, listening, and speaking aligned to the state adopted English Language Arts Content Standards and the Reading/Language Arts Framework. The program provides candidates with systematic, explicit instruction to meet the needs of the full range of learners (including struggling readers, students with special needs, English language learners, speakers of non- standard English, students who have no communication/language system, and advanced learners) who have varied reading levels and language backgrounds. The preparation program provides each candidate with experience in a classroom where reading is taught. Antioch’s Response: Antioch University’s Education Specialist Program does not include the Early Childhood Special Education credential. This response only addresses this reading and language arts teaching standard for K-12 credential candidates in special education. The chart below addresses each of the specific aspects of this Standard 9 and the aligned Reading/Language Arts Content Standards and Framework. This response is comparable to the Preparation to Teach Reading/Language Arts standard for Antioch’s CTC Accredited Multiple Subjects Program on both campuses. Reading Writing Listening and Speaking Instruct- ional Planning/ Objectives/ Design Strategic selection and sequencing of curricula to be taught as outlined in the Reading/ Language Arts Framework (2007) with opportunities for application using State Board of Education (SBE)-adopted core instructional materials for both instruction and intervention during fieldwork experience. Features of instructional design include what to teach and when to introduce skills and concepts, how to select examples, how to integrate standards, and how to teach for transference and generalization of skills. Reading Writing Listening and Speaking Instruct- ional Delivery 1. Demonstrate knowledge of reading content as described in the RICA Content Specifications and grade level standards as outlined in the Reading/Language Arts Framework (2007). Demonstrate knowledge of components of effective instructional delivery in writing as described in the Reading/Language Arts Framework (2007). For example: The systematic Demonstrate knowledge of components of effective instructional delivery in listening and speaking as described in the Reading/Language Arts Framework (2007). For 26
  30. 30. Reading Writing Listening and Speaking These strands include: word analysis fluency vocabulary, academic language, and background knowledge reading comprehension literary response and analysis 2. Demonstrate knowledge of components of effective instructional delivery in reading as described in the CA Reading/Language Arts Framework (2007). For example: orientation (e.g., engagement, teacher demonstration) presentation (e.g., explicit instruction, modeling, pacing) structured practice (e.g., reinforcement, questioning, feedback) guided practice (e.g., questioning, feedback, corrections, peer- mediated instruction) independent practice and application independent practice (e.g. opportunities for students to show level of mastery) progression of instruction and application of foundational writing strategies, applications, and conventions Writing strategies that include teaching organization and focus, penmanship (where applicable), research, technology, evaluation and revision Writing applications according to genres (grade-level appropriate) and their characteristics Writing conventions appropriate to grade level standards (i.e. sentence structure, grammar, punctuation, capitalization and spelling). example: The systematic progression of instruction and application to develop listening and speaking strategies and speaking applications that parallel and reinforce instruction in reading and writing. Listening and speaking strategies that include listening comprehension, organization and delivery of oral communication, analysis and evaluation of oral and media communication (grade-level appropriate). Reading Writing Listening and Speaking Assessment Candidates must understand that assessment and instruction are linked within any curriculum. Therefore, candidates must demonstrate knowledge and ability to utilize multiple Candidates must understand that assessment and instruction are linked 27
  31. 31. Reading Writing Listening and Speaking monitoring measures within the three basic types of assessments to determine students’ progress towards state adopted content standards, as referenced in Chapter Six of the Reading Language Arts Framework (2007). within any curriculum. Therefore, candidates must demonstrate knowledge and ability to utilize ongoing assessments, both formal and informal to determine students’ progress towards state adopted content standards. Candidates need to be able to analyze and interpret results to plan effective and differentiated instruction and interventions. Reading Writing Listening and Speaking Universal Access/ Differ- entiated Instruction Demonstrate knowledge of how to organize and manage differentiated reading instruction and interventions to meet the needs of the full range of learners. For example: using all components of California SBE-adopted core instructional materials to make grade-level content accessible to all students recognizing that students should be grouped for interventions according to the severity of their difficulties (i.e., benchmark, strategic, and intensive groups) For Special Education students this could include remediation, accommodations, and modifications. using flexible grouping, individualized instruction, and whole-class instruction as needed using selections listed in Recommended Literature, Pre-Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve Antioch’s Education Specialist Mild/Moderate Credentialing Program emphasizes the promotion of literacy in all methods courses. Candidates are expected to integrate language arts instruction into other content areas and ultimately into their lesson plans in their field placements. More relevant are TEP 533 Field Practicum (SB) (LA), and TESE 512A Student Teaching with Professional Seminars I (SB) (LA) and TESE 515A Student Teaching with Professional Seminars II (SB) (LA), all three of which support candidates’ developing language arts instruction. Most significantly, one full course is dedicated exclusively to the development of language arts instruction––TEP 505 Reading Instruction in Elementary School Classrooms (SB) (LA); a specialized methods course 28
  32. 32. for special education, TESE 516 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities I (SB) (LA) follows the reading course and addresses language arts/ reading instruction in special education. The table below provides a quick reference to the courses’ contents and the necessary components of Standard 9 (Table 1). Following the table are course descriptions for these two designated reading courses. Table 1: Standard 9 Elements in the Program Curriculum TEP/TESE Courses 5 1 2 5 1 5 5 3 3 5 0 5 5 1 6 Standard 9 x x x x x Instructional Planning/Objectives/Design x x x x x Instructional Delivery x x x x x Assessment x x x x x Universal Access/Differentiated Instruction *Course Descriptions and Course Learning Objectives for the two primary courses addressed in Standard 9. Other courses that address this standard are found in the appendix. TEP 505 Reading Instruction in Elementary School Classrooms (SB) (LA) Course description: This course is designed to provide credential candidates with the knowledge and skills necessary to provide comprehensive reading instruction in integrated and inclusive K-8 classrooms. The primary goal of the course is learning how to provide access for ALL students to the core language arts curricula and ensuring that they are able to meet the California Language Arts Standards. Particular attention is given to the development of comprehensive literacy instruction for English learners and the methods and strategies that are responsive to their assessed levels of English proficiency. Candidates examine current research, analyze recognized reading practices and develop “ways of thinking” about the teaching and learning of language arts. They will utilize a variety of informal and formal assessments to determine student progress and strategically plan instruction. They will design, teach, and evaluate lessons that provide explicit word identification and comprehension instruction. Course Learning Objectives: Credential Candidates will: Select and utilize a variety of assessment instruments to determine a student’s disposition towards literacy and his/her strengths and needs in relationship to oral language, reading and writing. Plan and organize appropriate language arts instruction based on assessment. Plan and organize systematic instruction for word identification. Develop skills for teaching reading comprehension and promoting independent reading. Understand and apply phonological and other linguistic processes related to reading. TESE 516 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild and Moderate Disabilities I (SB) (LA) focuses on meeting the needs of students with mild to moderate disabilities, through effective teaching methodologies, instructional strategies, interventions, and 29
  33. 33. accommodations. Content areas include research based practices, observable phenomena and ways to manage them, ecological assessment and considerations, planning and organizing instruction, and integrating technology. Emphasis is on adapting instructional techniques and materials for learners with diverse needs and backgrounds to enhance development in areas of reading, literacy, mathematics, and metacognition. They learn planning and organizing instruction, setting up the classroom, instructional grouping arrangements; the ecology of a classroom and of a school and the effects on a learner with mild/moderate disabilities. Candidates write lesson plans for students of diverse backgrounds, including how the instruction will meet assessed needs as stated in individual IEPs, and assessment of learning. They address how to accommodate learners through differentiated instruction and the use of technology for learning. Course Learning Objectives: Candidates will be able to: Describe techniques that can be used to provide and support services in general educations settings Use understandings of student characteristics (including cultural and ecological perspectives of students) and theoretical approaches to instruction in selecting, implementing, monitoring, and modifying procedures and instructional programs. Demonstrate ability to plan for various learner differences (linguistic, culture, race, sex, socio-economic, etc) and develop a repertoire of research based teaching and learning strategies which enhance learning for students with mild- moderate disabilities including individualized approaches, contingency management techniques, and other appropriate remediation techniques Critically evaluate a range of instructional materials and computer software appropriate for pupils with learning differences of different ages and generate teaching materials of their own based on self created learner profile Analyze and apply philosophies, methods, and materials related to understanding and meeting the academic, social, emotional, moral, and physical needs of students with mild and moderate disabilities Necessary Components for Standard 9: Preparation to Teach Reading/Language Arts Instructional Planning Strategic selection and sequencing of curricula to be taught as outlined in the Reading/ Language Arts Framework (2007) with opportunities for application using State Board of Education (SBE)-adopted core instructional materials for both instruction and intervention during fieldwork experience. Features of instructional design include what to teach and when to introduce skills and concepts, how to select examples, how to integrate standards, and how to teach for transference and generalization of skills. All Antioch Credential Program candidates study past and current perspectives on how reading is learned and taught, including different approaches to and interpretations of research findings. In TEP 505 Reading Instruction in Elementary School Classrooms (SB) (LA), which focuses explicitly on research and practice in reading instruction, candidates study and critique literacy research and its implications for instruction. They subsequently take TESE 516 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild to 30
  34. 34. Moderate Disabilities (SB) (LA), which builds on and expands candidates' knowledge of language arts research and theory in the context of language arts curriculum development. Concurrent with TEP 505 Reading Instruction in Elementary School Classrooms (SB) (LA), in TEP 533 Field Practicum (SB) (LA), candidates observe and participate in assigned classrooms. In these assignments, candidates put into practice what they are learning in TEP 505 Reading Instruction in Elementary School Classrooms (SB) (LA), specifically, they use appropriate state adopted core instructional materials in their field placements. In addition, prior to the reading and practicum courses, candidates have taken the prerequisite courses HDV 455 Child Development and Learning (SB) (LA) and HDV 458A Language Development and Acquisition (SB) (LA). These courses also present relevant research on children’s cognitive and social development and its relationship to language literacy, particularly reading. The ability to access and understand the implications of new research on literacy is further developed in TEP 505 Reading Instruction in Elementary School Classrooms (SB) (LA) and, subsequently, in TESE 516 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities (SB) (LA). The understanding of child development and language development provide the foundation for learning grade level standards, reading and language arts frameworks and the scope and sequence of state texts for reading/language arts. These are specifically addressed in TEP 505 Reading Instruction in Elementary Classrooms (SB) (LA) and observed in the field placements in TESE 536A Field Exploration in Special Education (SB) and TEP 565 Adaptation Pedagogy (LA), TEP 533 Field Practicum (SB) (LA), TESE 512A Student Teaching with Professional Seminar I (SB) (LA) and TESE 515A Student Teaching with Professional Seminar II (SB) (LA). TEP 505 Reading Instruction in Elementary School Classrooms (SB) (LA) and TESE 516 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities I (SB) (LA) were specifically designed to engage candidates with both current domains of RICA (see Table 2). In addition to exposure to and requirements for obtaining understanding and knowledge, each candidate is provided multiple opportunities to apply what they are learning with students with diverse backgrounds and variable language arts abilities during the TEP 533 Field Practicum (SB) (LA) and in student teaching courses TESE 512A Student Teaching with Professional Seminar I (SB) (LA) and TESE 515A Student Teaching with Professional Seminar II (SB) (LA). Table 2: Course Emphases of RICA Content TEP Courses 4 5 8 A 5 0 5 5 1 6 5 3 3 RICA Domain x x x 1.1 Planning, Organizing, and Managing Reading Instruction Based on Ongoing Assessment x x x 1.2 Word Analysis x x 1.3 Fluency x x x x 2.1 Vocabulary, Academic Language, and Background Knowledge x x x x 2.2 Comprehension 31
  35. 35. The TEP 505 Reading Instruction in Elementary School Classrooms (SB) (LA) instructors also review the domains of the RICA, and assist candidates in preparation for the exam. Candidates are encouraged to construct a RICA Notebook, which incorporates notes, handouts, and information provided in TEP 505. Candidates are encouraged to write reflective essays on each of the RICA domains. RICA review sessions are often held at strategic times throughout the program to support candidates taking the exam. During TEP 533 Field Practicum (SB) (LA), and in TESE 512A Student Teaching with Professional Seminar I (SB) (LA) and TESE 515A Student Teaching with Professional Seminar II (SB) (LA) respectively, candidates apply their learning as they practice language arts instruction in assigned classrooms. Virtually all schools in which our candidates are placed are using the state-adopted Language Arts texts as well as adoptions specifically for students in special education classes. In our reading courses, candidates are taught how to use these curricula most effectively, including extensions that enhance student connections and meaning-making activities that increase comprehension, particularly for English learners. Instructional Delivery/ Reading 1. Demonstrate knowledge of reading content as described in the RICA Content Specifications and grade level standards as outlined in the Reading/Language Arts Framework (2007). These strands include: word analysis fluency vocabulary, academic language, and background knowledge reading comprehension literary response and analysis 2. Demonstrate knowledge of components of effective instructional delivery in reading as described in the CA Reading/Language Arts Framework (2007). For example: orientation (e.g., engagement, teacher demonstration) presentation (e.g., explicit instruction, modeling, pacing) structured practice (e.g., reinforcement, questioning, feedback) guided practice (e.g., questioning, feedback, corrections, peer-mediated instruction) independent practice and application independent practice (e.g. opportunities for students to show level of mastery) TEP 505 Reading Instruction in Elementary School Classrooms (SB) (LA) provides the research bases of teaching reading, writing, and language arts to elementary and middle school students (as well as for high school students with disabilities as appropriate). Beginning language and reading development, phonemic awareness and phonics, assessment for instruction, emergent writing development, and the relationship between reading, writing, and spelling provide the core knowledge in this class, which includes all of the aspects of this standard and of the RICA specifications. Class topics such as the following can be found in the course syllabus and in the instructor notes: Phonological Awareness Concepts about Print 32
  36. 36. Letter Recognition Systematic, Explicit Phonics and other Word Identification Strategies Spelling Instruction Vocabulary Development Reading Comprehension Strategies Student Independent Reading and its Relationship to Improved Reading Relationships Among Reading, Writing, Oral Language Diagnosis of Reading Development: Use of Assessment and Evaluation Data to Inform Instruction Structure of the English Language The more advanced methods course, TESE 516 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities I (SB) (LA), helps candidates continue to build an integrated model of balanced language arts instruction––specifically, reading, writing, speaking, listening, and literature, with a focus on specific special education technologies and strategies. Candidates begin observing literacy instruction in assigned classrooms in TESE 536A Field Exploration in Special Education (SB)/ TEP 565 Adaptation Pedagogy (LA). In TEP 505 Reading Instruction in Elementary School Classrooms (SB) (LA), combined with TEP 533 Field Practicum (SB) (LA), candidates study and apply aspects of balanced literacy instruction by providing literacy instruction to beginning readers––one-on-one, in small groups, and in whole class instruction. The fieldwork experience is supervised by university faculty with substantial expertise in language arts. In quarters 3 and 4, while taking a special education methods course, TESE 516 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities (SB) (LA) and other methods courses, candidates are enrolled in TESE 512A Student Teaching with Professional Seminar I (SB) (LA) and TESE 515A Student Teaching with Professional Seminar II (SB) (LA), respectively. As student teachers or interns they are engaged in daily teaching, which includes delivering balanced reading instruction using state frameworks and adopted texts and materials under the supervision of a Field Based supervisor and a University Supervisor. Candidates are required to use the state adopted content standards for English Language arts in their lesson plans along with appropriate texts and the Language Arts framework, which are texts for the reading course. Candidates are required to critique their instructional practice and curricular development skills in relation to research and theory in language arts curricula, thereby further integrating theory and their daily practice in the larger context of language arts curriculum development and design. They submit lesson plans based on CA K-12 content standards in Language Arts for TEP 505 Reading Instruction in Elementary Classrooms (SB) (LA) and all field experiences. Also during the third and fourth quarters, during daily student teaching, candidates integrate literacy instruction into other discipline area lesson and unit plans, such as mathematics, and they add technology to their repertoire of instruction and content integration. 33
  37. 37. Instructional Delivery/ Listening and Speaking Demonstrate knowledge of components of effective instructional delivery in listening and speaking as described in the Reading/Language Arts Framework (2007). For example: The systematic progression of instruction and application to develop listening and speaking strategies and speaking applications that parallel and reinforce instruction in reading and writing. Listening and speaking strategies that include listening comprehension, organization and delivery of oral communication, analysis and evaluation of oral and media communication (grade-level appropriate). Candidates study the implications of the idea that accurate response to text is relative to students’ linguistic and cultural backgrounds and prior knowledge. In TEP 505 Reading Instruction in Elementary School Classrooms (SB) (LA), comprehension strategies are taught, such as DIBELS, DRTA, reciprocal teaching, think aloud procedures, and questioning, clarifying, summarizing, and predicting. Candidates learn to develop language arts lesson plans that focus on assessment and development of student background knowledge and incorporate comprehension strategies. During TESE 516 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities I (SB) (LA), these projects are expanded into the development of language arts curricula that enhance students' skills in phonemic awareness, decoding, and reading comprehension. In TESE 516 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities I (SB) (LA) and TESE 512A Student Teaching with Professional Seminar (SB) (LA) candidates teach language arts units to students and are provided specific feedback on their competency. Throughout quarters three and four, there are successive opportunities for candidates to reflect on their own effectiveness and ways to improve their language arts instruction, with specific focus on listening, speaking and multiple skills for communication for both native English speakers and English learners. This builds upon the instruction in ELD and SDAIE begun in the prerequisite course on language development and acquisition, HDV 458A Language Acquisition and Development (SB) (LA). In TEP 505 Reading Instruction in Elementary School Classrooms (SB) (LA) and TESE 516 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities I (SB) (LA), candidates learn the differences between textual, functional, and recreational reading and learn to support students in setting purposes for the various types of reading. Candidates learn how to help students use different comprehension strategies for accessing and gaining meaning from textual, functional, and recreational reading. They are engaged in a variety of activities that foster understanding about various genres of literature and expository texts. They also learn how to locate and select appropriate instructional literature materials. During these methods courses candidates also learn strategies and activities to foster independent reading. The strategies include research strategies, formulating topics of interest, small group projects, individual oral presentations, cooperative group presentations, and interactive reading journals. In addition, they learn assistive technology to aid students in aspects of reading and language arts to allow them access to the core language arts curriculum. 34
  38. 38. In TEP 505 Reading Instruction in Elementary School Classrooms (SB) (LA), candidates are required to develop and teach a lesson that focuses explicitly on a comprehension strategy (e.g., summarizing, making inferences, using prior knowledge). This further supports their development of all aspects of student communication skills. Instructional Delivery /Writing Demonstrate knowledge of components of effective instructional delivery in writing as described in the Reading/Language Arts Framework (2007). For example: The systematic progression of instruction and application of foundational writing strategies, applications, and conventions Writing strategies that include teaching organization and focus, penmanship (where applicable), research, technology, evaluation and revision Writing applications according to genres (grade-level appropriate) and their characteristics Writing conventions appropriate to grade level standards (i.e. sentence structure, grammar, punctuation, capitalization and spelling). Writing development is studied in TESE 517 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities (SB) (LA); concurrently, writing instruction is practiced in student teaching settings. Assessment of students' writing is addressed through the study of holistic scoring and writing rubrics. Candidates study prominent research investigating relationships between reading and writing. In TESE 517 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities II (SB) (LA), candidates learn how language arts curricula must include explicit writing instruction, particularly the skills of prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing at all grade levels. Candidates' practice continues to develop through TESE 512A Student Teaching with Professional Seminar I (SB) (LA) and TESE 515A Student Teaching with Professional Seminar II (SB) (LA) during which their instructional competence is evaluated in terms of their ability to teach reading and language arts in an organized, systematic, and explicit way. This includes direct, systematic, explicit phonics instruction, decoding skills instruction and practice, and extensive practice in reading and writing connected text. The field experiences also encompass all aspects of language arts, such as writing conventions, spelling, and handwriting. Assessment/Reading, Writing, Listening, Speaking Candidates must understand that assessment and instruction are linked within any curriculum. Therefore, candidates must demonstrate knowledge and ability to utilize multiple monitoring measures within the three basic types of assessments to determine students’ progress towards state adopted content standards, as referenced in Chapter Six of the Reading Language Arts Framework (2007). Candidates need to be able to analyze and interpret results to plan effective and differentiated instruction and interventions. 35
  39. 39. Knowledge of the following assessments is crucial to achieving the English Language Arts Content Standards: entry level assessment for instructional planning monitoring student progress post test or summative assessment Candidates must understand that assessment and instruction are linked within any curriculum. Therefore, candidates must demonstrate knowledge and ability to utilize ongoing assessments, both formal and informal to determine students’ progress towards state adopted content standards. Candidates need to be able to analyze and interpret results to plan effective and differentiated instruction and interventions. In both prerequisite courses, HDV 455 Child Development and Learning (SB) (LA) and HDV 458A Language Development and Acquisition (SB) (LA), candidates learn about different aspects of the neurophysiological, cognitive, and social precursors to oral language. In TEP 505 Reading Instruction in Elementary School Classrooms (SB) (LA) and TESE 516 Understanding and Teaching Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities I (SB) (LA), relationships between language development and reading acquisition in both native speakers and English learners are presented. Candidates learn to refine students' oral language skills in conversations with them, during class discussions, cooperative learning projects, and students’ presentations to peers. Candidates are taught the framework of the integration of listening and speaking with reading and writing. Opportunities are provided during TEP 533 Field Practicum (SB) (LA) and during TESE 512A Student Teaching with Professional Seminar I (SB) (LA) and TESE 515A Student Teaching with Professional Seminar II (SB) (LA) in which candidates can explore ways of developing oral language. Candidates are provided with opportunities to work with English learners and assess students' oral language ability both formally and informally using the three types of assessment reviewed in the California Language Arts Framework: entry-level assessment, progress monitoring, and summative evaluation. Techniques to modify these assessments for English learners are explored. Candidates are also taught current research regarding English learners as well as ELD and SDAIE strategies. In TEP 505 Reading Instruction in Elementary School Classrooms (SB) (LA), candidates learn to utilize a variety of informal and formal assessment to determine student progress and strategically plan instruction. They learn to critically analyze and select and utilize a variety of assessment instruments to determine a student’s disposition towards literacy and his/her strengths and needs in relationship to oral language, reading and writing. Emphasis is placed on planning and organizing appropriate language arts instruction based on assessment. In TESE 512A Student Teaching with Professional Seminar I (SB) (LA) and TESE 515A Student Teaching with Professional Seminar II (SB) (LA), candidates are guided and assessed on their abilities to effectively utilize ongoing diagnostic strategies that guide reading instruction for students with identified disabilities. 36

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