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Poland
 

Poland

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Presentation made for Cross Cultural Management course in Haaga - Helia UAS in Helsinki, Finland.

Presentation made for Cross Cultural Management course in Haaga - Helia UAS in Helsinki, Finland.

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    Poland Poland Presentation Transcript

    • POLAND
      Katarzyna Stachniuk
    • Presentation plan
      General information about Poland
      History in brief
      Geography in brief
      Aspects of Polish culture
      Famous Poles
      Stereotypes
      Interesting facts
      Cracow
    • Basic information
      Capital: Warsaw
      Surface: 322 576 km² (68th in the world)
      Population: 38 186 000 (34th; ; 96.7% Poles)
      Political system: parliamentary democracy
      Neighbors: Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Russia
      Main religion: roman Catholicism, 89% Poles
      Member of: EU (since 2004), NATO, WTO, OECD, UN and other
    • Administrative division: 16 voivodeships (provinces)
    • Basic information - economy
      GDP per capita: 12 575 $ (61% of the EU average in 2009)
      With collapse of communism Poland switched from centrally – planned economy to market – based economy
      Is considered to be most healthiest economy of the post – communist countries
      GDP structure: agriculture 2.8%; industry 31.7%; services 65.6%
      Major trading partners: EU (mainly Germany), Russia
      Main export goods: furniture, cars, clothing, ships, coal, machinery, chemicals
      Main import goods: cars, electronic goods, fuels
      Currency: złoty (PLN)
    • History
      Name „Poland” comes from the name of one of the West Slavic tribes who lived in the region between rivers Vistula and Oder
      Formation of Poland as a territorial entity began in the middle of 10th century by joining West Slavics under the Piast dynasty
      The formal date treated as origin of Poland is 966 – adoption of Catholic Christianity by fist ruler, Mieszko I
      In 1025 Poland became kingdom
      From 12th to 14th century Poland was divided into regions ruled by Piast dukes
      After consolidation Poland was ruled by Jagiellonians
      From 1385 Poland and Lithuania were joined in personal union
      In 1569 the next union with Lithuania was signed, both countries created Republic of the Two Nations, also known as Polish – Lithuanian Commonwealth
    • History
      In 18th century Poland was losing independence; Russian Empire, Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria took Poland under control in three Partitions (1772, 1793, 1795)
      In 1791 there was established Constitution of 3rd May, first in modern Europe and second in the world (after US constitution)
      In 1795 Poland lost independence for 123 years
      The 19th century was a time of national insurrections, that showed a great patriotism and decreased repressions
      Poland became independent republic 11.11.1918
      In the time between wars Poland was called Second Republic
    • Fragment of painting by J. Matejko presenting the passing of Constitution of 3rdMay
    • History
      On 1.09.1939 Poland was attacked by Germany, on 17.09.1939 by Soviet Russia
      As a result of German military supremacy, Poland lost the first stages of war and created emigration government in France
      To 1944 Poland was occupied by Germany. About 6 mln (1/5) Poles lost their lives during World War II. Many of them (especially Jews) perished in nazi concentration camps, a lot of Poles were deported to north Russia
      After war Poland became People’s Republic under Soviet Communist dominance
      Communism in Poland ended in 1989, after many strikes and „Round Table Talks”
      In 1999 Poland became a member of NATO, in 2004 EU
    • Geography – basic information
      Plain country (average elevation 173 m) with uplands and mountains in the south
      Highest peak: Rysy (2499 m)
      Longest river: Vistula (pol. Wisła) – 1047 km
      Climate: transitional climate zone between the oceanic temperate climate in the west and the continental temperate climate in the east; average temperature in winter between -6 and 0ºC, in summer 16-20 ºC
    • Main geographical regions
      Pomerania
      Kashubian Lake District
      Mazurian Lake District
      Silesia
      Mazovia
      Sudetes
      Beskids (part of Carpathian Mountains)
      Tatra Mountains
    • POMERANIA
      Kołobrzeg
    • Gdańsk
    • Croocked House in Sopot
    • Castle in Malbork
    • LAKE DISTRICTS
      Lake Mamry
    • Lake Śniardwy
    • MOUNTAINS
      Lake Marine Eye in Tatras
    • The Five Lakes Valley
    • Spring in Tatras
    • Castle in Niedzica
    • Jurrasic Park in Bałtów, Świętokrzyskie Mountains
    • Polish Culture
      National celebrations
      Norms & values
      Regional cultures – Kashubian, Silesian, Mountaineers
      Cuisine
      Architecture & art
    • National celebrations
      National holidays
      Day of Constitution of 3rd May
      Independence Day (11th November)
      International Worker’s Day (1st May)
      Other celebrations and traditions
      Christmas
      Easter
      St. Nicholas Day
      First day of spring
      First day of summer
      Juwenalia
    • Christmas traditions
      Decorating Christmas tree on Christmas Eve
      12 dishes for Christmas Eve dinner
      One empty plate for unexpected quest
      Gifts under tree
      Dishes without meat
      Starting dinner when first star appears
      Before dinner - sharing of the blessed wafer (pol. opłatek) and exchanging wishes
      Candle(s) as a symbol of new life
      Singing Christmas carols
    • Christmas traditions
      „KOLĘDNICY”
      Groups of children or teenagers dressed as: devil, angel, king Herod, St. Mary and/or other characters connected with birth of Christ
      They have big, colorful star
      They go from house to house singing Christmas carols
      As a „payment” for bringing good news they ask for sweets
      Custom practiced mainly on countryside and in mountain areas
    • Easter traditions
      Making Easter eggs – each region has own style and technique
      Easter breakfast with food blessed during Holy Saturday
      In some regions – giving small gifts „from hare”
      Easter has less commercial character than Christmas
    • Easter traditions
      „ŚMIGUS DYNGUS” (Easter Monday)
      Has less religious character than E. Sunday
      Comes from 15th century’s pagan practice
      Earlier it symbolized purification and awakening after winter
      People spray water on the other
      In some regions accompanied by additional practices
    • St. Nicholas Day
      6th December
      Gives gifts only for well-behaving children
      Comes inside a house through a chimney, at night
      Puts gifts under the pillow or near bed
      For naughty children he brings rods
    • First day of spring
      21st March
      Drowning or burning of „Marzanna” – it is a big doll made from straw or rags, bits of clothing and decorated with colorful stuff
      Drowning in rivers or burning on squares
      Symbolizes end of winter
      Name „Marzanna” comes from pagan times, she was Slavic goddess of death and winter
      In 16th and 17th century church authorities tried to prohibit this custom – without success
      Tradition practicedalso in Czech Republic and Slovakia
    • First day of summer
      23/24th June – Midsummer Night/Kupala Day/Wianki
      Comes from ancient Slavic celebrations connected with fertility and ritual purification
      Girls float wreaths of flowers and try to predict future from the flow patterns of the flowers on the river
      Men try to catch wreaths of the girls they love
      According to the legend, it is the only night in year when ferns bloom; finding fern flower brings luck
      Rare custom nowadays
    • Juwenalia
      Student’s festival
      First week of May
      Start with 3 – 4 days trips to the mountains
      A lot of concerts and other cultural activities
      End with parade of students dressed in funny costumes
      After parade mayors of the cities give students keys to city’s gates (symbolic)
      Each city (or university) has a unique name for Juwenalia, i.e. Medykalia for medical universities
    • Polish norms, values and beliefs
      Hospitality – „A guest in the house, God in the house”. This proverb is widespread throughout Poland. Poles like getting together and any guests (especially foreigners) should expect cordial welcome. They prefer inviting guests to home rather to restaurants. Poles may ask their guests personal questions, which is a sign of genuine interest and usually talk a lot about themselves. Very popular custom is exchanging presents – e.g. flowers, home – made food, books, candies. When giving flowers, it is important to make bouquet from odd number of flowers (even number of flowers is used only for funerals).
    • Polish norms, values and beliefs
      Communication patterns – Poles in general feel free when exchanging opinions and value direct communication. They usually say what they are thinking. Level of directness depends on the kind of relationship between interlocutors. Body language is very expressive, it may seem to be offensive. Poles show their feelings and emotions publicly, their temperament is well known. Eye contact during conversation is important, but not necessary. People may interrupt others during speaking, but do not touch them (touching hands is allowed only when talking to close friends or relatives). Poles like joking, although they avoid jokes about history and politics. Topics that should be avoided are: religion, drugs, abortion, gays rights etc.
    • Polish norms, values and beliefs
      Greetings and public behavior – Poles greet each other with handshake. Close friends and family members greet with 3 kisses on the chick, which is allowed also between people from the same sex. The old-fashioned, but still appreciated is greeting woman by men by kissing her hand.
      Being punctual is very important. Although, coming 30 minutes late for meeting at somebody’s house is not considered to be impolite.
      Politeness requires from men opening door for women and generally let women go first. The same rule applies to guests of both sexes.
    • Polish norms, values and beliefs
      Getting together – families get together to celebrate birthdays and name days. They also meet on weddings, funerals and various anniversaries. During these meetings people enjoy the meal together.
      People in Poland prefer strong alcoholic beverages. During meetings with family and/or friends vodka is served undiluted. The most common phrase when saying toasts is „Na zdrowie” (equivalent of English „cheers”). Poles are said to be vodka drinkers, but nowadays it does not apply to everybody.
    • Regional culture - Kashubians
      West Slavic ethnic group living in Pomerania
      Population of 80 000
      Use kashubian language which is polish dialect, taught in regional schools
      Their old culture survived in architecture and folk crafts
    • Kashubians in regional clothes
    • Examples of kashubian’s embroidery
    • Regional culture - mountaineers
      Indigenous people living in southern Poland, northern Slovakia and northern Czech Republic
      Their language is a polish dialect with Slovak words
      In their culture Hungarian and Slovak impacts can be seen
      Their architecture has distinctive style
    • Mountaineers in traditional clothes
    • Example of mountaineer’s architecture
    • Example of traditional architecture in Zakopane – „winter’s capital of Poland”
    • Polish cuisine
      It mixes Eastern – European and German cuisine traditions with some Russian, Italian, Turkish and Jewish impacts
      Rich in meat and winter vegetables
      Rich in spices and noodles („kluski”)
      Traditional cuisine is demanding in preparation
      Number of unique regional cuisines
    • Pierogi
      • Known also in Germany, Hungary, Slovakia, Ukraine…
      • Dumplings of unleavened dough
      • May be boiled, baked or fried
      • Stuffed with potato filling, ground meat, fruits, sauerkraut, cheese, mushrooms or other ingredients
    • Bigos
      • Typical ingredients are: sauerkraut, white cabbage, pieces of meat or sausages, dried mushrooms, whole or pureed tomatoes
      • It may be seasoned with pepper, caraway, juniper berries, bay leaf, marjoram, pimento or other ingredients
      • Usually eaten with bread or potatoes
    • Żurek (sour rye soup)
      • Soup made of sour rye flour and meat (pork sausage, bacon or ham)
      • In some regions served with halved hard-boiled eggs
      • Easter dish
      • Known also in Lithuania, Slovakia and Czech Republic
    • Gołąbki (pr. ɡɔˈwɔmpki )
      • Made from lightly boiled cabbage leaves wrapped around minced pork or beef and rice
      • Baked in tomato sauce
      • Word ‘gołąbki’ is plural of ‘gołąbek’ which means ‘pigeon’, but any of the ingredients has connection with pigeon meat
    • Makowiec
      • Pastry of a roll of sweet yeast bread with a filling made from poppy, milk, butter and sugar
      • Covered with icing – sugar
      • Originally comes from Hungary
      • Christmas dessert
    • Żubrówka (pr. ʐuˈbrufka)
      • Known also as Bison Grass Vodka
      • Dry, herb – flavored vodka
      • Distilled from rye
      • 40% alcohol
      • In each bottle it is placed a blade of buffalo grass from Białowieża Forest (forest in south – east Poland and west Belarus, where aurochs live)
      • Usually mixed with apple juice
    • Polish architecture and art
      Reflect main European trends
      Examples of art and architecture from 10th century still remain in Poland
      Visible German (on west) and Russian (on east) influences
      21 polish objects (towns and buildings/places) belong to UNESCO World Heritage Site
      Many objects were reconstructed after being destroyed in wars
    • Houses around main square in Zamość
    • Historic buildings in Toruń
    • Evangelical „Church of the Peace” in Świdnica
    • Castle in Warsaw
    • „Water Palace” in Warsaw
    • Castle in Książ
    • Gothic city hall in Wrocław
    • Gothic cathedral in Frombork
    • Famous Poles
      Mikołaj Kopernik (Nicolaus Copernicus)
      Maria Skłodowska – Curie
      Lech Wałęsa
      Jan Paweł II (pope John Paul II)
      Adam Małysz
    • Mikołaj Kopernik (1473 – 1543)
      • Renaissance astronomer
      • First who formulated heliocentric theory
      • His works are treated as the base of modern astronomy
      • He spoke 5 languages
      • Co – author of the Copernicus – Gresham Law
    • Maria Skłodowska – Curie (1867 – 1934)
      • Physicist and chemist
      • She worked on radioactivity
      • Won two Nobel Prizes – in chemistry and physics
      • Discoverer of two chemical elements, named by her „polonium” and „radium”
    • Lech Wałęsa (1943 - )
      • Politician, human rights activist
      • Co – founder of Solidarity (pol. Solidarność) – first independent trade union in Soviet block
      • Polish president 1990 – 1995
      • In 1983 won Nobel Peace Prize
    • Jan Paweł II (Karol wojtyła)(1920 – 2005)
      • Pope from 16.10.1978 to 2.04.2005
      • First non – Italian pope since 1523
      • Second – longest pontificate
      • He wanted to be a poet and studied polish philology
      • Made pastoral trips to 129 countries
      • Travelled to non – catholic countries
      • Tried to build unity among Christian churches
      • Many Poles think he was the inspirator of „peaceful revolution” that lead to collapse of communism in Poland
      • 13.05.1981 was wounded by gunman Ali Agca on St. Peter’s Square in Rome
      • Met with many presidents and representatives of other religions
      • 1.05.2011 was beatified
    • Adam Małysz(1977 - )
      • Best Polish ski jumper
      • One of the most successful ski jumpers in history
      • Won 4 individual Olympic Games medals
      • Has 4 individual World Cup titles (all - time record), won 39 competitions, 92 times won podium
      • 20 times won Polish Championships
      • 26.03.2011 ended his sports career
      • His last coach was Finn Hannu Lepistö
    • Stereotypes about Poles
      Poles never smile and always complain
      It concerns mainly older generation, who lived in communistic times. They had to face with every – day lack of many consumer goods and ridiculous situations like enormous queues, bureaucracy and propaganda. After collapse of communism quick changes have occurred, but economic recovery did not proceed without problems. People who experienced all these difficulties tend to be pessimistic.
      Young Poles hardly complain and are similar to their western peers.
    • Stereotypes about Poles
      Poles are intolerant
      It is not true. After World War I, Polish territory was inhabited only in 70% by Poles, the biggest minorities were Ukrainians, Jews and Belarusians. In addition, Poland is home for those escaping from war, disasters and poverty – mainly from former Yugoslavia, former Soviet block and Asia. As a result of this, Poles learned tolerance and acceptance for diversity.
    • Stereotypes about Poles
      Poles are notorious vodka drinkers
      Poland has highly developed culture of drinking vodka. Poles were drinking a lot because of difficult political situation – Partitions, wars, communism. Nowadays this bad habit seems to continue (but do not worry, you will not see drunk men staggering down the streets when visiting Poland ). According to recent surveys, Poles usually choose less strong beverages than vodka.
    • Interesting facts about Poland
      Poles marry the youngest in EU (24 years for women, 26.5 for men)
      In Poland there is a desert (!)
      Name days more important than birthdays
      Belief that only those couples who marry in month with letter „r” will be happy
      Word „no” in colloquial Polish means „yes”
      In Poland there are cities and villages with funny names, i.e.: Cold Vodka, Dog’s Heads, Heaven, Hell, America, Sweden, Death, Dry Doggie, New Horses, Athens, Crooked Knee…
    • Cracow (pol. Kraków)
      One of the oldest cities
      Situated on the Vistula River, in south
      part of Poland
      Former capital of Poland (1038 -1596)
      Second – largest city in Poland
      Population of 755 000
      One of the most important economic, cultural,
      educational centers
      In 2000 Cracow was European Capital of Culture
      Full official name of Cracow is „Royal Capital City of Cracow”, because most of the Polish kings were crowned there
    • Main Square in Cracow
    • St. Mary church in Main Square
    • Castle in Cracow
    • Landscape of Polish Jura (Kraków – Częstochowa Upland)
    • Barbakan (Barbican) – fragment of old city walls
    • Thank you for your attention