The legacy of paul second presentation


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Presentation on how the New Testament Canon was created and which of Paul's letters are considered Pauline, Deutero-Pauline and disputed. Also contains the general outline of an ancient letter.

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  • Origen of Alexandria: wrote “On Principles.” One of the greatest theologiansFirst to dispute gnosticism
  • Jerome :Patron saint of libraries due to his translationWould frequent catacombs to remind himself of his own mortality while he transcribed the immortal word.
  • Luther posted his 95 Theses on door of Wittenberg Cathedral to protest Catholic indulgences (buying forgiveness of sins) in 1517
  • Gospels: Matthew Mark Luke JohnLetters from Paul to churches: Romans, 1 & 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 & 2 ThessaloniansLetters from Paul to individuals: 1 & 2 Timothy, Titus, PhilemonLetters by others: James, 1 & 2 Peter, 1,2,& 3 John, JudeThe books are NOT in chronological order. All 4 Gospels were most likely written after Paul’s death. Books are not necessarily written by the traditional author. i.e. 1, 2, & 3 John are anonymous.
  • Main body of the letter contained a variety of material such as:hymnscreedstraveloguestopical discussionsetc. just as they do today.Photo: Earliest manuscript of Paul’s letters. Known as “P46” it is on papyrus (also called a “codex”). Found in Egypt. The codex had almost all the letters of Paul.The image above is of 1 Corinthians 14:34-15:6. In lines 24-25 (15:3-6) Paul includes what Biblical scholars understand to be an early creed of the faith.“For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received: that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the Scriptures, and that he appeared to Cepheus, then to the twelve. Then he appeared to more than five hundred brothers at one time, most of whom are still alive, though some have fallen asleep.”
  • First Picture is from Mary’s chapel in EphesusSecond Picture of depiction of ancient Corinthian peopleThird Picture is a depiction of an ancient Hebrew man
  • Top Picture is TimothySecond picture is Paul in prison“Catholic” here refers to church at large, not Catholicism
  • Paul’s letters are organized in the NT by Longest to shortest.The chronological order of the letters is uncertainThe other letters in order that the author’s names appear in Galatians 2:9 (James, Peter, John)Amanuensis: people trained to be scribes of secretariesPaul was not writing “sacred texts” at the time. He was writing letters to those he was teaching. He would be shocked to find that they are in our Bible.
  • The legacy of paul second presentation

    1. 1. The Legacy of Paul THE NEW TESTAMENT
    2. 2. Definitions Canon • Rule or “standard” • Used by religious groups to refer to list of books officially accepted as scripture Apostolic Tradition • Chain of connection to Jesus and Paul • Early churches copied and shared writings within this tradition
    3. 3. Second Century Gnosticism: • Valued the spiritual and despised the material Marcion (ca. 110-160): • Wanted to remove Jewish influence over Christianity to make it purely Gentile • He rejected or edited many writings corrupt due to their “Jewishness” Other Christians: • Created gnostic writings then attributed them to Apostles • Continued until 4th Century Gospel of Judas
    4. 4. Criteria for Writings to be Included in Canon • Orthodoxy • Apostolic origin • General acceptance • Citations by bishops
    5. 5. Determining Canonization • Books of NT were written by 150CE • Origen of Alexandria (ca. 185-254): using our 27 books by the 200’s • Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria (ca. 296-373): listed the 27 books we use now and called them canonized in his Easter Letter written in 367CE. • St. Augustine of Hippo (ca. 354-430): Councils of Carthage, 397, 419 recognized canon and considered it closed. “…the New Testament is not just a collection of early Christian writings; rather, it is a selection of those writings.” Powell, p51
    6. 6. Western Acceptance • Pope Damasus (ca. 305-384): • commissioned Jerome to produce Latin vulgate of Bible • completed in 405CE • Led to acceptance of the 27 books of New Testament we have now.
    7. 7. Today’s Canon Catholic: • Canon of Trent 1546 CE • Included deuterocanonical books i.e. Apocrypha • Used Jerome’s Latin vulgate translations, not Greek and Hebrew texts Protestant: • Reformation 1517-1685 • Luther rejected deuterocanonical books
    8. 8. New Testament Contents • Gospels (4) • Acts • Letters from Paul to churches (9) • Letters from Paul to individuals (4) • Letter to the Hebrews • Letters by others (7) • Revelation
    9. 9. Letters/Epistles “…It [a letter] conveyed the personal presence of the one who sent it.” Powell, p229 Salutation: • Author • Recipient • Greetings (Grace) Thanksgiving: • Good Health Main Body: • Reason for Writing Closing: • Good Health • Farewell
    10. 10. Method 1 of organizing Letters: • Letters by Paul to churches • Letters by Paul to individuals • Anonymous letter to the Hebrews • Letters by James, Peter, John and Jude 21 Letters
    11. 11. Method 2 of organizing Letters: Pastoral Epistles : 3 letters addressed to pastoral leaders of churches: • 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus Captivity Epistles (Prison letters): 5 Letters that appear to have been written from prison: • Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 2 Timothy, Philemon “Catholic” Epistles (General Letters): 7 letters written to the church at large: • James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, Jude 21 Letters - Continued
    12. 12. Paul’s Letters 7 Undisputed: (Pauline) • Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, Philemon 3 Not written by Paul: Deutero-Pauline • Written in Paul’s name several years after his death • 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus 3 Disputed Authorship • No scholarly consensus, majority see them as not from Paul or ”post Paul” • Ephesians, Colossians, 2 Thessalonians
    13. 13. Resources • Introducing the New Testament Mark Allan Powell • The Movie “Luther” Fiction 2003 (entertainment)
    14. 14. Powerpoint By Stacey Atkins This Presentation is the Intellectual Property of Stacey Atkins Copyright 2014