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“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”




   PROJECT ADVISOR : AZIZA MUNIR




PROJECT SUBMITTED BY

 • MAAZ JAVED SHEIKH-(052)
...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



     “Department of Management Sciences”




            ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
  First of all...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



    We dedicate this project to our teacher, Ma’m Aziza Munir who
  assigned this proje...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



After completing literature survey and defining problem there is
need to develop framew...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



natural environment where work proceeds normally (no contrived
settings) or in artifici...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”




       TABLE OF CONTENTS


     • Problem Statement
     • Broad Problem Area
     • P...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



            • Data Analysis

            • Data Interpretation

            • Conclusio...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



        BRIEF INTRODUCTION OF
               COMPANY

Our Beginning
From a small beginn...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



To meet the requirement of the corporate sector for its online
networking all over Paki...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



management system called card phone supervision and
management system (CSMS. At each re...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



as well as monthly billing. Through our (prepaid) scratch cards,
a user can create logi...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



furthest corners of Pakistan. Dancom is now operation 65
offices in Pakistan, serving t...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”




         THE RESEARCH PROCESS

In this section we will discuss each and every step of ...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”




               PROBLEM STATEMENT

“How does employee’s turnover affect tHe
effectivene...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



In background information in the organization we have origin
and history of the company...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”




      GENERATION OF HYPOTHESIS

Statement of Hypothesis


First of all, there is a nee...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”




(3)   Does job security   of   employee   affect the   effectiveness of
      organiza...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”




                      Preliminary Data Collection:
How study was made:

A group member...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”




 Questionnaires For the Topic

Q: 1 what is your expectations from organization?

   (...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



   Q: 7 How does employees’ turnover can be reduced?
   (a) Revising salary
   (b) Incr...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”




Q: 13 Better wages makes employee motivation high.

   (a) Strongly agree
   (b) Agree...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



                  (a) Yes                (b)No

Q; 20 Does proper compensation and bonu...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



                       Literature Review
Reason of literature survey
The purpose of thi...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



accurately compiled, it is not uncommon for even medium-sized companies to lose
several...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



affectivity?
What can be done
Researchers have found that there is a dimension in perso...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



duties or work practices can elevate the situation. Not taking action will mean you wil...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



MANAGING TURNOVER THROUGH SELECTION
There are many potential causes for turnover. Certa...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



inventories are not as successful for identifying candidates who are likely to turnover...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”




Theoretical Framework:

After completing literature survey and defining problem there ...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



 •     Theoretical Frame work




           (I.V)                           (D.V)
 Emp...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



RESEARCH DESIGN:

The research design, which involves a series of rational decision-mak...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



As you know, in the type of investigation stage we have selected the correlational
inve...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



SAMPLING

We have two main type of sampling
  • Probability sampling
  • Non-probabilit...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



DATA COLLECTION METHOD

Data can be collected in a variety of ways in different setting...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



 15. How selection method provides unbiased labor force for organization in order to
  ...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”




In data analysis, we have three objectives:
    1. Getting a feel of the data
    2. T...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



.
X                Y      X2             Y2          XY
(%)               (000)
       ...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



r=     11689.32-10781.33
        42.55*25.05

r=      907.99
       1065.875

r =      ...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



Step 4:
           Critical Region
           t (0.05, 10)
           V = n – 2 (degree...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”




Interpretation of the Results
As r=.   85

         r2=0.722*100
            = 72%
   ...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”




                                        20%
                                        24...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



Billing       2
Procurement   4
Retail sale   -
Liason        1
Total         89
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



DATA INTERPRETATION:

We have taken the data from the Dancom Communication from the dif...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”




CONCLUSION / DEDUCTION:
We reach the conclusion that if Dancom wants to increase their...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



10. Establish merit based performance review procedure with forms that are job
    rela...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”




BIBLIOGRAPHY
Questionnaire
References of literature survey
Reference # 1:
Employee Tur...
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”
“ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT”



      X            Y          x2        Y2         XY
Compensation   Turn over
     (%)...
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     X             Y           X2           Y2      XY
Compensation   Turn over
    (%...
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Final Project
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Transcript of "Final Project"

  1. 1. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” PROJECT ADVISOR : AZIZA MUNIR PROJECT SUBMITTED BY • MAAZ JAVED SHEIKH-(052) • HASSAN ASGHAR SIPRA-(037) • KAZI YASIR IRSHAD-(055) • KASHIF RASHID-(048) • JAZIB SARWAR-(046) COMSATS INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
  2. 2. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” “Department of Management Sciences” ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all we are thankful to Almighty Allah who gave us strength for the commencement of this project. And secondly thanks to our respected MA’M AZIZA MUNIR. We are really thankful to MANAGEMENT for its cooperation that really helped us in providing the information regarding the company. DEDICATION COMSATS INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
  3. 3. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” We dedicate this project to our teacher, Ma’m Aziza Munir who assigned this project to us. And to our beloved parents who always pray for us. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Productivity or effectiveness of an organization frequently suffers as a result of high level of absenteeism and worker turnover. There is evidence that all concerned owners, contractors and workers are interested in resolving problem. This study examines the source and size of problem and recommendations to reduce it. For this purpose we have conducted interviews and literature survey in order to investigate the organization effectiveness. This report describes an HR management tool for decreasing turnover at Dancom Communication. High employee turnover is like shrink. It cuts into the bottom line, but it can be controlled. There are many potential causes for turnover. Certainly, area economic conditions as well as other factors such as labor market conditions, effect general turnover rates. In voluntary turnovers are difficult to directly manage however are voluntary turnover that can be managed. The purpose of this literature survey is to allocate the important variables of our existing problem I-e “How does employee’s turnover affect the effectiveness of organization”. With the help of these variables we a can assess the variables related to our problem for structuring theoretical framework. This survey includes the situation which had occurred in past with others companies and how those companies deal with these variable means how they solved different problems. COMSATS INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
  4. 4. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” After completing literature survey and defining problem there is need to develop framework. In it we try to discuss the interrelationship among the variables that are deemed to be integral to the dynamics of the situation being investigated. Different variables can affect the effectiveness of organization we are considering all-important variables that can affect the company. After the thorough study of literature survey we deduct some variables, which can become a cause that can effects the sales and keeping in mind we make schematic diagram of the theoretical framework so that the reader can see and easily comprehend the theorized relationship. The research design, which involves a series of rational decision- making choices, the various issued involved in the research design, will be discussed here. Like Purpose of the study, Types of investigation, Extent of researcher interference, Study setting, Measurement and measures, Unit of analysis, Sampling, Time horizon and Data collection method but the hypothesis statement, which we are going to proof, it will come under hypotheses testing study. This study that engage in hypotheses testing usually explain the nature of certain relationships, or establish the differences among groups or the independence of two or more factor in a situation Causal type of investigation is done, when it is necessary to establish a definitive cause and effect relationship, however, if the researcher simply wants a mere identification of the important factors “associated with the problem” then a correlation study is called. Correlation type of investigation will be suitable for our research, actually our hypotheses is “ effective compensation has positive impact on organizational effectiveness” That’s why we select this method to identify the important factor associated with the problem. A correlational study is conducted in the natural environment of the organization, with the researcher interfering minimally with the normal flow of work. Organizational research can be done in the COMSATS INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
  5. 5. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” natural environment where work proceeds normally (no contrived settings) or in artificial, contrived settings. As we have selected correlational investigation method with minimum interference, then automatically our study setting will be no contrived. Its mean our research will be conduct under natural environment. What we are going to apply in our project that is ratio scale and interval scale because these scales give maximum accuracy in measuring the variable. Even though the method we have selected for investigation is correlational that provide less accuracy as compare to causal. In this project we selected” individuals and organizational” as a unit of analysis, and this selection is match with the definition of unit of analysis.. Why we chose probability sampling? Because the sample we get from probability have the quality of representatives. We have proved that there is positive relation between compensation and effectiveness. By increasing the retention rate; • Retaining hourly employees. • Improving management retention. • Training first than promoting. • Attractive salary packages. • To motivate employees. Management through selection. COMSATS INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
  6. 6. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” TABLE OF CONTENTS • Problem Statement • Broad Problem Area • Preliminary data gathering 1. Unstructured Interviews 2. Literature Survey • Theoretical framework • Generation of hypothesis • Research design 1. Purpose of Study 2. Type of study 3. Study setting 4. Unit of Analysis 5. Time Horizon • Sampling
  7. 7. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” • Data Analysis • Data Interpretation • Conclusion / Deduction • Recommendation to Management OBJECTIVE OF STUDY The main objective of our project is to apply our concept and knowledge in practical scenario. And how the organizations are getting competitive advantages through conducting business research. Nowadays, as we know organization can increase their profitability, customer satisfaction, and productivity by conducting business research. Because through business research we can detect the real problem and its cause. That’s why, we can say that research generates alternative to solve problems. By getting solution of the problems in time we can run our business smoothly and effectively.
  8. 8. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” BRIEF INTRODUCTION OF COMPANY Our Beginning From a small beginning in 1997, Dancom Pakistan (Pvt.) Ltd. has now become a major player in the local communication arena. Dancom in Pakistan is subsidiary of Dancom Malaysia, specializes in smart technology-based product applications, cellular deployments: IT related projects, digital TV, Broadband wireless and turn key solutions related to telecommunication projects. DANCOM In Pakistan Dancom Pakistan (Pvt.) Ltd. was established in 1995 under the Company ‘s Ordinance 1984. Our major shareholder, Dancom Telecommunication (M) Sdn Bhd Malaysia provides total Telecom &IT solutions for the Malaysian marker and abroad as well. The group specializes in smart technology-based product applications, cellular deployments; IT related projects Digital TV, Broadband wireless and turnkey solutions related to telecommunication projects. The Company, core strength lies in its state of the art telecom systems deployment, dedicated expertise to manage and operate the core network, and an effective after sales support network of over 6 offices al over Pakistan with over 800 personnel. Dancom established the telecom services with a mission to provide easy and manageable access to the workforce of general consumers. Since 1997,Dancom ‘s team has made consistent efforts to establish its services all over Pakistan including the remotest parts such as AJK, Northern Areas and the other far-flung remote areas of the four provinces of the country.
  9. 9. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” To meet the requirement of the corporate sector for its online networking all over Pakistan, Dancom has successfully deployed and tested the system, which is capable of providing wire line and wireless connectivity. Dancom also provides managed Internet access service for Corporate/SME/SOHO and also offers turnkey solutions including LAN & WAN support. Dancom continues to invest in the latest telecom systems in order to provide services with high quality standards. Dancom Pakistan Head office is located in Islamabad with its network of regional and area offices in all major cities of Pakistan. The Corporate Headquarter is based in Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Call Point Our card pay-phone service in Pakistan, the card pay-phone technology is considered the standard mean in providing public telephone service to the common man. Dancom started its first public card phone installation in jan.,1997 from the cultural city of Lahore. The card phone terminal & system were imported from a Greek telecommunication manufacturer. Today, Dancom continues to increase its Card phone deployment so as to bring it within the access of the common masses, the actual users of the Card phone service. Our Card phones are branded as call point and the illuminated signboards all over Pakistan show the significant presence of our Card phone Network. Dancom successfully achieved its target of installing 20,000 Card phones all over Pakistan including the rural areas within 5years. The card pay phones are interconnected with public switched Telephone Network (PSTN) of Pakistan Telecommunication Company (Pvt.) Ltd. (PTCL). Our card pay phone lines are protected against misuse etc. through a hardware protection device called line protection unit (LPU and are installed in collocation manner with PSSTN Distributions Frames. The card pay phones are managed using a remote
  10. 10. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” management system called card phone supervision and management system (CSMS. At each regional level, one Unix based CSMS supports approximately 2000 card payphones and our Regional CSMS are connected with the National Management system. The phenomenal success of our card pay phone service was possible due to the selection of good technology; active marketing, team spirit and above all profession back up service. Our Objectives “Building Bridges” these two words truly describe the objectives of Dancom, we area committed to bringing you closer to your people, your world and your dreams. Connecting people and nations to the world is what we do best through telecommunication and IT. Whichever direction you choose to go in, Dancom will accompany you with custom solutions for all your needs. Our Mission To be a leading market oriented company providing quality telecommunication solutions so as to provide value to the customers, principals, employees and shareholders of the company. Dancom Online Our Internet service Dancom Online Internet service started in Dec.2001 from Islamabad, and gradually expanded to Karachi Lahore, Peshawar, Faisalabad, Multan, Gujranwala, and Quetta. Dancom Internet service’s available in the form of prepaid cards as well as postpaid packages. Dancom Online is providing the most consistent Internet service to its users through its easy to use prepaid Internet cards of various denominations, eliminating the hassle of registration process
  11. 11. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” as well as monthly billing. Through our (prepaid) scratch cards, a user can create login name and password of his own choice and upon expiry of cards, the same login name can be continued by recharging the amount of account with another scratch card. Dancom Online service features are: Highs peed backbone No monthly bills No Credit checks No contract or obligations Bigger Mail Box 8mb 10mb Fast &reliable connection speed Fastest download speed ever. User friendly (login and password of your own choice) Why are different from other Internet service Providers? No disconnection due to collocation of equipment in PTCL exchanges premises. High capacity Cache service. Dual bandwidth (optical fiber & satellite) Single local call charges irrespective of the duration of the call Highly reliable Mail Server Roaming service in more than 150 cities of Pakistan 24/7 Help-line services at 111-505-555 Our Growth Since we initially started out in 1997, Dancom‘s team of hardcore professionals has spread their resources to the
  12. 12. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” furthest corners of Pakistan. Dancom is now operation 65 offices in Pakistan, serving the needs of a growing country.
  13. 13. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” THE RESEARCH PROCESS In this section we will discuss each and every step of research process that is: • Problem Statement • Broad Problem Area • Preliminary data gathering • Theoretical frame work • Generation of hypothesis • Research design • Data analysis • Data interpretation • Conclusion / Deduction Recommendation to Management
  14. 14. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” PROBLEM STATEMENT “How does employee’s turnover affect tHe effectiveness of organization”? BROAD PROBLEM AREA Employee’s turnover is a serious problem in organization and warrants attention. Poor supervision, unproductive relationships with boss, poor planning, non-attractive packages, non-motivation and generally poor management are the prime reasons for turnover. Lower turnover offers a broad range of productivity gains. As the turn over lies in all the organizations but we have selected one organization (Dancom Company). In order to implement our concept and knowledge regarding employee’s turnover. What are the causes of employee turnover? How it causes the ineffectiveness of organizations, How to reduce it? In broad problem area our focus is on these three things: • Background information of the organization • Company polices • Perception behavior responses of organization members
  15. 15. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” In background information in the organization we have origin and history of the company when it came into being business is in ownership and control. size in term s of employees, assets purpose and ideology. Background detail of the company we obtained from published records website of the company. Employee’s turnover is broad area, which includes skilled and unskilled workers but we are focusing on skilled workers. Unskilled workers turnovers are immaterial with assumption of 100% of labor availability in Pakistan. Pakistan being developing country unemployment is more than other countries. So unskilled workforce is available any time. So it does not make any contribution to organizational effectiveness. Skilled workers can effect more the effectiveness of organization. This study is aimed at the achieving productivity gains in organization through an improved understanding of causes and effects of turnover, specifically, the study sought to: • Verify the problem. • Analyze the major contributing factors. • Quantify the costs. • Offer recommendation for corrective action. SPECIFIC PROBLEM AREA To specify the problem, Dancom PVT [Ltd] is facing more employee’s turn over in their franchisees in major cities of Pakistan. Ratio of employee’s turn over in Islamabad is twice more then in Faisalabad. In Lahore ratio is 1.5% and in Karachi ratio is 3.2%. Main problem is that company has no control on it. Ratio is increasing at 0.2% after 6 months.
  16. 16. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” GENERATION OF HYPOTHESIS Statement of Hypothesis First of all, there is a need to make clear understanding with the term of Hypotheses. Its means that “A formal testable statement” or “any assumption, claim and statement about population’s characteristics are called Hypothesis”. A hypothesis can be defined as a logically conjectured relationship between two or more variables expressed in the form of a testable statement: Here we have developed hypothesis statement on the basis of our theoretical framework. And then we will try to proof these statements. (1)Whether there is positive relationship between compensation and organizational effectiveness. (2)Whether there is negative relationship between compensation and employees turn over.
  17. 17. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” (3) Does job security of employee affect the effectiveness of organization? (4) Does poor planning of employees affect the effectiveness of organization? Note In statement of hypothesis we develop the relationship among different variables but we found Compensation as most important and discussible so we select it to prove it and all remaining project will be based on this hypothesis statement.
  18. 18. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” Preliminary Data Collection: How study was made: A group member of our group was retained to devise a questionnaire, based on team’s understanding of the practical problems to identify the reason for turnover from workers perspective. The questionnaire was designed specifically to measure worker or employees attitude about their job and to investigate underlying causes for turnover. Preliminary data was collected from different resources to anticipate potential problem. During survey different employees were asked about voluntary termination. In order to get information about on project we have used two methods as follows: 1. Interviews • Unstructured interviews • Questionnaires 2. Literature survey To conduct interview we have addressed following people: 1. Mr.Jafar Raza HR Manager Dancom PVT [Ltd.] F/8-Islamabad 2. Mr. Waris Niazi Assistant Manager Islamabad Stock Exchange 3. Mr.Khushal Khataq Head of Department [Economics](R) H-8 F.G. College For Men Islamabad.
  19. 19. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” Questionnaires For the Topic Q: 1 what is your expectations from organization? (a) Good feed back (b) Good compensation (c) Overtime (d) Benefits Q: 2 what makes you to work at organization? (a) Good package (b) Bonus (c) Flexible working hours Q; 3 what do you think about turnover is caused by (a) Less wages (b) Boss relation (c) Inflexible hours Q: 4 In which case you will not leave the organization? Q: 5 In what conditions you would like to work? (a) High pay offering (b) Working conditions (c) High growth organization Q:6 Employees commitment depends upon; a) Overtime bases b) Good compensation c) Good relation with boss d) Increasing their moral
  20. 20. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” Q: 7 How does employees’ turnover can be reduced? (a) Revising salary (b) Increasing basics (c) Increasing incentives (d)Providing facilities Q;8 How does job growth of employees within the organization affects? (a) Positively (b) Negatively (c) Challenging Q; 9 Do you get the additional benefits like allowances, bonus? . (a) Strongly agree (b) Agree (c) Neither Agree nor Disagree (d) Disagree (e) Strongly disagree Q: 10 Does turnover cause organization high cost and inefficiency in working? (a) Strongly agree (b) Agree (c) Neither Agree nor Disagree (d) Disagree (e) Strongly disagree Q: 11 High level of growth leads efficient working of organization and cause low turnover.? (a) Strongly agree (b) Agree (c)Neither Agree nor Disagree (d) Disagree (e) Strongly disagree Q: 12 Better Compensation to an employee is a factor that can cause employee turnover. (a) Strongly agree (b) Agree (c) Neither Agree nor Disagree (d) Disagree (e) Strongly disagree
  21. 21. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” Q: 13 Better wages makes employee motivation high. (a) Strongly agree (b) Agree (c) Neither Agree nor Disagree (d) Disagree (e) Strongly disagree Q: 14 Job growth in an organization is very much important for an employee? (a) Strongly agree α (b)Agree β (c)Neither Agree Nor Disagree (d) Disagree (e) Strongly disagree Q: 15 Do you think Behavior of the employer is a factor that motivates employees to be within the organization? (a) Strongly agree χ (b)Agree δ (c)Neither Agree Nor Disagree (d) Disagree (e) Strongly disagree Q:16 Which type of boss you would like in your organization? (a) Autocratic (b) Motivational (c) Democratic Q: 17 Would you like to get promotion? (a) Yes (b) No Q: 18 What you think that, job security can increase the efficiency and effectiveness of person? (a) Strongly agree ε (b)Agree φ (c)Neither Agree Nor Disagree (d) Disagree (e) Strongly disagree Q: 19 Would you like to perform job in this organization forever?
  22. 22. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” (a) Yes (b)No Q; 20 Does proper compensation and bonuses effect the organization Effectiveness? (a)Yes (b) No Q;21 Does working environment effect the organization effectiveness? (a) Yes (b) No Q: 22 Does motivation play important role in turnover? (a) Yes (b)No (c) Neither yes nor no Q: 23 To what extent organization effectiveness increases when turn over rate is low? (a) 25% (b) 50 % (d) 75 % Q:24 What is your opinion about the leaving organization, when organization? (a) Does not pay you fairly (b) Discriminate you Q: 25 Better environment provided to an organization will cause employee work more efficiently. (a) Yes (b) No (c) Do not know
  23. 23. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” Literature Review Reason of literature survey The purpose of this literature survey is to allocate the important variables of our existing problem I-e “ How does employee’s turnover affect the effectiveness of organization”. With the help of these variables we a can assess the variables related to our problem for structuring theoretical framework. This survey includes the situation which had occurred in past with others companies and how those companies deal with these variable means how they solved different problems. manager. Asking employees why they are leaving is generally not a good way to find the real reason behind their departure. Instead of evaluating employee satisfaction according to exit interviews, pay attention to the turnover rate. High turnover is the key indicator of employee dissatisfaction. It takes a lot of effort and risk for an employee to change jobs. Resigning is the loudest statement they can make to tell you that your management skills are lacking. Commit to making every employee feel worthwhile, respected, and revered. You must not be too busy working in your business to recognize the importance of each and every one of your employees. One of the Jim Moran Institute's entrepreneurial clients was also his company's primary salesperson. Because of the huge amount of time he spent selling, he never had enough time to make his fifteen employees really feel needed and, consequently, the company experienced high turnover. Employees can quickly feel less than respected by either abusive bosses or bosses who are just too busy to give the requisite care. One of the things you can do to help is to occasionally, tell employees how much you appreciate them. Even better is to tell your whole company how certain employees have really made a difference. Another thing that really helps is to make sure you go around and ask employees how they are doing. It all just boils down to making each and every employee feel worthwhile. Employee turnover is a good benchmark to evaluate the effectiveness of your management style. If you are seeing high turnover, your management style may need to be significantly overhauled. References#4 Binning, J.F., & Barrett, G.V. (1989). Validity of personnel decisions: A conceptual analysis of the inferential and evidential bases. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 478-494. An Innovative Approach for Cost-effective Turnover Reduction By John F. Binning, Ph.D., and Anthony J. Adorno, M.S.Human Resource Group- Bloomington, IL Turnover costs for many organizations are unacceptably high. When the direct and indirect costs associated with employee separation, replacement, and training are
  24. 24. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” accurately compiled, it is not uncommon for even medium-sized companies to lose several million dollars a year resulting from employee turnover. This article describes an HR management tool for decreasing turnover which is based on professional research linking various job characteristics to job candidates’ sourc We are now presenting the reference of different sources. Reference # 1: Employee Turn Over BY: Dr. Blake Frank Professor at University Of Dallas. According to new ideas for retaining store-level employees, a study conducted by Dr. Blake Frank an industrial psychologist and professor at the University of Dallas, for the Coca-Cola Retailing Research Council. For those in higher paying jobs, the cost of turn over is also higher. Symptoms that organization has to face in response of turnover are: Direct Costs: Advertising, training, interview time, employment testing, new employees processing, and backgrounds checks. Opportunity Costs: Change-making errors, mistakes in paperwork, product damage, shrink and improper use of equipment. High as these drains on the bottom line are, they do not include the adverse impact on the quality of service and customer satisfaction, and a store’s consequent loss of sales as shoppers “vote with their feet” and take their dollars to another store. The Coca-Cola study asked participants for a rough estimate of the number of customers lost due to turnover-related factors. Reference # 2 Michelle K. Duffy, Daniel C. Ganster, and Jason D. Shaw Positive Affectivity and Negative Outcomes: the role of tenure and job satisfaction, Journal of Applied Psychology, 1998 Vol. 83 no 6 pp. 950 - 959 Employee Turnover and Sabotage A matter of Disposition, Job Satisfaction and Tenure Understanding an employee's disposition may help predict turnover and purposefully poor performance. Together disposition and Job tenure along with job dissatisfaction plays a role in how employees react to stress. What is positive affectivity Positive employees are more likely to take a wait and see attitude early in their employment. But watch out! Could stress be the reason for turnover and employee poor performance? Why might it be better, in the long run, to have employees who are low in positive
  25. 25. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” affectivity? What can be done Researchers have found that there is a dimension in personality having to do with a person's outlook on life. Persons high in this dimension are enthusiastic, active, and happy. These people are generally more satisfied and see life positively. Persons low in this dimension are the ones with the dark clouds over their heads. Researchers have named this dimension positive affectivity (PA). A study of fire fighter and police employees revealed that PA, a person's positive disposition or lack thereof, in combination with tenure on the job has a bearing on how employees react to perceived job dissatisfaction. Employees that are low in tenure, high in PA and who are dissatisfied with their jobs are less likely to seek another job than those who are low in PA and who also have short tenure and are also dissatisfied. The high PA and low tenure employee also experiences less stress and less physical symptoms of stress than does the low PA low tenured employee. The positive person seems to be able to take the long view. When they first work for an organization they feel less stress when experiencing dissatisfaction than negative people do and are able to reframe from taking action to find a different job. They also do not engage in counter productive behavior at this stage of their tenure with the organization. But when positive people, who are dissatisfied with their job, stay with an organization and become long term employees this changes. They are more stressed by job dissatisfaction, reporting more physical symptoms related to stress, and more likely to look for a different job and to engage in counter productive work behavior. The opposite seems to be true of the more negative person, low in PA. When they are first with an organization and become dissatisfied they seem to experience more stress and physical symptoms of stress than the more positive employee experiences. They look for another job or engage in counter productive work behavior. If they decide to stay with the organization and become long term employees, they become less likely to leave the organization and less likely to purposely perform poorly. This is probably because stress reaction and physical symptoms related to job dissatisfaction are lower for the long-term low PA employee. The person who views life more on the negative side seems to be able accept that work is dissatisfying and is able to plod along without either seeking a different job or performing poorly to get back at the organization. Since they do not expect to find a greener pasture on the other side of the hill, a negative outlook on life, they do not seek to leave the organization. What can be done? Controlling for job dissatisfaction and stress is an organizations only option. Take a good look at employees who are dissatisfied with their work and see if adjustments in hours,
  26. 26. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” duties or work practices can elevate the situation. Not taking action will mean you will loose valuable employees. Remember that the remaining dissatisfied employee may begin to overreact and actually work against you. If you have high turnover among sales persons and other such jobs even among your long term employees you had better take a hard look at how employees feel about their supervision, work rules, work environment and the organization as a whole. It may even be better to help employees make adjustments in their career path leading to work outside the organization. Thereby avoiding having employees who feel there is no way out and who may have chosen sabotage as an outlet for their job dissatisfaction stress. Reference #3 Employee Turnover February 7, 2003 By Jerry Osteryoung "The difference between a boss and a leader: a boss says, 'Go!' - a leader says, 'Let's go!'" -E. M. Kelly, Growing Disciples, 1995 Recently, an entrepreneur whom I am assisting stated that he had 600 W-2's this year and he has a full time staff of less than 50. When I questioned him about this rapid employee turnover, he said it was the nature of the business. At this point I wanted to throttle him by the neck and yell at him, "Employee turnover is bad, bad, bad!" Rather than risk rupturing my vocal cords yelling, I sat down and listened to him talk about this problem. What was most disconcerting about the conversation was that he thought the problem was systemic with today's labor pool and took very little responsibility for employee turnover in his own management style. Compensation is also caused the employees Turnover and reduce the effectiveness. Most employee turnover is related to poor management practices. Yes, employees are working for wages, but, more importantly, they are working to have their non-financial needs met. It's important to understand that employees are seeking to extract something far more than a paycheck from their work. Most employees need to feel respected, worthwhile and appreciated in their work. Time after time employees leave when they feel under-appreciated (sometimes for less money), just to have these more important needs met. The reverse is true as well - when employees are offered a significantly higher salary from another company, they don't leave if they are appreciated at their current workplace. Most entrepreneurs do not perceive themselves as bad managers. However, a high employee turnover is a telling detail that an entrepreneur may, in fact, be a horrible es of personal discomfort and dissatisfaction. While this assessment process is relatively new to the professional HR literature, it has been shown to dramatically reduce annual turnover rates. In one organization where this type of process was used, annual turnover was reduced by 54% (from 168% to approximately 78%). In another organization, the process lowered annual turnover from 120% to 48% (60% reduction).
  27. 27. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” MANAGING TURNOVER THROUGH SELECTION There are many potential causes for turnover. Certainly, area economic conditions, as well as other factors such as labor market conditions, affect general turnover rates. These more general causes for involuntary turnover are difficult to directly manage. However, there are certain causes for voluntary turnover that are associated with any specific job in a given organization (e.g., non-competitive compensation, high stress, unpleasant physical or interpersonal working conditions, monotony, and poor direct supervision) that can be managed. Although considerable research has been published in professional journals that underscores the relationship among workers’ preferences, job performance, absenteeism, and voluntary turnover, there has not been much advancement in the field of personnel selection based on these findings. One management option for addressing the issue of employee turnover is to change the job to eliminate negative characteristics, but this often is not feasible or desirable. An alternative method for reducing turnover is to screen out potential levers during the hiring process. Organizations can use the information regarding negative job characteristics as part of their pre-employment screening process in order to identify job candidates who are likely to have particularly adverse reactions to these characteristics. The assessment of employees’ sources of job-related discomfort and frustration has proven to be a powerful predictor of turnover (Bernardin, 1987). Survey results consistently indicate that workers' negative emotional reactions to job situations do predict voluntary turnover. Employees in any job have conscious and unconscious emotional reactions to work. If these reactions are generally positive, an employee is less likely to quit. On the other hand, if these reactions are generally negative, an employee is more likely to quit. One very promising approach for managing turnover is to identify job candidates who are more likely to have negative reactions to a given job. These candidates can be screened out early in the hiring process, thus saving further hiring costs, and decreasing subsequent turnover. Unfortunately, the most frequently used instruments for identifying such negative job characteristics (e.g., Job Diagnostic Survey, Job Characteristics Inventory) have little utility for making employment decisions because the scoring process is relatively transparent to job applicants. INTRODUCTION TO THE JOB CONGRUENCE SYSTEM (JCS) General psychological inventories and realistic job previews have been used to reduce turnover, but with varying degrees of success. Traditional personality and interest
  28. 28. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” inventories are not as successful for identifying candidates who are likely to turnover due to the ease with which they can be faked during the application process. Researchers have indicated that deliberate distortion of responses is one of the most serious problems in the use of instruments designed to measure personality and interest characteristics. Similarly, realistic job previews are not effective with some job seekers who are highly motivated to gain employment, because they ignore the negative job characteristics during the application process, but over time the negative job content becomes instrumental in the decision to quit. There is an alternative pre-screening method for reducing employee turnover which has demonstrated both effectiveness and consistency. The system described here is called the Job Congruence System (JCS). In HR literature, this general approach has been referred to as job compatibility or job congruence assessment. The JCS focuses on motivational characteristics of employees as opposed to traditional assessment of knowledge, skills, and abilities. The three basic steps of the JCS are, Identifying specific negative job characteristics which are used to (2) Create a custom assessment instrument in order to (3) Screen out individual job candidates who are most likely to have negative reactions to specific job characteristics.
  29. 29. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” Theoretical Framework: After completing literature survey and defining problem there is need to develop framework. In it we try to discuss the interrelationship among the variables that are deemed to be integral to the dynamics of the situation being investigated. IMPORTANT VARIABLELS: Different variables can affect the effectiveness of organization we are considering all important variables that can effect company. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM After the thorough study of literature survey we deduct some variables which can become a cause that can effect the sales and keeping in mind we make schematic diagram of the theoretical framework so that the reader can see and easily comprehend the theorized relationship. A theoretical framework is a conceptual model of how one theorizes or makes logical sense of relationship among the several factors that have been identified as important to problem. We will identify and label following variables. • Dependent variable. • Independent variable. • Moderating variable. Five basic features for theoretical framework: • Considering variables on relevant to study. • Relationship between variables. • Nature of direction of relationship. • Clear explanation. • Schematic diagram.
  30. 30. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” • Theoretical Frame work (I.V) (D.V) Employees Turnover Perceived Inequalities Job satisfaction Company Effectiveness Allowances & Benefits Working Hours &Job Security Symptoms High cost (Age Differences) Time M.V wastage Resources wastage
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  32. 32. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” RESEARCH DESIGN: The research design, which involves a series of rational decision-making choices, the various issued involved in the research design, will be discussed here. Like • Purpose of the study • Types of investigation • Extent of researcher interference • Study setting • Measurement and measures • Unit of analysis • Sampling • Time horizon • Data collection method PURPOSE OF THE STUDY In business research we have three type of study purpose: Exploratory study Descriptive study Hypotheses testing But the hypothesis statement, which we are going to proof, it will come under hypotheses testing study. This study that engage in hypotheses testing usually explain the nature of certain relationships, or establish the differences among groups or the independence of two or more factor in a situation. TYPES OF INVESTIGATION There are two main type of investigation we have in business research that is: Causal Correlation A researcher should determine whether a causal or a correctional study is needed to find and test hypotheses on hand. Causal type of investigation is done, when it is necessary to establish a definitive cause and effect relationship, however, if the researcher simply wants a mere identification of the important factors “associated with the problem” then a correlation study is called. Correlational type of investigation will be suitable for our research, actually our hypotheses is “ effective compensation has positive impact on organizational effectiveness”That’s why we select this method to identify the important factor associated with the problem. EXTENT OF RESEARCHER INTERFERENCE Interference can be happen in two possible ways in business research Minimal: studying events as they normally occur Manipulation: control and simulation
  33. 33. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” As you know, in the type of investigation stage we have selected the correlational investigation. A correlational study is conducted in the natural environment of the organization, with the researcher interfering minimally with the normal flow of work. STUDY SETTING Organizational research can be done in the natural environment where work proceeds normally (noncontrived settings) or in artificial, contrived settings. As we have selected correlational investigation method with minimum interference, then automatically our study setting will be noncontrived. Its mean our research will be conduct under natural environment. MEASUREMENT AND MEASURES In business research, there is a need to measure variable, which is present in theoretical framework to test hypotheses. We have four scaling options to measure variable to test hypotheses. • Nominal scale • Ordinal scale • Interval scale • Ratio scale Each scale method has its advantage and disadvantages. What we are going to apply in our project that is ratio scale and interval scale because these scales give maximum accuracy in measuring the variable. Even though the method we have selected for investigation is correlational that provide less accuracy as compare to causal. UNIT OF ANALYSIS Unit of analysis means “ the level of aggregation of the data collected during data analysis”. In business research the unit of analysis can be • Individuals • Dyads • Groups • Organizations • Divisions In this project we selected”individuals and organizational” as a unit of analysis, and this selection is match with the definition of unit of analysis.
  34. 34. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” SAMPLING We have two main type of sampling • Probability sampling • Non-probability sampling PROBABILITY SAMPLING When the elements in the population have a known chance of being chosen as subject in the sample is call probability sampling . NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING In non-probability sampling designs, the elements in the population have no probabilities attached to their being chosen as sample subjects is called non-probabilities. In short we can say that we are following the probability sampling. Why we chose probability sampling? Because the sample we get from probability have the quality of representatives. After choosing the probability sampling, normally we have four purpose of study that is : Genernalizability Assessing differential parameters in subgroups of population Collecting information in a localized area. Gathering more information form a subset of the sample TIME HORIZON As far as concern to time horizon of study, we have two-time horizons in organizational research that is: • Cross sectional studies/one shot • Longitudinal studies. In this project we use one-shot method of time horizon in order to answer a research problem.
  35. 35. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” DATA COLLECTION METHOD Data can be collected in a variety of ways in different settings, and form different sources. Data collection methods include: • Interviews (face-to-face interview, telephone interviews, computer-assisted interviews and electronic media) • Questionnaires • Observation • Motivational techniques During the data collection phase we collected data by using two method that is questionnaire and interviews (face-to-face interviews). To get the relevant information according to our problem statement, we designed our questionnaire keeping in mind all the techniques of questionnaire design. And we used different scale in questionnaire like dichotomous scale and likert scale etc. We arranged one structure interview with Mr.Jafar Raza HR Manager Dancom PVT [Ltd.] F/8-Islamabad For this we purpose we design another questionnaire for manager. He provides very useful information, which really assisted a lot to complete, this project. Structured Interview. 3. What are employees expectations from organization? 4. What is the ratio of employee turnover between skilled and unskilled workers? 5. What are effects of turnover that organization has to face? 6. Do you think discrimination between contracted and percent employees lead to less or more motivation? 7. What are the factors that make employee loyal? 8. Does overtime unavailability in organization causes turn over? 9. How does flexible hours motivate the employees to stay at the organization? 10. To what extent poor planning the cause the turnover in organization? 11. Does over burden and insecurity regarding the job make hurdle for organization success? 12. To what extent potential cause for turnover, area economics condition labor market condition effect general turnover rates? 13. To what extent age difference cause employee turnover? 14. How does employee retention play role in organization?
  36. 36. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” 15. How selection method provides unbiased labor force for organization in order to increase the effectiveness? 16. Do you give any common suggestions and comments on employee’s turnover? 17. Employees retention in your organization what are your strategy in case of Involuntary turnover Voluntary turnover
  37. 37. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” In data analysis, we have three objectives: 1. Getting a feel of the data 2. Testing the goodness of data 3. Testing the hypotheses developed for the research FEEL OF THE DATA: To approve the hypothesis statement, we applied correlation tools to analysis the data. Correlation matrix gives an indication of how closely related or unrelated are the variables under investigation. If they have a high correlation say for example over 0.5 then we will declare as closely related variables . TESTING GOODNESS OF DATA: Testing goodness of the data depend on two thing that is: 1. Reliability 2. Validity Reliability: The reliability of a measure is established by testing for both consistency and stability. For this we have different method like; 1. Cronbach’s alpha 2. Split-half reliability coefficient 3. Parallel form reliability 4. Test –retest reliability The first two are used to check the consistency and last two to check the stability. During the data analysis phase, we find that our data result is fulfilling the requirement of reliability, because Cronbach’s alpha supports the results. Cronbach’s alpha is a reliability coefficient that indicates how well the items in a set are positively correlated to one another. The closer Cronbach’s alpha is to 1 the higher the internal consistency reliability. So our data analysis result is close to 1 the exact answer of data by applying correlation is 0.85 that shows that data have reliability. HYPOTHESIS TESTING: After checking the feel of data and goodness of the data, know we are able to apply statistical tool to test the hypothesis. In this project, we applied correlation tool to check the relationship between compensation and organizational effectiveness. The result and finding will be given in the data interpretation phase
  38. 38. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” . X Y X2 Y2 XY (%) (000) Rs 10 8.52 100 72.5904 85.2 8 6.92 64 47.8864 55.36 13 10.05 169 101.0025 130.65 9 8.53 81 72.7609 76.77 11 8.33 121 69.3889 91.63 14 9.96 196 99.2016 139.44 6 7.24 36 52.4176 43.44 4 4.26 16 18.1476 17.04 12 10.86 144 117.9396 130.32 7 4.86 49 23.6196 34.02 5 5.72 25 32.7184 28.6 11 10.16 121 103.2256 111.76 ΣX=113 ΣY=95. ΣX2=121 ΣY2=810. ΣXY=974. 41 5 8991 11 STATISTICAL TOOL IS BEING APPLIED HERE TO TEST HYPOTHESIS STATEMENT: r = n ∑XY – (∑X)(∑ Y) {n∑X2 – (∑x)2}{nΣY2 _(ΣY)2} = 12 * 974.11 –113*95.41 12*1215 – (113)2 * 12(810.8991) – (95.41)2
  39. 39. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” r= 11689.32-10781.33 42.55*25.05 r= 907.99 1065.875 r = 0.85 HYPOTHESIS TESTING OF POPULATION CO-RELATION Step 1: Null hypothesis and alternative Ho: There is no relationship between compensation and organization H1: There is positive relationship between compensation and organization (P > 0 and one tail test will be applied) H0: P=0 H1: P > 0 Step 2: Level of Significance 5% Step 3: Test statistics As n < 30 t= r 1 – r2 n-2 0.85 = 1 – (0.85) 2 12 – 2 tcal = 5.10 tcal=5.10
  40. 40. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” Step 4: Critical Region t (0.05, 10) V = n – 2 (degree of freedom) , t (tab)=1.821 ttab = 1.821 (from table) Step 5: Conclusion: tcal ≥ ttab 5.10 ≥ 1.821 Whenever t - calculated value is greater than t - table value we always reject Ho. H1is accepted so its means that there is positive relation between compensation and organization effectiveness
  41. 41. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” Interpretation of the Results As r=. 85 r2=0.722*100 = 72% 72% is due to independent variable and 28% is due to others factors Other Analysis N=89,n=12 Analysis of Respondent # of People COPENS Job JOB DEMOGRA Total ATION growth Satisfactio PHS n 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 4 1 1 2 5 1 1 2 6 1 1 2 7 1 1 2 8 1 1 2 9 1 1 10 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 4 12 1 1 1 3 Total 10 5 6 4 25
  42. 42. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” 20% 24% 40% 16% %of 40% 20% 24% 16% 100% Response Departments # Of Employees Admin 22 Account 27 Technical 14 Sals/Mkt 13 IT 2 CSD 4
  43. 43. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” Billing 2 Procurement 4 Retail sale - Liason 1 Total 89
  44. 44. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” DATA INTERPRETATION: We have taken the data from the Dancom Communication from the different department in order to prove that there is relationship between perceived inequalities and organization effetiveness.we have seen that there is strong positive correlation that indicate the validity and correctness of instrument and it is obviously clear that there is strong relationship between these variables .As our purpose was to check the correlation between these variables as company increases its salary packages as it gets feedback from the employees side and ultimately organization go to the success. During our survey it is found that majority of the people leave the organization due to less wages. Co- relation result of this sample data is 0.85 it shows a very high relation and between two variables and the results of population is also matching with sample data. So we can say that better compensation has great impact on the organization.
  45. 45. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” CONCLUSION / DEDUCTION: We reach the conclusion that if Dancom wants to increase their effectiveness then they should give consideration and attention towards effective compensation and also build strong relationship between employees and employers. As well as other factors concern we can also consider them equally but they are not so much important as for as compensation is important. We see that 72% affect the organization and 28% affect the other variables it mean to say that there other factors as well that make contribution towards the effectiveness of organization. Actually they are following centralized style of management and all decisions are made at top level, there is no participation of middle and line managers in decision making The Top management should follow the integrative linkage technique for decision making not in their rooms. How can You Reduce Turnover? You begin to reduce turnover not by looking at turnover rates, but by looking at the retention rate. Turnover rates tell you how many employees have left during the course of a year. : 1. Keeping them informed about the company’s long-range plans so that they can motivate employees to move in that direction. 2. Thorough and continued training in all aspects of their job. 3. The opportunity for advancement. 4. Retaining Hourly Employees. 5. Improving Management Retention. 6. Create and communicate specific plans to accomplish the mission. 7. Establish a procedure to monitor progress toward the mission. Creating a scorecard that tracks key performance indicators relating to customers, employees, suppliers and financial performance can do this. 8. Maintain fare and evenly administered practices. 9. Establish specific procedure for lay of and termination.
  46. 46. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” 10. Establish merit based performance review procedure with forms that are job related trains people how to conduct reviews monitor the review process. 11. Trains first then promote policy. 12. Comprehensive compensation to the employees 13. They should increase their morale through increasing benefits 14. Establishing training program to ensure at least minimum training before the new job is begun. It advises that list of expectations be prepared for both newly promoted employees 15. Participation in decision making as well as on important tasks should be welcomed
  47. 47. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” BIBLIOGRAPHY Questionnaire References of literature survey Reference # 1: Employee Turn Over BY: Dr. Blake Frank Professor at University Of Dallas. Reference # 2 Michelle K. Duffy, Daniel C. Ganster, and Jason D. Shaw Positive Affectivity and Negative Outcomes: the role of tenure and job satisfaction, Journal of Applied Psychology, 1998 Vol. 83 no 6 pp. 950 - 959 Reference #3 Employee Turnover February 7, 2003 By Jerry Osteryoung "The difference between a boss and a leader: a boss says, 'Go!' - a leader says, 'Let's go!'" -E. M. Kelly, Growing Disciples, 1995 Reference#4 Binning, J.F., & Barrett, G.V. (1989). Validity of personnel decisions: A conceptual analysis of the inferential and evidential bases. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 478-494. An Innovative Approach for Cost-effective Turnover Reduction By John F. Binning, Ph.D., and Anthony J. Adorno, M.S.Human Resource Group- Bloomington, IL Reference #5 Human resource management By Noe. Gerhard international edition Publisher McGraw Hill (4th edition) “Employee turnover” www.google.com www.altavista.com
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  49. 49. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” X Y x2 Y2 XY Compensation Turn over (%) (%) 8 62 64 3844 496 11 60 121 3600 660 14 50 196 2500 700 17 45 289 2025 765 20 42 400 1764 840 12 56 144 3136 672 15 52 225 2704 780 21 42 441 1764 882 24 35 576 1225 840 13 48 169 2304 624 23 28 529 784 644 25 24 625 576 600 ΣX=203 ΣY=544 Σ X =3779 ΣY =26226 2 2 ΣXY=8503
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  67. 67. “ MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROJECT” X Y X2 Y2 XY Compensation Turn over (% ) (%) 10 64 100 4096 640 12 56 144 3136 672 14 52 196 2704 728 16 50 256 2500 800 18 44 324 1936 792 20 39 400 1521 780 22 36 484 1296 792 24 34 576 1156 816 26 31 676 961 806 28 27 784 729 756 Σ X =188 Σ Y=333 ΣX = 2 Σ Y2 Σ XY=
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