Borgen and-hiebert


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  • These are not limitations, BUT factors that need to be considered or taken into account when doing career guidance
  • What have I learned. Countries are looking for answers that address the issues of individuals and also serve the broader good… Kenya … levels of education declining because younger ones see that is has not helped older ones… Nigeria…unsafe on the roads at night because young people who can’t find employment are stopping vehicles and robbing them… Bias against technical and vocational education because of the prestige and security that has traditionally accompanied professional occupations Training programs are being implemented without the uses of counselling or psychological processes which has led to problems with recruitment and retention of students, or their successful attachment with the labour force upon completion of their studies, resulting I …. Bhutan, 50% of the population is 15 years of age or younger, system can’t absorb them in the traditional manner, and wants guidance and counselling to assist in order to help the young people and to preserve the country. The context in which people are making occupational, vocational and career decisions is evolving rapidly and unpredictably. Internationalization – in India has a technical business that is completely directed in this case by German and Japanese companies who train workers in precise methods and monitor quality control, owner hopes for 10 years of work until less expensive labour is found somewhere else in the world. There is no attempt to train beyond the very specific needs of the company. In many countries in Africa and parts of eastern Europe and Asia, internally and externally displaced people, making decisions within the context of refugee camps, as a result of discrimination and conflict. Perceived Status of Occupations is getting in the way In Saudi Arabia and other countries in the gulf states there is a problem with the perception that citizens take professional training and guest workers perform trade and service work. Two consequences… all money generated by those occupations leave the country and there are not enough professional jobs for the local citizens.. Bhutan Too many young people for the labour market….
  • Need to consider our assumptions regarding our work and a need to strengthen research, theory and practice connections between counselliing psychology, vocational psychology and career development practice. A need to consider occupational and career development in ways that are appropriate to the culture in which they occur. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
  • 2001 – Journal of Vocational Behavior indicated a need for rigor, bounded by methods but somewhat bounded by them as we all are… recognition of the need for qualitative approaches to address new types of questions but concerned about their transparency…. How can our methods promote sustainabity on the part of clients for whom it is now normal to live in rapidly changing life/career contexts? How do our questions and What is needed to assist First we are challenged to move to recognize our cultural encapsulation and to begin the process of moving to an orientation of cultural pluralism, in our research and our services. Utilize the indigenous helping system In India the senior members of the extended families.. In Nigeria following our workshop, action plans of instructors from the vocational high schools and colleges began with discussions with the village elders, shamen and witch doctors… In Bhutan building upon the caring and respect that seems to be inherent in their Buddist culture. Work across the boundaries of our traditional disiciplines to see what each can offer. Currently there are three major islands in operation Vocational Psych – be clear on what can be preserved and built upon and what will need to be changed… Counselling and Counselling psychology – approaches and qualitative methods Need to take into account Career Practitioners – distilling information from both into practice often with inadequate training. Individual needs Contextual needs – with a focus on individual, group and the broader culture Changeprocesses need to change? Teach people decision making processes for themselves, make the process more transparent. Different logic Replicate processes or provide stories for others to relate to? Opportuinity for vocational Psych to build upon a strong tradition of rigor to encorporate new methods – extend what Rich I an proposed in 1990. Both/and…
  • No heavy duty statistics Only % and frequency counts
  • Borgen and-hiebert

    1. 1. Orientation to Career Guidance andCounselling in Developing Countries William Borgen Educational and Counselling Psychology & Special Education Faculty of Education University of British Columbia Bryan Hiebert Department of Educational Psychology & Leadership Studies Faculty of Education University of Victoria 1
    2. 2. The Need for Career/Life PlanningWe guide our boys and girls to some extentthrough school, then drop them into this complexworld to sink or swim as the case may be. Yetthere is no part of life where the need forguidance is more emphatic than in the transitionfrom school to work - the choice of a vocation,adequate preparation for it, and the attainmentof efficiency and success. (Frank Parsons) 2
    3. 3. Traditional Assumptions There are a series of individual attributes or traits that draw people to certain occupations. These attributes or traits are pivotal to effective and desired decision-making. Occupations that match the vocational interest of individuals are accessible to them. Occupations are stable enough in their characteristics for assessment instruments that match the traits of individuals with occupational characteristics are useful over time. Once secured individuals have the capability to stay involved in desired occupations or career trajectories. 3
    4. 4. Counselling and Guidance Within a Context of UncertaintySocietal Context Family Self- Personal Career identity 4
    5. 5. Societal Contexts Rapidly Changing Social, Cultural and Economic Realities•Poverty/Structural Unemployment•Violence•Migration•HIV/AIDS•The Education System•Globalization 5
    6. 6. Some International Examples Countries are looking for information and approaches that address the issues of individuals and also inform policies to serve the broader society (Kenya, Nigeria, Bhutan) The context in which people are making occupational, vocational and career decisions is evolving rapidly and unpredictably (India, Africa, Eastern Europe/Asia, Argentina, North America) Perceived status of occupations is a major issue 6
    7. 7. Revised Assumptions Several factors influence choice of occupations or career paths, including individual attributes or traits, family perspectives, rapidly evolving cultural influences such as poverty, addiction, conflict, displacement and discrimination, along with internationalization and rapid change in labour market opportunities. These factors are differentially important within and across cultural contexts. Occupations of choice may not be accessible. Many tasks and processes related to occupations are unstable. People need the skills and attitudes required to successfully manage rapid and unpredictable changes that characterize many occupations and career trajectories. Career Development is an emerging professional activity7
    8. 8. Services Related to Career DevelopmentAdvice or Advising If I give general information regarding external requirements, I am doing vocational or career advising (Implies general information is sufficient for the issue presented)Guidance If I make a judgment about what information is being sought and provided it I am providing vocational or career guidance. (Implies tailored information is sufficient).Counselling If I explore the other person’s perspective, tentatively offer other perspective to be considered (including information based on the initial exploration) and jointly discuss possible action planning, I am providing vocational or career counselling. (Implies that a counselling process is needed to consider the utility of different insights, feelings, and information and the applicability of different possible actions regarding the issue.) 8
    9. 9. Constructs Central to Career DevelopmentOccupational Occupational refers to an activity that is focused on considering a particular job.Vocational Vocational refers to a focus on an individual’s talents, passions and interests in considering areas of work.Career Career refers to broader issues, such life development, work-adjustment, work-dysfunction, and integration of life roles with other life roles over time that may or may not be directly related to work. 9
    10. 10. A Proposed Research/Service Grid Advising Guidance Counselling Occupational Occupational Occupational Occupational Advising Guidance Counselling Vocational Vocational Vocational Vocational Advising Guidance Counselling Career Career Career Career Advising Guidance CounsellingSee: Hiebert, B., & Borgen, W. A. (Eds.), Technical and vocational educationand training in the twenty-first century: New roles and challenges for guidanceand counselling (pp. 13-26). Paris: UNESCO. 10
    11. 11. What students are telling us… 11
    12. 12. Older Adolescents in High School Problems Identified  Schooling  Identity and Self- Concept  Family  EmploymentSee: Borgen, W. A., & Hiebert, B. (2006). Youth counselling and career guidance: What adolescents and young adults are telling us. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 28, 389-400 . 12
    13. 13. Coping Strategies of Adolescents  Individual Problem Solving  Disengagement – distancing, avoidance  Resignation  Giving Up 13
    14. 14. The Nature of Assistance DesiredWho – Friends, Family, Professional HelpersQualities – Good listeners, trustworthy and honest – Knowledge about the issues being discussed – Experience similar to theirsWhat – Counselling, knowledge, advice and information – Comfort and reassurance 14
    15. 15. The “High 5” (+1)A Changing Theme For Career Development 1. Change is constant 2. Focus on the journey 3. Follow your heart 4. Keep learning See: Redekopp, D. E., Day, B., 5. Access your allies & Robb, M. (1995). The "High Five" of career + development. In B. Hiebert (Ed.). Exemplary career 6. Believe in yourself development programs and practices: The best from Canada. Greensboro, NC: ERIC/CASS . 15
    16. 16. The Challenge… Career opportunities are a result of planned and unplanned developmental and environmental events. Career decisions evolve over a life time. Career development services need to be differentiated and available across the lifespan. A new paradigm is needed to depict how people’s careers develop. 16
    17. 17. The Need… Academics and practitioners will need to consider the new philosophical underpinnings, theoretical foundations, knowledge base, and expanded skill sets needed to embrace the new paradigm. Career practitioners need a broader range of pre-service and in-service education that prepares them to offer advice, guidance and counselling for occupational, vocational and career related issues. 17
    18. 18. Guidance & Counseling Planner  An alternative metaphor for career/life planning See: Westwood, M. W., Amundson, N. E. & Borgen, W. A. (1994). Starting points: Finding your route to employment. Ottawa: Human Resources & social development Canada. Borgen, W. A. (1999). Implementing ‘Starting Points’: A follow-up study. Journal of Employment Counseling, 36, 98 – 114. Borgen, W. A. (1995). Starting points: Finding your route to employment (B.C. Edition). Victoria/Ottawa: Assessment, Counselling and Referral Initiative of MOEST and HRDC. 18
    19. 19. Professional Development: A Multi-Layered ApproachPreparation for career practitioners Orientation workshop • Philosophical underpinnings • theoretical foundations • For all professionals Stakeholder involvement • Individual consultation • Group consultation In-depth training for key service providers • Guidance practitioners • Counsellors Training for trainers • For capacity building 19
    20. 20. Example from the Field 20
    21. 21. Career Guidance and Counselling Orientation Workshop: Implementing a Vision for Your Life5-day interactive workshop • foundational career development theory • contemporary approaches for implementing career guidance programs in educational settings • Key resources available • knowledge and skill practice in appropriate instructional methods for career education Designed to help teachers and counsellors work more effectively with their school and college communities 21
    22. 22. Guidance & Counseling Planner Day 1: Context • Preparation, philosophy, theory Day 2: Taking Stock • Tools and resources Day 3: Providing services • Communication & collaboration Day 4: Building support • Policy makers, service providers, clients working together Day 5: Consolidation • Implementing, maintaining, sustaining 22
    23. 23. Orientation Workshop PlanDay 1: Context What is career development • Career-life planning • Vision for your life • Foundational theories Who are we serving • Labour market context • Voices of youth Learn about career-life planning by examining your own career path 23
    24. 24. Orientation Workshop PlanDay 2: Taking Stock Nature of services • Advising, Guidance, Counselling • Occupational, Vocational, Career • Meeting the whole person needs of students Nature of training • Skills needed • Resources available Tools and resources (for services + for training) Understanding my own career path • How will I incorporate this in my job 24
    25. 25. Orientation Workshop PlanDay 3: Providing services Communication and collaboration • Multiple skills for multiple roles • Constructs and skills for collaboration Basic group process • Group member roles and norms • Stages of group development Skill practice 25
    26. 26. Group Facilitation Model St St ag St ag e6 ag e5 St e4 St ag St ag e3 ag e2 e1 Ap Lea oup p pr de rou ss on G ce & oac r t Gr inati o Sk he Pr king ills s n Pos sitio Term Wor l Initia Member Tran ning Needs & Group Roles Design Plan Group Goals & ActivitiesSee: Borgen, W. A., Pollard, D. E., Amundson, N. E., & Westwood, M. J. (1989). Employment groups: The counselling connection (chapter 3). 26 Toronto, ON: Lugus.
    27. 27. Orientation Workshop PlanDay 4: Building support Policy support• Infrastructure needed• Resources needed• Program planning and evaluation• Policy makers, service providers, clients working together Demonstrating the value of our work• Program planning and evaluation• Evaluation model• Tools for demonstrating value 27
    28. 28. Outcome Focused Evidence-Based Practice Quality Improvement Resources Counsellor Client change • Skills • Knowledge • Interventions • Skill • Programs • Attribute • impactSee: Baudoin, R., et al.. (2007). Demonstrating value: A draft framework for evaluating the effectiveness of career development interventions. Canadian Journal of Counselling, 41, 146-157.CRWG web site: 28
    29. 29. Outcome-Focused Evidence-Based Practice Input  Process  Outcome Intervention = Process + Outcome What will I do? + How is it working? Professional Practitioner 29
    30. 30. Orientation Workshop PlanDay 5: Consolidation, maintaining, & sustaining Making it happen • Pulling it all together • Action planning & follow up • Vision for your life • Foundational theories Workshop evaluation 30
    31. 31. Orientation Workshop Evaluation Before After Unacceptable UnacceptableRegarding the Primary Objectives Acceptable Acceptableof this workshop, andknowing what you know now, 0 1 2 3 4 ave 0 1 2 3 4 avehow would you rate yourselfbefore the workshop, and howwould you rate yourself now?1 Clear understanding of basic career development theory 6 5 11 3 1 1.5 0 0 0 10 16 3.62 Knowledge about the factors that contribute to (or interfere with) 4 10 6 5 1 1.6 0 0 1 6 19 3.6 people’s career development3 Knowledge regarding basic skills 7 11 3 4 1 1.3 0 0 2 6 18 3.6 used in career-life planning4 Tools for demonstrating the value of careers guidance & counselling 8 5 4 5 1 1.4 0 0 1 5 17 3.3 31 Awareness of the importance of5 6 5 6 5 1 1.7 0 0 0 3 20 3.4 career-life planning in TVET
    32. 32. Evaluation Results 156 ratings (6 questions times 26 people): • 84 (54%) ratings were unacceptable before the workshop • 0 ratings were unacceptable after the workshop • 6 (4%) ratings were excellent before the workshop • 108 (69%) ratings were excellent after the workshop 32
    33. 33. Orientation Workshop Evaluation Unacceptable AcceptableGenerally Speaking, Ave 0 1 2 3 41. how useful did you find the workshop? -- -- -- 1 25 4.02. how would you rate the workshop facilitation? -- -- -- 1 25 4.03. how would you rate the workshop facilities -- -- -- 18 5 3.0 (room, etc.)?4. how would you rate the food? -- -- -- 14 3 2.7 33
    34. 34. Orientation Workshop EvaluationFor each component of the workshop listed Unacceptable Acceptablebelow, please assess how useful Avethat component was for you. 0 1 2 3 41. General Model: Road Map -- -- 1 10 15 3.52. Exploring the Context -- -- 2 9 15 3.43. Factors Influencing Career Plans -- -- -- 8 18 3.74. Personal Career Line -- -- 1 12 13 3.55. Clarifying Roles (advising, guidance, counselling) -- -- -- 5 21 3.86. Assets and Resources -- -- 3 8 15 3.57. Skill Framework for service providers -- -- 2 6 18 3.68. Group process strategies -- -- -- 5 16 3.69. Skill Practice -- -- -- 9 17 3.710. Demonstrating value (evaluation) -- -- -- 8 16 3.711. Infrastructure -- -- 3 13 10 3.312. Action planning -- -- -- 7 19 3.7 34
    35. 35. Final Thoughts One major barrier expressed by participants • lack of infrastructure and resources • Many schools do not have a career resource centre Create the support you need • Lobby policy makers • Train your boss to give you the support you need Create a mechanism to support follow up action Create a capacity building mechanism • Training for trainers Lifelong learning & growth needs Lifelong guidance and counselling 35
    36. 36. Orientation to Career Guidance andCounselling in Developing Countries Questions or Comments? Thank you William Borgen Bryan Hiebert 36