Perception• A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment11/25/2011 5:21 AM Consumer Behavior 5th Trisemester J Kavita 2
Elements of Perception• Sensation• The absolute threshold• The differential threshold• Subliminal perception11/25/2011 5:21 AM Consumer Behavior 5th Trisemester J Kavita 3
Sensation• It is the immediate and direct response of the sensory organs to stimuli.• In marketing parlance stimuli include brand names, advertisement, colors, sounds, packaging etc.• First reflex to any marketing stimuli or ad is known as sensation .• Stimulus received by any of the 5 senses is sensation .11/25/2011 5:21 AM Consumer Behavior 5th Trisemester J Kavita 4
Sensation• Advertising appealing to the consumer’s senses.• Marketers use bright colors , innovative concepts ,different visual effects to catch the attention of consumer’s.• Focus on increasing the sensory inputs11/25/2011 5:21 AM Consumer Behavior 5th Trisemester J Kavita 5
Absolute ThresholdThe lowest level at which an individual can experience a sensation.The point at which a person can detect a difference between “something” and “nothing "is that persons absolute threshold.11/25/2011 5:21 AM Consumer Behavior 5th Trisemester J Kavita 8
Absolute Threshold• Lowest degree of sensory inputs at which the consumer becomes aware of a sensation is called absolute threshold.Example:Jingle played in crowded place on a week day:- The morning – No effect- The evening – Better effect11/25/2011 5:21 AM Consumer Behavior 5th Trisemester J Kavita 9
Differential Threshold• The minimal difference that can be detected between two stimuli. Also known as the j.n.d. (just noticeable difference).11/25/2011 5:21 AM Consumer Behavior 5th Trisemester J Kavita 10
Differential threshold or just noticeable difference• Ads to be designed to have at least those many sensory inputs as will initiate a sensation in the consumer11/25/2011 5:21 AM Consumer Behavior 5th Trisemester J Kavita 11
Weber’s Law• A theory concerning the perceived differentiation between similar stimuli of varying intensities (i.e., the stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the additional intensity needed for the second stimulus to be perceived as different).11/25/2011 5:21 AM Consumer Behavior 5th Trisemester J Kavita 14
Marketing Applications of the JND• Need to determine the relevant j.n.d. for their products – so that negative changes are not readily discernible to the public – so that product improvements are very apparent to consumers11/25/2011 5:21 AM Consumer Behavior 5th Trisemester J Kavita 15
Subliminal Perception• Perception of very weak or rapid stimuli received below the level of conscious awareness.11/25/2011 5:21 AM Consumer Behavior 5th Trisemester J Kavita 16
Subliminal Perception• Subliminal perception: – Occurs when the stimulus is below the level of the consumer’s awareness.• Subliminal techniques: – Embeds: Tiny figures that are inserted into magazine: advertising by using high-speed photography or airbrushing. There is little evidence that subliminal stimuli can bring about desired behavioral changes. Ethics in using subliminal perception11/25/2011 5:21 AM Consumer Behavior 5th Trisemester J Kavita 17
Subliminal Messages in Ads• Critics of subliminal persuasion often focus on ambiguous shapes in drinks the use of this technique.
Supraliminal Perception• Perception of stimuli that are above the level of conscious awareness is called supraliminal perception which is generally known as perception.11/25/2011 5:21 AM Consumer Behavior 5th Trisemester J Kavita 20
The Perception Process Selective ExposureRandom Deliberate Selective Attention Low involvement High Involvement Selective Interpretation Low involvement High Involvement Memory Short-term Long-term11/25/2011 5:21 AM Consumer Behavior 5th Trisemester J Kavita 21
Step-1 Selective exposure• Consumers actively seek out messages that they find pleasant or with which they are sympathetic ,and they actively avoid painful or threatening ones.11/25/2011 5:21 AM Consumer Behavior 5th Trisemester J Kavita 23
CONTROLLING ZAPPING AND ZIPPING TV advertisers have to cope with ‘Zapping’ (switching across TV channels with remote control, or completely switching off for some seconds then switching on again); and ‘Zipping’ (fast-forwarding the ad part when playing pre-recorded cassettes / CD / DVD on a VCR / VCP or DVD player). Research shows that increased levels of clutter reduce effectiveness of individual ads. There is inverse relationship between clutter and ad recall. Time bought on TV does not guarantee exposure, it only provides opportunity to communicate to the audience.
Muting• Muting is turning the sound off during commercial breaks.11/25/2011 5:21 AM Consumer Behavior 5th Trisemester J Kavita 25
CONTROLLING ZAPPING AND ZIPPING The size of the audience shrinks during a commercial break (this break is also called “pod”). Young adults zap more than the older adults, and men are more likely to zap than women. Advertisements placed either at the beginning or the end of commercial breaks, were less prone to be affected by clutter than the ads placed in the middle. Ads of high-involvement nature were also less prone to be affected by clutter than low-involvement ads. Advertisers can control the problem of zapping and zipping to some extent by creating ads that are highly entertaining and interesting from the audience’s point of view.
Selective Attention• Consumers are likely to note ads for products that would satisfy their needs and disregard those in which they have no interest.11/25/2011 5:21 AM Consumer Behavior 5th Trisemester J Kavita 27
Attention and Advertising11/25/2011 5:21 AM Consumer Behavior 5th Trisemester J Kavita 28
Perceptual Defense• Consumers subconsciously screen out stimuli that they find psychologically threatening even though exposure has already taken place.• Perceptual defense happens for ads with intense fear appeals.• Ex : Ads on wearing helmets, smoking11/25/2011 5:21 AM Consumer Behavior 5th Trisemester J Kavita 29
Perceptual Blocking• Consumers protect themselves from being bombarded with stimuli by simply “tuning out” that is blocking such stimuli from conscious awareness. (channel switching during commercial break)11/25/2011 5:21 AM Consumer Behavior 5th Trisemester J Kavita 30
ELEMENTS OF ADS THAT ATTRACT ATTENTIONFour reasons for getting attention to information: Information that may be highly useful for a person Information that supports the audience’s opinion about some tangible or intangible thing Stimulating information Interesting information as per the audience.
ELEMENTS OF ADS THAT ATTRACT ATTENTION People readily expose themselves to information that has practical value for them. Headlines that promise something attract attention A new model in a familiar product category and different features catches attention Ad Copy must be short and punchy Consumers actively search information, in case of high-involvement product category, when uncertainty and risk is high. Attention is obtained when an object is significantly different from what it should be, i.e. a novelty item, or something unexpected, as people like to have a change.
AD CHARACTERISTICS THAT ATTRACT ATTENTION Large, full-page ads with colour attract more attention than smaller black and white ads. The ad copy phrased in concrete and specific terms attracts more attention than the one phrased in abstract terms. Ads placed on upper half of the left side page gets more attention. Ads placed on the back of magazines, front inside cover and inside of back cover, attract more reader attention. Ads that are surprising or funny are more likely to be read.
3.Interpretation Or Comprehension Attention alone is not enough, the ad message needs to be understood (i.e. comprehension). Possession of some prior knowledge about the product makes it easier for consumers to comprehend additional information. Good comprehension of ad message by the audience is extremely important for persuasion to occur. Simple recall of an ad does not necessarily enhance audience comprehension. Consumers comprehension may be purely objective or may add subjective inputs.
COMPREHENSION Gestalt psychology explains that stimuli are perceived as a whole and hence what is important is to consider the whole ad because it has a meaning that is distinct from its individuals. Three most basic principles of perceptual organization are: Figure and Ground Grouping, and Closure11/25/2011 5:21 AM Consumer Behavior 5th Trisemester J Kavita 36
Stimulus Organization• A stimulus will be interpreted based on its assumed relationship with other events, sensations, or images.• Closure Principle: – People tend to perceive an incomplete picture as complete.• Principle of Similarity: – Consumers tend to group together objects that share the same physical characteristics.• Figure-ground Principle: – One part of a stimulus will dominate (the figure) and other parts will recede into the background (the ground).
FIGURE AND GROUND The ‘figure’ is usually perceived clearly as it appears to be well defined, solid and in the forefront. The ‘ground’ (background) is perceived as indefinite, hazy, and continuous. The common line separating the figure and ground is perceived as part of the figure rather than the ground. Learning may affect which stimuli will be perceived as the figure and which as ground. Perceptual organisation is influenced by motives and expectations based on experience of individuals. Advertisers should plan their ads to ensure that the stimulus is perceived by the audience as figure and not as ground.11/25/2011 5:21 AM Consumer Behavior 5th Trisemester J Kavita 39
GROUPING Individuals have a tendency to ‘group stimuli automatically’, so that they form a unified whole picture or impression. This facilitates the individuals memory and recall. Advertisers can use grouping to imply certain desired meanings with regard to the advertised product. It also helps to remove any ambiguity from stimuli.11/25/2011 5:21 AM Consumer Behavior 5th Trisemester J Kavita 44
CLOSURE Another Gestalt principle says that individuals have a need for closure and, as a result of this, consumers have a conscious or subconscious urge to fill up the missing portion in a picture or message. When consumers hear a familiar jingle associated with a brand, they complete the missing message in their mind. This act of message completion serves to involve the audience more deeply, often resulting in enhanced learning.11/25/2011 5:21 AM Consumer Behavior 5th Trisemester J Kavita 47