Its culture and heritage
Pictures in this presentation have been used for descriptive
purposes only. Ownership is held by the respective
photograph...
India has always been perceived as a poverty stricken country
were livestock roam freely on the roads. The people of India...
“In religion, India is the
only millionaire…”
Mark Twain, American Author 1835-1910
The four religions born in India - Hinduism, Buddhism,
Jainism, and Sikhism, are followed by 25% of the
world's population.
Indian Mythology such as Ramayana & Mahabharata ,
convey subtle facts, rules and maxims to guide our
daily lives
“ India was the motherland of our race and Sanskrit the
other of Europe‟s languages. India was the mother of our
philosoph...
Indian religions,(Hinduism,
Buddhism and Jainism) are
replete with philosophies
that advocate renunciation.
The Hindu Phil...
India has never invaded any country in its 10 000
years of history
(Non- violence)
“India conquered and dominated
China for 20 centuries without
ever having to send a soldier
across her border”
-Huh Shih (...
The constitution of modern India has granted the freedom
of worship to members of all faiths. India is a 'Soverign,
Social...
“Hindu Muslim Sikh Isai, Apas mein
hum bhai bhai”
Translation: Hindu, Muslims, Sikhs and Christians are all brothers
“We owe a lot to the Indians,
who taught us how to count,
without which no worthwhile
scientific discovery could have
been...
The value of "pi" was first calculated by the Indian
Mathematician Budhayana, and he explained the concept of
what is know...
Zero was invented by Aryabhatta. In India. basic calculations
including multiplications and divisions were carried out wit...
Bhaskaracharya of 12th century was the next great
mathematician after Aryabhatta. He accurately calculated the
time taken ...
Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus also originated in India.
Quadratic Equations were used by Sridharacharya in the 11th
c...
“Ancient Indian theories lacked
empirical base, but the brilliant
imaginative explanations of the
physical structure of th...
Sage Kanaada conjectured for
the first time some elements of
theory of atoms in 5th century
B.C. His real name was
'Ulook‟...
From the Vedic times, around 3000
B.C. to 1000 B.C., Indians (Indo-
Aryans) have classified the material
world into four e...
Indian Nobel Prize-winning
physicist Subrahmanyan
Chandrasekhar discovered the
Chandrasekhar Limit. If a
star‟s mass is le...
The empirical nature of chemistry is also reflected in the word
we use for substances i.e. Padartha which is a combination...
The Iron Pillar at Delhi, is
estimated to have been cast about
1500 years ago. The Pillar
weighing around 6 tonnes, has
be...
The process of crystallization of sugar from sugarcane juice
was discovered in India during the Gupta period (350 AD).
India is in a way
synonymous with spices;
Pepper, Ginger, Cloves,
Cinnamon, Coriander,
Cardamom, Cumin, etc., have
all bee...
Aryabhatta is believed to have been born in 476 A.D. in a town
called Ashmaka which is in the state of Kerala in present d...
 The circumference of earth is 40,075km. Aryabhatta calculated
the circumference of the earth to be 39,736km. It is amazi...
 'Arybhatiya' is a poem in which Aryabhatta presented his work.
In the poem he has mentioned that “Eventhough we feel tha...
 He has mentioned in his work that the moon and other planets
do not have its own light but reflect light from the sun.
...
 Aryabhatta calculated that there are 365 days, 6 hrs, 12 minutes
and 30 seconds in one year.
Aryabhatta's Magnum Opus, the Aryabhattiya was translated
into Latin in the 13th century. Through this translation,
Europe...
Since Vedic times, Indians had been required to recite the
Vedas. In those days, the Vedas were passed down from one
gener...
The first visual art created in the Indian sub-continent were
primitive cave or rock paintings. These paintings at Ajanta ...
Sanskrit is known to be the mother of all languages.
According to a report in Forbes magazine July 1987, Sanskrit
is the m...
Many historians, notably D.D. Kosambi, Debiprasad
Chattopadhyaya and Adya Rangacharaya, have referred to the
prevalence of...
The game of Snakes & Ladders was created by the 13th century
poet saint Gyandev. It was originally called 'Mokshapat'. The...
Chess originated in ancient India and was known as "Chatur-
Anga" Meaning 4 bodied, as it was played by 4 players. From
th...
The other term Astapada meaning eight steps, which was also
used to describe this game in ancient India, perhaps was a
des...
Cards were known as Krida-patram in ancient India .These
cards were made of cloth and depicted motifs from
the Ramayana, M...
Kalaripayat from Kerala was
transmitted to China by a sage
named Boddhidharma in the 5th
century. The Chinese called him
P...
India had made great progress in medicines too. We had
tradition of medicines since 3000 B.C. but, we believed that
„human...
Sushruta is regarded the Father of Surgery. Over 2600 years
ago Sushrata & his team conducted complicated surgeries
involv...
Usage of anaesthesia was well known in ancient Indian
medicine. Detailed knowledge of anatomy, embryology,
digestion, meta...
One of the more known India
contribution is yoga (The art
of Well-being). Originating in
India, yoga is now a world-
wide ...
The World's First Granite
Temple is the Brihadeswara
Temple at Tanjavur, Tamil
Nadu. The shikhara of the
temple is made fr...
A little less known fact about India is that the first garden-tomb
in the world was built in India. It was built as a tomb...
The earliest known reservoir and dam for irrigation was built in
Saurashtra.
The Taj Mahal is considered one of the Seven
Wonders of the World. It was built by Mughal
Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of ...
The oldest building in
Asia the Sanchi Stupa is
in India. The Dome of
Mosques in Islamic
Architecture is derived
from the ...
An important endowment of India, Vāstu śāstra,
“science of construction“ is now gaining popularity
world over.
Vastu Yantra
The Art of Navigation & Navigating was born in the river
Sindh over 6000 years ago. The very word Navigation is
derived fr...
Sanskrit and Pali literature has innumerable references to
the maritime activity of Indians in ancient times. There is
als...
A fresco from a cave in Ajanta, painted sometime during A.D, 630.
Source: Ajanta, The Colour and Monochrome Reproductions
The early Hindu astrologers are said to have used the magnet,
in fixing the North and East, in laying foundations, and oth...
“ If I am asked which nation
had been advanced in the
ancient world in respect of
education and culture then I
would say i...
The Kama Sutra is an ancient
Indian Hindu text widely
considered to be the standard
work on human sexual
behavior in Sansk...
The world's first university was established in Takshila in 700
BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world stud...
USA based IEEE has proved, what has been a century
old suspicion in the world scientific community, that
the pioneer of wi...
When many cultures were only nomadic forest dwellers over 5000
years ago, Indians established Harappan culture in Sindhu V...
“It is already becoming clearer that a chapter which has a
western beginning will have to have an Indian ending if it is
n...
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About india
About india
About india
About india
About india
About india
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About india

  1. 1. Its culture and heritage
  2. 2. Pictures in this presentation have been used for descriptive purposes only. Ownership is held by the respective photographers and artists. No copyright infringement was intended.
  3. 3. India has always been perceived as a poverty stricken country were livestock roam freely on the roads. The people of India are thought to be mostly uneducated. Those fortunate enough to be part of the educated lot, would definitely be software developers or working at a call centre. This is my attempt to show that India is, has been and always will be a lot more.
  4. 4. “In religion, India is the only millionaire…” Mark Twain, American Author 1835-1910
  5. 5. The four religions born in India - Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism, are followed by 25% of the world's population.
  6. 6. Indian Mythology such as Ramayana & Mahabharata , convey subtle facts, rules and maxims to guide our daily lives
  7. 7. “ India was the motherland of our race and Sanskrit the other of Europe‟s languages. India was the mother of our philosophy, of much of our mathematics, of the ideals embodied in christianity.. Of self government and democracy. In many ways, Mother India is the mother of us all. -Will Durant (American historian 1885 to 1981)
  8. 8. Indian religions,(Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism) are replete with philosophies that advocate renunciation. The Hindu Philosophy of Advaita, is characteristically expressed in the dictum; 'Jagat Mithya Brahman Satya' which means the world is an illusion, the supreme is the truth.
  9. 9. India has never invaded any country in its 10 000 years of history (Non- violence)
  10. 10. “India conquered and dominated China for 20 centuries without ever having to send a soldier across her border” -Huh Shih (Former ambassador of china to USA)
  11. 11. The constitution of modern India has granted the freedom of worship to members of all faiths. India is a 'Soverign, Socialist, Secular Democratic Republic. To us, the term 'secular' means 'religious tolerance'. Religious tolerance in India is not a gift of modern times, it has existed in ancient India, though it suffered an eclipse during the medieval ages under hostile alien rule and later under colonial rule.
  12. 12. “Hindu Muslim Sikh Isai, Apas mein hum bhai bhai” Translation: Hindu, Muslims, Sikhs and Christians are all brothers
  13. 13. “We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made. “ -Albert Eintstein
  14. 14. The value of "pi" was first calculated by the Indian Mathematician Budhayana, and he explained the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean Theorem. In 1999 British scholars published Budhayana's work which dates back to the 6th century; which was long before the European mathematicians did.
  15. 15. Zero was invented by Aryabhatta. In India. basic calculations including multiplications and divisions were carried out with zero from as early as 9th century A.D.
  16. 16. Bhaskaracharya of 12th century was the next great mathematician after Aryabhatta. He accurately calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the Sun hundreds of years before the astronomer Smart. According to his calculations, Earth takes 365.258756484 days to orbit the Sun.
  17. 17. Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus also originated in India. Quadratic Equations were used by Sridharacharya in the 11th century. The largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 106 whereas Indians used numbers as large as 10^53 (i.e. 10 to the power of 53), with a prefix from 5000 B.C. during the Vedic period. Even today, the largest prefix used is yotta: 10^24.
  18. 18. “Ancient Indian theories lacked empirical base, but the brilliant imaginative explanations of the physical structure of the world, and in a large measure, agreed with the discoveries of modern physics.” -A.L.Basham Australian Indologist
  19. 19. Sage Kanaada conjectured for the first time some elements of theory of atoms in 5th century B.C. His real name was 'Ulook‟ (owl). He used to write throughout the day time, and at night he used to pick up particles from jungles for a living. Hence he may have got the name Kanaad (Kan means particle). He put forward the theory that every substance was made of atoms.
  20. 20. From the Vedic times, around 3000 B.C. to 1000 B.C., Indians (Indo- Aryans) have classified the material world into four elements viz. Earth (Prithvi), fire (Agni), air (Maya) and water (Apa). To these four elements was added a fifth one viz. ether or Akasha. According to some scholars these five elements or Pancha Mahabhootas were identified with the various human senses of perception; earth with smell, air with feeling, fire with vision, water with taste and ether with sound.
  21. 21. Indian Nobel Prize-winning physicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar discovered the Chandrasekhar Limit. If a star‟s mass is lesser than the Chandrasekhar Limit it will shrink to become a white dwarf. If it is greater than the limit, the star will explode, becoming a supernova.
  22. 22. The empirical nature of chemistry is also reflected in the word we use for substances i.e. Padartha which is a combination of two words Pada meaning 'step' and Artha which itself means 'meaning'. Thus the word Padartha can be literally translated to 'meaning in steps'. Perhaps, this reflects the fact that in chemistry, knowledge is acquired step by step through continuous experimentation.
  23. 23. The Iron Pillar at Delhi, is estimated to have been cast about 1500 years ago. The Pillar weighing around 6 tonnes, has been standing in open air for more than a millennium. Though it has been exposed to heat, dust and rain, it has not rusted. Such advancement in metalugry was not achieved by anyone at that time.
  24. 24. The process of crystallization of sugar from sugarcane juice was discovered in India during the Gupta period (350 AD).
  25. 25. India is in a way synonymous with spices; Pepper, Ginger, Cloves, Cinnamon, Coriander, Cardamom, Cumin, etc., have all been processed and exported from India since ancient times. In fact, spices were so valuable in the west that when the trade routes were disrupted by wars, spices were sold by weight in exchange for gold.
  26. 26. Aryabhatta is believed to have been born in 476 A.D. in a town called Ashmaka which is in the state of Kerala in present day India. He studied astronomy at the University of Nalanda at a very young age. He made significant contributions to the field of astronomy. The following were contributions made by him…
  27. 27.  The circumference of earth is 40,075km. Aryabhatta calculated the circumference of the earth to be 39,736km. It is amazing to see that is calculations were so close to accuracy with the basic technology available at that time.
  28. 28.  'Arybhatiya' is a poem in which Aryabhatta presented his work. In the poem he has mentioned that “Eventhough we feel that the sun and stars are rotating around us in fact, they are fixed and the earth is rotating around them.” This proves that he was centuries ahead of others.
  29. 29.  He has mentioned in his work that the moon and other planets do not have its own light but reflect light from the sun.  He recognized that the planets‟ orbit is elliptical.
  30. 30.  Aryabhatta calculated that there are 365 days, 6 hrs, 12 minutes and 30 seconds in one year.
  31. 31. Aryabhatta's Magnum Opus, the Aryabhattiya was translated into Latin in the 13th century. Through this translation, European mathematicians got to know methods for calculating the areas of triangles, volumes of spheres.
  32. 32. Since Vedic times, Indians had been required to recite the Vedas. In those days, the Vedas were passed down from one generation to the next through memory (Smriti) and were learnt through hearing (Shruti). Even today the Vedas are traditionally learnt by recitation.
  33. 33. The first visual art created in the Indian sub-continent were primitive cave or rock paintings. These paintings at Ajanta and Ellora depict Buddhist tales from the Jatakas. Though the paintings are nearly 1500 years old, the paint has retained its colour and much of its lustre.
  34. 34. Sanskrit is known to be the mother of all languages. According to a report in Forbes magazine July 1987, Sanskrit is the most suitable language for computer software because of its high regularity.
  35. 35. Many historians, notably D.D. Kosambi, Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya and Adya Rangacharaya, have referred to the prevalence of ritualism amongst Aryan tribes in which some members of the tribe acted as if they were wild animals and some others were the hunters. Those who acted as animals like goats, buffaloes, reindeer, monkeys, etc. were chased by those playing the role of hunters and a mock hunt was enacted. In such a simple and crude manner did the theatre originate in India nearly 4000 years ago in the tribal Aryans of Rig Vedic times.
  36. 36. The game of Snakes & Ladders was created by the 13th century poet saint Gyandev. It was originally called 'Mokshapat'. The ladders in the game represented virtues and the snakes indicated vices. In time, the game underwent several modifications, but its meaning remained the same, i.e. good deeds take people to heaven and evil to a cycle of re-births.
  37. 37. Chess originated in ancient India and was known as "Chatur- Anga" Meaning 4 bodied, as it was played by 4 players. From this name we have its current name "Shatranj.
  38. 38. The other term Astapada meaning eight steps, which was also used to describe this game in ancient India, perhaps was a description for the eight steps (Squares) which the modern Chessboard, has. The modern Chessboard is chequered with 64 (8 x 8) squares in all, with eight squares on each side. The old English word for chess which is Esches, possibly stems from this eight squared aspect of the game as did the Sanskrit word Astapada.
  39. 39. Cards were known as Krida-patram in ancient India .These cards were made of cloth and depicted motifs from the Ramayana, Mahabharata, etc . A tradition carried on today with floral motifs and natural scenery.
  40. 40. Kalaripayat from Kerala was transmitted to China by a sage named Boddhidharma in the 5th century. The Chinese called him Po-ti-tama. He taught this art in a temple. This temple is today known as the Shaolin temple. Thus martial arts which is identified with the far-east actually originated from India.
  41. 41. India had made great progress in medicines too. We had tradition of medicines since 3000 B.C. but, we believed that „human beings get diseases due to ghosts‟. Understanding the body and scientific treatment commenced from Vedic times. This knowledge is known as AyurVed (knowledge of Life).
  42. 42. Sushruta is regarded the Father of Surgery. Over 2600 years ago Sushrata & his team conducted complicated surgeries involving cataract, artificial limbs, cesareans, fractures, urinary stones and also plastic surgery and brain surgeries.
  43. 43. Usage of anaesthesia was well known in ancient Indian medicine. Detailed knowledge of anatomy, embryology, digestion, metabolism, physiology, etiology, genetics and immunity is also found in many ancient Indian texts.
  44. 44. One of the more known India contribution is yoga (The art of Well-being). Originating in India, yoga is now a world- wide form of exercise and relaxation.
  45. 45. The World's First Granite Temple is the Brihadeswara Temple at Tanjavur, Tamil Nadu. The shikhara of the temple is made from a single 80-tonne piece of granite. This magnificent temple was built in just five years, (between 1004 AD and 1009 AD) during the reign of Rajaraja Chola.
  46. 46. A little less known fact about India is that the first garden-tomb in the world was built in India. It was built as a tomb for Emperor Humayun, which also houses the graves of his wife and other Mughals.
  47. 47. The earliest known reservoir and dam for irrigation was built in Saurashtra.
  48. 48. The Taj Mahal is considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World. It was built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife.
  49. 49. The oldest building in Asia the Sanchi Stupa is in India. The Dome of Mosques in Islamic Architecture is derived from the Stupa.
  50. 50. An important endowment of India, Vāstu śāstra, “science of construction“ is now gaining popularity world over. Vastu Yantra
  51. 51. The Art of Navigation & Navigating was born in the river Sindh over 6000 years ago. The very word Navigation is derived from the Sanskrit word 'NAVGATIH'. The word navy is also derived from the Sanskrit word 'Nou‘.
  52. 52. Sanskrit and Pali literature has innumerable references to the maritime activity of Indians in ancient times. There is also one treatise in Sanskrit, named Yukti Kalpa Taru which has been compiled by a person called Bhoja Narapati. The Yukti Kalpa Taru gives sufficient information and date to prove that in ancient times, Indian shipbuilders had a good knowledge of the materials which were used in building ships.
  53. 53. A fresco from a cave in Ajanta, painted sometime during A.D, 630. Source: Ajanta, The Colour and Monochrome Reproductions
  54. 54. The early Hindu astrologers are said to have used the magnet, in fixing the North and East, in laying foundations, and other religious ceremonies. The Hindu compass was an iron fish that floated in a vessel of oil and pointed to the North. The name of this Hindu compass was “Maccha Yantra” meaning fish instrument. This also happens to be the name Molesworth gave to the mariner's compass.
  55. 55. “ If I am asked which nation had been advanced in the ancient world in respect of education and culture then I would say it was India”. -Max Muller (German Indologist)
  56. 56. The Kama Sutra is an ancient Indian Hindu text widely considered to be the standard work on human sexual behavior in Sanskrit literature written by Vātsyāyana. Contrary to popular belief, Kama sutra is not just an exclusive sex manual; it presents itself as a guide to a virtuous and gracious living that discusses the nature of love, family life and other aspects pertaining to pleasure oriented faculties of human life.
  57. 57. The world's first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education.
  58. 58. USA based IEEE has proved, what has been a century old suspicion in the world scientific community, that the pioneer of wireless communication was Prof. Jagdish Bose and not Marconi.
  59. 59. When many cultures were only nomadic forest dwellers over 5000 years ago, Indians established Harappan culture in Sindhu Valley Indus Valley Civilization). The city was built in a grid form where the roads ran from north to south and east to west, which is how the modern cities are designed.
  60. 60. “It is already becoming clearer that a chapter which has a western beginning will have to have an Indian ending if it is not to end in the self- destruction of the human race… At this supremely dangerous moment the only way for salvation for mankind is the Indian way”. -Dr. Arnold Toynbee ( British Historian 1889-1975)

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