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Introduction to Web Accessibility and WCAG

Introduction to Web Accessibility and WCAG






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    Introduction to Web Accessibility and WCAG Introduction to Web Accessibility and WCAG Presentation Transcript

    • Web Accessibility
      25-26 September, 2009
    • Agenda
      What’s Disability?
      World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
      W3Cs Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)
      Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 Introduction
      Assistive Technologies
      Building Accessible Websites
      Guideline 1 – Perceivable
      Guideline 2 – Operable
      Guideline 3 – Understandable
      Guideline 4 – Robust
      Accessibility Testing
    • What’s Disability
      Situational Disability
      Reaching late to venue… Traffic in city
      Oops! My mouse stopped working, what do I do?
      Text is too small on this webpage, how do I read this?
      Functional Disability
      Visually impaired
      Mobility impaired
      Hard of hearing
      Learning disability
      Autism, Cerebral Palsy
    • World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
      Develops interoperable technologies
      Why would they do it?
      To lead web to its potential and for consistency on web…
    • W3C’s WAI (Web Accessibility Initiative)
      WAI develops...
      Guidelines widely considered as the international standard for Web accessibility
      Support materials to help understand and implement Web accessibility
      WAI welcomes...
      Participation from around the world
      Volunteers to review, implement, and promote guidelines
      Dedicated participants in working groups
    • Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0
      WCAG 2.0 has evolved over years based on feedback and recommendation.
      It defines how to make web content more accessible.
      Currently WCAG 2.0 is official recommendation http://www.w3.org/tr/wcag20
    • Assistive Technologies
      Screen Magnifier
      Screen Reader
      Speech Recognition
      Refreshable Braille
      Text Browsers
      Large keyboard
      Mouse substitute such as a joystick, a trackball, on-screen keyboard.
      Scanning Software
      Speech Synthesis
      Some Pictures
    • Building Accessible Websites
      Laying Accessibility Foundation
      Table-less layouts – easy to manage, avoid problems for screen readers
      Structured mark-up – Need for Search Engines, better access to assistive technologies
      Valid code – Assistive Technologies completely rely on your code, if you mess-up, those users will hate you
    • Guideline 1: Perception
      Non-text content
      Images – provide alt / long desc attribute
      CAPTCHA – provide alternate in audio CAPTCHA or use CAPTCHA based on logical questions
    • Guideline 1: Perceivable – contd.,
      Audio / Visual Content – provide closed captions
      Adaptability – should be fleixible. User should be able to use their own style sheets
      Contrast – ensure that foreground and background will have sufficient contrast
    • Guideline 2: Operable
      Keyboard access – all information and functionality should be available to access via keyboard including:
      Form fields
    • Guideline 2: Operable – contd.,
      Enough time – User should have sufficient time to read and interact with content. If content is time-based, same should be notified prior to the session and user should be given an option to extend time limit unless time limit is mandatory.
      Seizures – seizures should generally be avoided as far as possible
      Navigable – Web page should be easily navigable by any input device including assistive technologies
    • Accessible Rich Internet Applications (ARIA)
      ARIA is WAI Recommendation http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/aria.php
      WAI-ARIA, the Accessible Rich Internet Applications Suite, defines a way to make Web content and Web applications more accessible to people with disabilities. It especially helps with dynamic content and advanced user interface controls developed with Ajax, HTML, JavaScript, and related technologies.
    • Guideline 3: Understandable
      Use of Natural Language – unless a specific terminology is required
      Predictable – User should be able to predict the result upon his action
      Input assistance – provide adequate help for user to interact with forms etc.
    • Guideline 4: Robust
      Compatibility with latest technologies and support for assistive technologies
      Add Accessible Rich Internet Applications (ARIA) support for RIA such as AJAX based applications
      Landmark etc…
    • Accessibility Testing
      Manual Testing
      (Eg: Screen Reader)
      Automated Tools
      (Eg: Wave/ FAE)
      Accessibility Testing
    • Accessibility Testing - Automated
      WAVE – http://wave.webaim.org/toolbar
      Firefox Accessibility extension
      Add-ons of Mozilla Firefox https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/search?q=accessibility&cat=all
    • Accessibility Testing – Manual
      Screen Readers
      NVDA – http://www.nvda-project.org
      JAWS for Windows – http://www.freedomscientific.com
      Screen Magnifiers
      ZoomTextXtra – http://www.aisquared.com
      Dolphin Supernova – http://www.yourdolphin.com
      Alternate Input devices –
      Track ball and switch – http://www.ablenetinc.com
      Dragon Naturally Speaking
      Talks – a screen reader for mobile S60 phones
    • Thank You