Country Marketing Plan for China | 10048
SDMIMD
CULTURAL ANALYSIS OF
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Submitted to,
Prof. R. Suk...
Cultural Analysis of China
Contents
Introduction ............................................................................
Cultural Analysis of China
Relationships & Communication.....................................................................
Cultural Analysis of China
Health Indicators.................................................................................
Cultural Analysis of China
Introduction
Product Description
Product: Bottled/Packaged coconut water.
Product USP: It's a d...
Cultural Analysis of China
1. Pre-historical China
Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest hominids in China da...
Cultural Analysis of China
fell drastically after total war broke out in Europe. For example, China's textile industry had...
Cultural Analysis of China
Geographical Setting
Location
The territory of China lies between latitudes 18° and 54° N, and ...
Cultural Analysis of China
Topography
The country's vast size gives it a wide variety of landscapes. In the east, along th...
Cultural Analysis of China
Social Institutions
Family
Average Household Size: 3.10
Total Households: 401,520,000
Family Ho...
Cultural Analysis of China
China now has an increasingly aging population; it is projected that 11.8% of the population in...
Cultural Analysis of China
Marriage and Courtship
Chinese marriage is a ceremonial ritual within Chinese societies that in...
Cultural Analysis of China
of secondary education for ages 12 to 18. China has had a major expansion in education, increas...
Cultural Analysis of China
they can learn cooperation skills. To encourage responsibility, there are no janitors in Chines...
Cultural Analysis of China
in 2003. Schools of higher learning and research institutes enrolled 326,000 postgraduate stude...
Cultural Analysis of China
Theoretically, the party's highest body is the National Congress of the Communist Party of Chin...
Cultural Analysis of China
breakdown with the Communist Party of the Soviet Union under Nikita Khrushchev, and later, Leon...
Cultural Analysis of China
d. Fuels, stores and beverages loaded on a means of conveyance entering or leaving the
country ...
Cultural Analysis of China
Organization of the judiciary system
The Constitution provides that the NPC is the supreme orga...
Cultural Analysis of China
Defects in the Chinese Law
1. First, the National People’s Congress is ineffective at executing...
Cultural Analysis of China
the PRC added clarification. Patents must be registered to receive legal protection. This must ...
Cultural Analysis of China
The basic pattern of contemporary society was established by 1960, and all changes since then,
...
Cultural Analysis of China
The Chinese see foreigners as representatives of their company rather than as individuals.
Rank...
Cultural Analysis of China
Visual aids are useful in large meetings and should only be done with black type on white
backg...
Cultural Analysis of China
Religion and Aesthetics
Religion and other belief systems
Communist governments often suppress ...
Cultural Analysis of China
Aesthetics
Literature
Chinese literature began with record keeping and divination on Oracle Bon...
Cultural Analysis of China
Visual arts
Chinese art encompasses all facets of fine art, folk art and performance art. Porce...
Cultural Analysis of China
existed with a variety of weapons including the more standard 18 arms. Legendary and controvers...
Cultural Analysis of China
Fashion
Different social classes in different eras boast different fashion trends, the colour y...
Cultural Analysis of China
Folklore and other relevant symbols
YinYang
In Asian philosophy, the concept of yin yang, which...
Cultural Analysis of China
Living Conditions
Cuisine
Chinese cuisine is any of several styles originating in the regions o...
Cultural Analysis of China
c. Herbal Drinks – medicinal Chinese herbs
Dining Etiquettes
The Chinese prefer to entertain in...
Cultural Analysis of China
Some of the highest quality restaurants with recipes close to the dynastic periods include Fang...
Cultural Analysis of China
with examples of early planning philosophies and practices evidenced by traditional cities such...
Cultural Analysis of China
networked airports, large-scale commercial and industrial zones and multiple urban cores.
Examp...
Cultural Analysis of China
different colors, most commonly red, dark blue, gold and black. One common design is the usage ...
Cultural Analysis of China
1. Badminton
2. Bandy – Russian Hockey
3. Baseball
4. Basketball
5. Boxing
6. Chess
7. Cricket
...
Cultural Analysis of China
Social welfare in China
Social welfare in the People's Republic of China has undergone various ...
Cultural Analysis of China
Health Care in China
China is undertaking reform of its health-care system. The New Rural Co-op...
Cultural Analysis of China
this would partially explain China's gender imbalance. A program initiated in 2002 will attempt...
Cultural Analysis of China
Language
Chinese languages, or the Sinitic languages (Hànyǔ; Huáyǔ; Zhōngwén) is a language fam...
Cultural Analysis of China
Yue → Pinghua
Min
Xiang
Hakka (Kejia)
Gan
Cultural Analysis of China
Sources of information
China and other related pages, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China
China:...
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Cultural Analysis of China for Business Development

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An exhaustive business environment analysis of China from a cultural perspective to benefit those who want to start a business in China. Compiled from various sources on the internet, it was an assignment for International Marketing case study.

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Cultural Analysis of China for Business Development

  1. 1. Country Marketing Plan for China | 10048 SDMIMD CULTURAL ANALYSIS OF PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA Submitted to, Prof. R. Sukumar Submitted by, Srikiran C. Rai Roll no. 10048 Submission Date: 10/10/2011
  2. 2. Cultural Analysis of China Contents Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................5 Product Description ..................................................................................................................................5 History of China.............................................................................................................................................5 Geographical Setting.....................................................................................................................................8 Location.....................................................................................................................................................8 Climate......................................................................................................................................................8 Topography...............................................................................................................................................9 Social Institutions........................................................................................................................................10 Family......................................................................................................................................................10 The nuclear family...............................................................................................................................11 The extended family ...........................................................................................................................11 Dynamics of the family .......................................................................................................................11 Female/Male Roles .............................................................................................................................12 Education ................................................................................................................................................12 Role of education in Society................................................................................................................12 Literacy Rates......................................................................................................................................15 Political System.......................................................................................................................................15 Political Structure................................................................................................................................15 Political Parties....................................................................................................................................16 Stability of the government................................................................................................................16 Special Taxes.......................................................................................................................................17 Legal System ...........................................................................................................................................18 Organization of the judiciary system ..................................................................................................19 Defects in the Chinese Law.................................................................................................................20 Participation in patents, trademarks and other conventions.............................................................20 Social Organizations................................................................................................................................21 Group Behavior...................................................................................................................................21 Social Classes.......................................................................................................................................21 Race, ethnicity and subcultures..........................................................................................................22 Business Customs and Practices .............................................................................................................22
  3. 3. Cultural Analysis of China Relationships & Communication.........................................................................................................22 Business Meeting Etiquette ................................................................................................................23 Business Negotiation...........................................................................................................................24 What to Wear?....................................................................................................................................24 Business Cards.....................................................................................................................................24 Religion and Aesthetics...............................................................................................................................25 Religion and other belief systems...........................................................................................................25 Orthodox doctrines and structures.....................................................................................................25 Membership of each religion..............................................................................................................25 Aesthetics................................................................................................................................................26 Literature ............................................................................................................................................26 Visual arts............................................................................................................................................27 Martial arts..........................................................................................................................................27 Architecture ........................................................................................................................................28 Fashion................................................................................................................................................29 Music...................................................................................................................................................29 Folklore and other relevant symbols ..................................................................................................30 Living Conditions.....................................................................................................................................31 Cuisine.................................................................................................................................................31 Types of Dishes ...................................................................................................................................31 Malnutrition rates...............................................................................................................................33 Housing ...................................................................................................................................................33 Urban Planning....................................................................................................................................33 Clothing...................................................................................................................................................35 National dress .....................................................................................................................................35 Contemporary Chinese Clothing.........................................................................................................36 Sports and other leisure activities ..........................................................................................................36 Sport....................................................................................................................................................36 Leisure.................................................................................................................................................37 Social welfare in China............................................................................................................................38 Health Care in China ...............................................................................................................................39
  4. 4. Cultural Analysis of China Health Indicators.................................................................................................................................39 Healthcare situation post 1990...........................................................................................................39 Language.....................................................................................................................................................41 Official Language.....................................................................................................................................41 Dialects....................................................................................................................................................41 Sources of information ...............................................................................................................................43
  5. 5. Cultural Analysis of China Introduction Product Description Product: Bottled/Packaged coconut water. Product USP: It's a delicious alternative to any sports drink with all the benefits that active and health- conscious people want. Product Advantages: 1. Coconut water is rich in Vitamins C and B, calcium, iron, copper and potassium 2. Relatively low in calories, natural and packed with important nutrients 3. It’s a natural beverage that needs no additions, not even a sweetener 4. It’s a natural isotonic (assist athletes rehydrate while balancing electrolytes) drink, according to the United Nations, which has described it as “the fluid of life”, providing many of the same benefits as formulated sports drinks Product Specifications: 1. Half-liter or one-liter Tetra-Pak or Bottles 2. Shelf-life of three weeks without refrigeration, 5 weeks with refrigeration Target Segment: 1. Fitness Fanatics in China 2. Chinese Sportsmen 3. Chinese Urban and Middle class History of China The history of China can be broadly classified into six sub-headings
  6. 6. Cultural Analysis of China 1. Pre-historical China Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest hominids in China date from 250,000 to 2.24 million years ago. The earliest evidence of a fully modern human in China comes from Liujiang County, Guangxi, where a cranium has been found and dated at approximately 67,000 years old. 2. Early Dynastic Rule The Zhou Dynasty (1046-256 BC) is also known as the Iron age of China. The Spring and Autumn Period (722-476 BC) is famous for the founding of Confucianism and Taoism. 3. Imperial China The building of the Great Wall of China began in this period with the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC) and was later augmented and enhanced during the Ming Dynasty (AD 1368–1644). The major contributions of the Qin include the concept of a centralized government, the unification of the legal code, development of the written language, measurement, and currency of China after the tribulations of the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods. The subsequent Han Dynasty ruled China between 206 BC and 220 AD, and created a lasting Han cultural identity among its populace that extends to the present day. The Han Dynasty expanded the empire's territory considerably with military campaigns reaching Korea, Vietnam, Mongolia and Central Asia, and also helped establish the Silk Road in Central Asia. China was for a large part of the last two millennia the world's largest economy. In 1271, the Mongol leader and fifth Khagan of the Mongol Empire Kublai Khan established the Yuan Dynasty, with the last remnant of the Song Dynasty falling to the Yuan in 1279. Under the Ming Dynasty (AD 1368–1644), China had another golden age, with one of the strongest navies in the world, a rich and prosperous economy and a flourishing of the arts and culture. However, in the later part of the Qing Dynasty (AD 1644–1911), China's economic development began to slow and Europe's rapid development during and after the Industrial Revolution enabled it to surpass China. 4. Late Dynastic Rule The Qing Dynasty, which lasted until 1912, was the last dynasty in China. At this time China awoke to the significance of the rest of the world, the West in particular. As China opened up to foreign trade and missionary activity, opium produced by British India was forced onto Qing China. Two Opium Wars with Britain weakened the Emperor's control. The Arrow War (1856– 1860) [2nd Opium War] saw another disastrous defeat for China. The subsequent passing of the humiliating Treaty of Tianjin in 1856 and the Beijing Conventions of 1860 opened up more of the country to foreign penetrations and more ports for their vessels. Hong Kong was ceded over to the British. Thus, the "unequal treaties system" was established. Heavy indemnities had to be paid by China, and more territory and control were taken over by the foreigners. 5. Republic of China (1912-1949) Chinese domestic industries developed rapidly in 1911, despite turmoil in Chinese politics. Development of these industries peaked during World War I, which saw a great increase in demand for Chinese goods, which benefitted China's industries. In addition, imports to China
  7. 7. Cultural Analysis of China fell drastically after total war broke out in Europe. For example, China's textile industry had 482,192 needle machines in 1913, while by 1918 (the end of the war) that number had gone up to 647,570. The number increased even faster to 1,248,282 by 1921. In addition, bread factories went up from 57 to 131. Chinese industries continue to develop in the 1930s with the advent of the Nanking decade in the 1930s, when Chiang Kai-shek unified most of the country and brought political stability. China's industries developed and grew from 1927 to 1931. Though badly hit by the Great Depression from 1931 to 1935 and Japan's occupation of Manchuria in 1931, industrial output recovered by 1936. By 1936, industrial output had recovered and surpassed its previous peak in 1931 prior to the Great Depression's effects on China. 6. Modern China (1949 onwards) Major combat in the Chinese Civil War ended in 1949 with the Communist Party of China in control of mainland China, and the Kuomintang (KMT) retreating to Taiwan, reducing the ROC territory to only Taiwan and surrounding islands. On 1 October 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the People's Republic of China. The economic and social plan known as the Great Leap Forward resulted in an estimated 45 million deaths. In 1966, Mao and his allies launched the Cultural Revolution, which would last until Mao's death a decade later. The Cultural Revolution led to a major upheaval in Chinese society. After Mao's death in 1976 and the arrest of the Gang of Four, blamed for the excesses of the Cultural Revolution, Deng Xiaoping quickly wrested power from Mao's anointed successor Hua Guofeng. The Communist Party subsequently loosened governmental control over citizens' personal lives and the communes were disbanded with many peasants receiving multiple land leases, which greatly increased incentives and agricultural production. This turn of events marked China's transition from a planned economy to a mixed economy with an increasingly open market environment, a system termed by some "market socialism", and officially by the Communist Party of China "Socialism with Chinese characteristics" The death of pro-reform official Hu Yaobang helped to spark the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, during which students and others campaigned for several months, speaking out against corruption and in favour of greater political reform, including democratic rights and freedom of speech. However, they were eventually put down on 4 June when PLA troops and vehicles entered and forcibly cleared the square, resulting in numerous casualties. This event was widely reported and brought worldwide condemnation and sanctions against the government.[62][63] The "Tank Man" incident in particular became famous. CPC General Secretary, President Jiang Zemin and Premier Zhu Rongji, both former mayors of Shanghai, led the post-Tiananmen PRC in the 1990s. Under Jiang and Zhu's ten years of administration, the PRC's economic performance pulled an estimated 150 million peasants out of poverty and sustained an average annual gross domestic product growth rate of 11.2%.The country formally joined the World Trade Organization in 2001.
  8. 8. Cultural Analysis of China Geographical Setting Location The territory of China lies between latitudes 18° and 54° N, and longitudes 73° and 135° E. The People's Republic of China is the second-largest country in the world by land area after Russia and is either the third- or fourth-largest by total area, after Russia, Canada and, depending on the definition of total area, the United States. China's total area is generally stated as approximately 9,600,000 km2 (3,700,000 sq mi). China has the longest land borders in the world, and it borders 14 nations, more than any other country except Russia, which also borders 14. China extends across much of the East Asian continent bordering Vietnam, Laos, and Burma in Southeast Asia; India, Bhutan, Nepal and Pakistan in South Asia; Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan in Central Asia; a small section of Russian Altai and Mongolia in Inner Asia; and the Russian Far East and North Korea in Northeast Asia. China shares maritime boundaries with South Korea, Japan, Vietnam and the Phillippines. Climate China's climate is mainly dominated by dry seasons and wet monsoons, which lead to a pronounced temperature differences between winter and summer. In the winter, northern winds coming from high- altitude areas are cold and dry; in summer, southern winds from coastal areas at lower altitudes are warm and moist. The climate in China differs from region to region because of the country's extensive and complex topography.
  9. 9. Cultural Analysis of China Topography The country's vast size gives it a wide variety of landscapes. In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, there are extensive and densely populated alluvial plains, while on the edges of the Inner Mongolian plateau in the north, broad grasslands are visible. Southern China is dominated by hill country and low mountain ranges, while the central-east hosts the deltas of China's two major rivers, the Yellow River and the Yangtze River. Other major rivers include the Xi, Mekong, Brahmaputra and Amur. To the west, major mountain ranges, most notably the Himalayas, and high plateaus feature among the more arid landscapes of the north, such as the Taklamakan and the Gobi Desert. China's highest point, Mt. Everest (8848m), lies on the Sino-Nepalese border. The country's lowest point is the dried lake bed of Ayding Lake (-154m) in the Turpan Depression. A major environmental issue in China is the continued expansion of its deserts, particularly the Gobi Desert, which is currently the world's fifth- largest desert. According to China's environmental watchdog, Sepa, China is losing a million acres (4,000 km²) per year to desertification. Melting glaciers in the Himalayas could potentially lead to water shortages for hundreds of millions of people.
  10. 10. Cultural Analysis of China Social Institutions Family Average Household Size: 3.10 Total Households: 401,520,000 Family Households: 340,491,197 (96.9%) Collective households: 10,742,501 (3.1%) Beginning in the mid-1950s, the Chinese government introduced, with varying degrees of success, a number of family planning, or population control, campaigns and programs. China's fast-growing population was a major policy matter for its leaders in the mid-twentieth century, so that in the early 1970s, the government implemented the stringent one-child policy (publicly announced in 1979). Under this policy, which had different guidelines for national minorities, married couples were officially permitted only one child. As a result of the policy, China successfully achieved its goal of a more stable and much-reduced fertility rate; in 2010 women had an average of 1.54 children versus an estimated 5.4 children in 1971. Census Population %± 1953 582,603,417 — 1964 694,581,759 19.2% 1982 1,008,175,288 45.1% 1990 1,133,682,501 12.4% 2000 1,265,830,000 11.7% 2010 1,339,724,852 5.8%
  11. 11. Cultural Analysis of China China now has an increasingly aging population; it is projected that 11.8% of the population in 2020 will be 65 years of age and older. The age structure in China as of 2011 is: 0–14 years: 16.60% 15–64 years: 72.1% (male 495,724,889/female 469,182,087) The difference between the Chinese family and the Western family is that the average Chinese family is much bigger than the Western family and the proportion of the families consisting of more than two generations in China is much higher than in western Society. The nuclear family Since the “Great Leap Forward” plan of 1949, industrialization took off and the nuclear family, consisting of only of parents and their growing children has predominated. Families and children reaching adulthood are more mobile and tend to relocate to where jobs exist. The extended family In pre-industrial era, i.e. 1911-1949, the families were extended families where many generations remained in the same location for generations. Dynamics of the family The teaching of Confucius (551 BCE – 479 BCE) taught of five basic relationships in life: Father to son Elder brother to younger brother Husband to Wife Friend to Friend Ruler to structure Parental Roles Filiation has been one of the cornerstones of Chinese society and it is still highly valued. It includes not only respect for older generations but also the responsibility of children to take care of their parents. It is not only a moral and social obligation, but also mandated by law. Almost 80% of the old parents are economically dependent on their children. In three generation families, the grandparents may perform the housework and take care of their grandchildren, or may work in the fields or in the business if they are still active, whereas middle generation couples usually work outside the home.
  12. 12. Cultural Analysis of China Marriage and Courtship Chinese marriage is a ceremonial ritual within Chinese societies that involve a marriage established by pre-arrangement between families. Within Chinese culture, romantic love was allowed, and monogamy was the norm for most ordinary citizens. Since 1980, the age of marriage has fallen. This is mainly due to administrative decentralization, which has lessened government control over the age of marriage. Before that the government encouraged and persuaded unmarried couples to postpone marriages, because raising a child required a significant portion of the family income. After reaching a peak of 23 odd in 1980, currently the marriage has fallen to a little below 21 for the women. Religious beliefs in China strongly oppose remarriage, so remarriage rates are very low. Marriage rate: 6.3/1,000 population (2006) Divorce rate: 1.0/1,000 population (2006) Female/Male Roles According to the 2010 census, males account for 51.27 percent of China's 1.34 billion people, while females made up 48.73 percent of the total. Surveys show that a large majority of the women were living or had lived with their husbands’ parents (60%-81%) and a small proportion of women were living or had lived with their own parents after marriage (3%-12%) Education Role of education in Society Education in the People's Republic of China is a state-run system of public education run by the Ministry of Education. All citizens must attend school for at least nine years. The Law on Nine-Year Compulsory Education, which took effect on July 1, 1986, established requirements and deadlines for attaining universal education tailored to local conditions and guaranteed school-age children the right to receive at least nine years of education (six year primary education and three years secondary education). The government provides primary education for six years, starting at age six or seven, followed by six years
  13. 13. Cultural Analysis of China of secondary education for ages 12 to 18. China has had a major expansion in education, increasing the number of undergraduates and people who hold doctoral degrees fivefold in 10 years. Chinese spending has grown by 20% per year since 1999, now reaching over $100bn, and as many as 1.5 million science and engineering students graduated from Chinese universities in 2006. Educational Stages in China Typical Age Education Levels Compulsory 18-22 University or college Varies No 15-18 Senior high school (middle school) or Vocational school Grades 10-12 No 12-14 Junior middle school Grades 7-9 Yes 6-11 Primary school Grades 1-6 Yes Preschool Education Preschool education, which began at age three, was another target of education reform in 1985. Preschool facilities were to be established in buildings made available by public enterprises, production teams, municipal authorities, local groups, and families. The government announced that it depended on individual organizations to sponsor their own preschool education and that preschool education was to become a part of the welfare services of various government organizations, institutes, and state- and collectively operated enterprises. Primary Education In 1985 about 96 percent of primary school age children were enrolled in approximately 832,300 primary schools. Under the Law on Nine-Year Compulsory Education, primary schools were to be tuition- free and reasonably located for the convenience of children attending them; students would attend primary schools in their neighborhoods or villages. Parents paid a small fee per term for books and other expenses such as transportation, food, and heating. Previously, fees were not considered a deterrent to attendance. Under the education reform, students from poor families received stipends, and state enterprises, institutions, and other sectors of society were encouraged to establish their own schools. The primary-school curriculum consisted of Chinese, mathematics, physical education, music, drawing, and elementary instruction in nature, history, and geography, combined with practical work experiences around the school compound. A general knowledge of politics and moral training, which stressed love of the motherland, love of the party, and love of the people (and previously love of Chairman Mao), was another part of the curriculum. A foreign language, often English, is introduced in about the third grade. Chinese and mathematics accounted for about 60 percent of the scheduled class time; natural science and social science accounted for about 8 percent. Students are always organized into groups so that
  14. 14. Cultural Analysis of China they can learn cooperation skills. To encourage responsibility, there are no janitors in Chinese schools. Rather, it is the student's job to take care of the inside of the schools by cleaning it. Secondary Education 1. Junior Secondary – Junior secondary education is more commonly known as (junior) middle school education, it consists the last three years of nine years compulsory education. 2. Senior secondary – Senior secondary education often refers to three years high school (or called senior middle school) education, as from grade 10 to grade 12. Normally, students who have finished six years of primary education will continue three more years of academic study in middle schools as regulated by the Compulsory education law at the age of twelve. This, however, is not compulsory for senior secondary education, where junior graduates may choose to continue a three-year academic education in academic high schools, which will eventually lead to university, or to switch to a vocational course in vocational high schools. High School Education Generally, high school years usually have two semesters, starting in September and February. In some rural areas, operation may subject to agricultural cycles. Number of lessons offered by school on a weekly basis is very subjective, largely depends on the school's resource. In addition to normal lessons, periods for private study and extracurricular activity are provided as well. The academic curriculum consists of Chinese, Mathematics, English, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geography, History, politics, Music, Fine Arts, PE, Technology, Computing etc. Some schools may also offer vocational subjects. Generally speaking, Chinese, Mathematics and English are considered as three main subjects. In China, a senior high school graduate will be considered as an educated person, although the majority graduates will go onto universities or vocational colleges. Given the fact that the intensity of the competition for limited university places is unimaginable, most high schools are evaluated by their academic performance in “Gao-kao” by parents and students. The National Higher Education Entrance Examination, or commonly known as “Gao-Kao”, is an academic examination held annually in the mainland of the People's Republic of China. 'Zhongkao', the Senior Secondary Education Entrance Examination, is the academic examination held annually in China to distinguish junior graduates. Higher Education According to 2003 census data, there are more than 20 million undergraduates and post graduates studying in approximately 2000 institutions. The gross rate of enrollment in schools of higher learning reached 19 percent. Postgraduate education is the fastest growing sector, with 24.1 percent more students recruited and 25.9 percent more researchers than the year before. This enrollment growth indicates that China has entered the stage of popular education. The UNESCO world higher education report of June 2003 pointed out that the student population of China's schools of higher learning had doubled in a very short period of time, and was the world's largest. Between 1999 and 2003, enrollment in higher education increased from 1.6 million to 3.82 million. In 2004, the total enrollment in ordinary schools of higher learning was 4.473 million, 651,000 more than
  15. 15. Cultural Analysis of China in 2003. Schools of higher learning and research institutes enrolled 326,000 postgraduate students, 57,000 more than the previous year. In 2010 China is expecting 6.3 million students to graduate from College or University, with 63% likely to enter the work force. Literacy Rates Total – 95.92% (2010 census) Men – 95.1% (2000 census) Women –86.5% (2000 census) Political System The Communist Party of China (CPC), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Although nominally it exists alongside the United Front, in practice, the CPC is the only party of the PRC, maintaining a unitary government centralizing the state, military, and media. The legal power of the Communist Party is guaranteed by the PRC constitution. The CPC is the world's largest political party,[11] claiming over 80 million members[12] at the end of 2010 which constitutes about 6.0% of the total population of mainland China. Political Structure
  16. 16. Cultural Analysis of China Theoretically, the party's highest body is the National Congress of the Communist Party of China, which meets at least once every five years. The primary organs of power in the Communist Party which is detailed in the party constitution include: Central Committee, which includes: The General Secretary, which is the highest ranking official within the Party and usually the Chinese paramount leader. The Politburo, consisting of 24 full members (including the members of the Politburo Standing Committee) and one alternate; see current members of the Politburo for a complete list. The Politburo Standing Committee, which currently consists of nine members; see current members of the Politburo Standing Committee for a complete list. The Secretariat, the principal administrative mechanism of the CPC, headed by the General Secretary of the Central Committee; The Central Military Commission (a parallel organization of the government institution of the same name); The Central Discipline Inspection Commission, which is directly under the National Congress and on the same level with the Central Committee, charged with rooting out corruption and malfeasance among party cadres. Political Parties China is a single party state. But, political theorists have identified two groupings within the Communist Party leading to a structure which has been called "one party, two factions". The first is the "elitist coalition" or Shanghai clique which contains mainly officials who have risen from the more prosperous provinces. The second is the "populist coalition", the core of which are the tuanpai, or the "Youth League faction" which consists mainly of officials who have risen from the rural interior, through the Communist Youth League. Stability of the government The CPC has its origins in the May Fourth Movement of 1919, where radical political systems like anarchism and Communism gained traction among Chinese intellectuals. The CPC's ideologies have significantly evolved since its founding and establishing political power in 1949. Mao's revolution that founded the PRC was nominally based on Marxism-Leninism with a rural focus based on China's social situations at the time. During the 1960s and 1970s, the CPC experienced a significant ideological
  17. 17. Cultural Analysis of China breakdown with the Communist Party of the Soviet Union under Nikita Khrushchev, and later, Leonid Brezhnev. Since then Mao's peasant revolutionary vision and so-called "continued revolution under the dictatorship of the proletariat" stipulated that class enemies continued to exist even though the socialist revolution seemed to be complete, giving way to the Cultural Revolution. This fusion of ideas became known officially as "Mao Zedong Thought", or Maoism outside of China. Following the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, however, the CPC under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping moved towards Socialism with Chinese characteristics and instituted Chinese economic reform. In reversing some of Mao's "extreme-leftist" policies, Deng argued that a socialist country and the market economy model were not mutually exclusive. While asserting the political power of the Party itself, the change in policy generated significant economic growth. The "third generation" of leadership under Jiang Zemin, Zhu Rongji, and associates largely continued Deng's progressive economic vision while overseeing the re-emergence of Chinese nationalism in the 1990s. Nationalist sentiment has seemingly also evolved to become informally the part of the Party's guiding doctrine. The insistent road of focusing almost exclusively on economic growth has led to a wide range of serious social problems. The CPC's "fourth generation" of leadership under Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao, after taking power in 2003, attempted reversing such a trend by bringing forth an integrated ideology that tackled both social and economic concerns. This new ideology was known as the creation of a Harmonious Society using the Scientific Development Concept. Hu Jintao has been the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China since 2002. Special Taxes Customs Duties 1. Duty payers – The payers of Customs Duties include consignees who import goods permitted by China and consignors who export goods permitted by China 2. Tariff Rates – The tariff rates include import duty rates and export duty rates. The tariff rates for imports fall into two categories; general tariff rates and preferential tariff rates. The general tariff rates apply to the imports originating in the countries with which the People's Republic of China has not concluded most-favoured-nation trade agreements; the preferential tariff rates apply to imports originating in the countries with which the People's Republic of China has concluded most-favoured-nation trade agreements. There are 36 tariff numbers for exported goods subject to Duties with 5 differential rates ranging from 20% to 50%. The preferential tariff rates vary from 0% , 1 % to 121.6% with over 50 different rates, and the arithmetic average rate is 16.8%. 3. The following goods may be exempted from Customs Duties upon verification by the Customs: a. The duty amount to be paid for one consignment of goods below RMB 10 yuan b. Advertising matter and trade samples of no commercial value c. Goods gifted by international organizations or foreign governments
  18. 18. Cultural Analysis of China d. Fuels, stores and beverages loaded on a means of conveyance entering or leaving the country for use en route. 4. Raw materials, subsidiary materials parts, accessories, components and packing materials imported for overseas businesses to process, assemble or produce export-oriented products shall be exempt from duties on the part of actually processed and exported; or duties are collected first on the imported materials and parts and then refunded on the basis of the completed products actually processed and exported. Business Tax 1. Tax payers – Taxpayers of Business Tax include all enterprises, units, household businesses and other individuals engaged in provision of taxable services, transfer of intangible assets or in sales of immovable properties within the territory 2. Tax Rates – The average tax rate is around 4% to 5% Enterprise Income Tax 1. Taxpayers – state-owned enterprise, collective enterprise, private enterprise, joint operation enterprise, joint equity enterprise, and other organizations. 2. Tax Base – The taxpayers' worldwide income from production and business operations and from other sources shall be subject to Enterprise Income Tax according to law. 3. Tax Rates – the amount of Enterprise Income Tax payable is computed on the basis of the taxable income and by applying the rate of 25%. a. There are various tax incentives which may reduce the Enterprise Income Tax Rates to 15% and provide tax holiday. Legal System For most of the history of China, its legal system has been based on the Confucian philosophy of social control through moral education, as well as the Legalist emphasis on codified law and criminal sanction. Following the Revolution of 1911, the Republic of China adopted a largely Western-style legal code in the civil law tradition (specifically German-influenced). The establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949 brought with it a more Soviet-influenced system of socialist law. The introduction and translation of Western legal texts into Chinese is believed to have been started under the auspices of Lin Zexu in 1839. Attitudes toward the traditional Chinese legal system changed markedly in the late-20th century. Most Chinese and Westerners of the early 20th century regarded the traditional Chinese legal system as backward and barbaric. However, extensive research into China's traditional legal system has caused attitudes to become more favorable in the late-20th and early 21st centuries.
  19. 19. Cultural Analysis of China Organization of the judiciary system The Constitution provides that the NPC is the supreme organ of state power over a structure of other people’s congresses at various levels. The NPC has power to amend the Constitution by a two-thirds majority, promulgate legislation, elect and remove highest-level officials, determine the budget, and control economic and social development planning. The NPC also includes a Standing Committee that functions much as the NPC does when the NPC is not in session. The NPC sits at the highest level in the hierarchy of governmental structure in the PRC. This national level is followed in descending order by the provincial level (including autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the national level), the prefectural level, the county level, and the townships and towns level. Government members at the lower two levels are directly elected, and those at the higher levels are elected by the lower levels. In addition to the NPC, the provincial people’s congresses possess legislative power and can pass laws so long as they do not contravene the Constitution or higher legislation or administrative regulations. The Constitution states its own supremacy. However, it has been theorized that the supremacy of the Communist Party means that the Constitution and law are not supreme, and that this perspective is the result of the Marxist view of law as simply a superstructure combined with a lack of recognition of rule of law in philosophical or historical tradition. Although the Constitution provides for legislative, executive, judicial, and pro-curatorial powers, they are all still subject to Communist Party leadership.
  20. 20. Cultural Analysis of China Defects in the Chinese Law 1. First, the National People’s Congress is ineffective at executing its constitutional duty to legislate and supervise the government. 2. Second, the Chinese Constitution is not treated as the supreme law, nor is it enforced. 3. Third, the judiciary is not independent from political pressure. On the other hand, direct intervention in particular cases by the CCP has lessened in recent years, as has the direct influence of the CCP on the legislative process. 4. Fourth, there is a high level of corruption among public officials. Personal favors, bribery, and taking of public monies are all too common at all levels of government. 5. Finally, the legal profession is inadequate for lack of qualified attorneys and judges. This failure is being remedied by legislation aimed at instituting higher educational standards for judges, opening more courts and law schools throughout China. Participation in patents, trademarks and other conventions Domestically, protection of intellectual property law has also been established by government legislation, administrative regulations, and decrees in the areas of trademark, copyright and patent. This has led to the creation of a comprehensive legal framework to protect both local and foreign intellectual property. Despite this, copyright violations are common in the PRC, and intellectual property violations are committed by prominent members of the automotive and electronics industries. Trademark Law The Trademark Law of the People's Republic of China sets out general guidelines on administration of trademarks, protection of trademark owners' exclusive rights and maintenance of quality of products or services bearing the registered trademarks, "with a view to protecting consumer interests and to promoting the development of the socialist commodity economy." Copyright Law Copyright law is mainly governed by the Copyright Law of the PRC and the Implementing Rules for the Copyright Law of the PRC, the Copyright Law of the PRC adopted and promulgated in 1990 and the "Implementing Rules" adopted in 1991 and revised in 2002. In most cases the copyright term is the life of the author plus 50 years, but for cinematographic and photographic works and works created by a company or organization the term is 50 years after first publication. The Berne Convention does not require copyright registration, and thus protection in the PRC technically doesn't require registration. However, registering copyrights for literary works can avoid, or at least simplify, ownership disputes. Copyright registration cost is 300 RMB. On the downside, the copyright registration process requires the registrant to disclose detailed information, including software source code, which companies might be reluctant to share. Patent Law The PRC passed the Patent Law of the PRC to encourage invention-creation and to promote the development of science and technology. The subsequent Implementing Regulations of the Patent Law of
  21. 21. Cultural Analysis of China the PRC added clarification. Patents must be registered to receive legal protection. This must be done through an authorized Chinese patent agency, appointed by the State Intellectual Property Office. Other legislations include the Regulations on Customs Protection of Intellectual Property Rights (1995) and the Law Against Unfair Competition of the PRC (1993). The latter prohibited the passing off of registered trademarks, infringing trade secrets, the illegal use of well-known goods or names of other people, as well as other misleading and deceptive conduct. The Advertising Law of the PRC was passed in 1994 to prohibit the unfair, misleading and deceptive conduct involving patent advertising or other advertising activities in general. Social Organizations In its radical phases, revolutions such as the Great Leap Forward (1958–60) and the Cultural Revolution (1966–76) aimed at nothing less than the complete transformation of everything from the practice of medicine, to higher education, to family life. Group Behavior In general, the Chinese are a collective society with a need for group affiliation, whether to their family, school, work group, or country. In order to maintain a sense of harmony, they will act with decorum at all times and will not do anything to cause someone else public embarrassment. They are willing to subjugate their own feelings for the good of the group. This is often observed by the use of silence in very structured meetings. If someone disagrees with what another person says, rather than disagree publicly, the person will remain quiet. This gives face to the other person, while speaking up would make both parties lose face. Since the Chinese strive for harmony and are group dependent, they rely on facial expression, tone of voice and posture to tell them what someone feels. Frowning while someone is speaking is interpreted as a sign of disagreement. Therefore, most Chinese maintain an impassive expression when speaking. It is considered disrespectful to stare into another person's eyes. In crowded situations the Chinese avoid eye contact to give themselves privacy. Social Classes Traditional thought accepted social stratification as natural and considered most social groups to be organized on hierarchical principles. In the ideal Confucian scheme of social stratification, scholars were at the highest level of society, followed by farmers, then by artisans, with merchants and soldiers in last place. In society at large, the highest and most prestigious positions were those of political generalists, such as members of the emperor's council or provincial governors. Experts such as physicians ranked below the ruling political generalists. Although commerce has been a major element of Chinese life since the early imperial period, and wealthy merchants have been major figures in Chinese cities, Confucianists disparaged merchants. Commercial success never won respect, and wealth based on commerce was subject to official taxes, fees, and even confiscation. Confucian ideology derogated military skill. Common soldiers occupied a low position in society and were recruited from its lowest ranks.
  22. 22. Cultural Analysis of China The basic pattern of contemporary society was established by 1960, and all changes since then, including the reforms of the early and mid-1980s, have represented only modifications and adjustments to the pattern. The pattern is cellular; most people belong to one large, all-embracing unit, such as a factory, government office, or village. The unit is run by party branch, operates (or should operate) under common administrative rules and procedures, and reflects the current policies of the party. The consequence has been that most aspects of social differentiation, stratification, mobility, and tensions are now played out within an institutional framework. Most of the questions about any individual's life and prospects could be answered by specifying the unit—the social cell—with which that individual was associated. Race, ethnicity and subcultures Ethnic Groups Today there are 56 distinct recognized ethnic groups in China. In terms of numbers however, the pre- eminent ethnic group is the Han Chinese. Throughout history, many groups have been assimilated into neighboring ethnicities or disappeared without a trace. At the same time, many within the Han identity have maintained distinct linguistic and regional cultural traditions. Much of the traditional cultural identity within the community has to do with distinguishing the family name. Large ethnic minorities (data according to the 2000 census) include the Zhuang (16 million, 1.28%), Manchu (10 million, 0.84%), Uyghur (9 million, 0.78%), Hui (9 million, 0.71%), Miao (8 million, 0.71%), Yi (7 million, 0.61%), Tujia (5.75 million, 0.63%), Mongols (5 million, 0.46%), Tibetan (5 million, 0.43%), Buyi (3 million, 0.23%), and Korean (2 million, 0.15%). Regional Subcultures Traditional Chinese Culture covers large geographical territories, where each region is usually divided into distinct sub-cultures. Each region is often represented by three ancestral items. For example Guangdong is represented by chenpi, aged ginger and hay. Others include ancient cities like Lin'an (Hangzhou), which include tea leaf, bamboo shoot trunk and hickory nut. Business Customs and Practices Relationships & Communication The Chinese don't like doing business with companies they don't know, so working through an intermediary is crucial. This could be an individual or an organization who can make a formal introduction and vouch for the reliability of your company. Before arriving in China send materials (written in Chinese) that describe your company, its history, and literature about your products and services. The Chinese often use intermediaries to ask questions that they would prefer not to make directly. Business relationships are built formally after the Chinese get to know you. Be very patient. It takes a considerable amount of time and is bound up with enormous bureaucracy.
  23. 23. Cultural Analysis of China The Chinese see foreigners as representatives of their company rather than as individuals. Rank is extremely important in business relationships and you must keep rank differences in mind when communicating. Gender bias is nonexistent in business. Never lose sight of the fact that communication is official, especially in dealing with someone of higher rank. Treating them too informally, especially in front of their peers, may well ruin a potential deal. The Chinese prefer face-to-face meetings rather than written or telephonic communication. Meals and social events are not the place for business discussions. There is a demarcation between business and socializing in China, so try to be careful not to intertwine the two. Business Meeting Etiquette Appointments are necessary and, if possible, should be made between one-to-two months in advance, preferably in writing. If you do not have a contact within the company, use an intermediary to arrange a formal introduction. Once the introduction has been made, you should provide the company with information about your company and what you want to accomplish at the meeting. You should arrive at meetings on time or slightly early. The Chinese view punctuality as a virtue. Arriving late is an insult and could negatively affect your relationship Pay great attention to the agenda as each Chinese participant has his or her own agenda that they will attempt to introduce. Send an agenda before the meeting so your Chinese colleagues have the chance to meet with any technical experts prior to the meeting. Discuss the agenda with your translator/intermediary prior to submission. Each participant will take an opportunity to dominate the floor for lengthy periods without appearing to say very much of anything that actually contributes to the meeting. Be patient and listen. There could be subtle messages being transmitted that would assist you in allaying fears of on-going association. Meetings require patience. Mobile phones ring frequently and conversations tend to be boisterous. Never ask the Chinese to turn off their mobile phones as this causes you both to lose face. Guests are generally escorted to their seats, which are in descending order of rank. Senior people generally sit opposite senior people from the other side. It is imperative that you bring your own interpreter, especially if you plan to discuss legal or extremely technical concepts as you can brief the interpreter prior to the meeting. Written material should be available in both English and Chinese, using simplified characters. Be very careful about what is written. Make absolutely certain that written translations are accurate and cannot be misinterpreted.
  24. 24. Cultural Analysis of China Visual aids are useful in large meetings and should only be done with black type on white background. Colours have special meanings and if you are not careful, your colour choice could work against you. Presentations should be detailed and factual and focus on long-term benefits. Be prepared for the presentation to be a challenge. Business Negotiation Only senior members of the negotiating team will speak. Designate the most senior person in your group as your spokesman for the introductory functions. Business negotiations occur at a slow pace. Be prepared for the agenda to become a jumping off point for other discussions. Chinese are non-confrontational. They will not overtly say 'no', they will say 'they will think about it' or 'they will see'. Chinese negotiations are process oriented. They want to determine if relationships can develop to a stage where both parties are comfortable doing business with the other. Decisions may take a long time, as they require careful review and consideration. Under no circumstances should you lose your temper or you will lose face and irrevocably damage your relationship. Do not use high-pressure tactics. You might find yourself outmanoeuvred. Business is hierarchical. Decisions are unlikely to be made during the meetings you attend. The Chinese are shrewd negotiators. Your starting price should leave room for negotiation. What to Wear? Business attire is conservative and unpretentious. Men should wear dark coloured, conservative business suits. Women should wear conservative business suits or dresses with a high neckline. Women should wear flat shoes or shoes with very low heels. Bright colours should be avoided. Business Cards Business cards are exchanged after the initial introduction. Have one side of your business card translated into Chinese using simplified Chinese characters that are printed in gold ink since gold is an auspicious colour. Your business card should include your title. If your company is the oldest or largest in your country, that fact should be on your card as well. Hold the card in both hands when offering it, Chinese side facing the recipient. Examine a business card before putting it on the table next to you or in a business card case. Never write on someone's card unless so directed.
  25. 25. Cultural Analysis of China Religion and Aesthetics Religion and other belief systems Communist governments often suppress religious freedom and officially (often forcibly) endorse atheism. Due to this the relation between the Government and religions was not smooth in the past. In recent years, the Chinese government has opened up to religion, especially traditional religions such as Mahayana Buddhism, Taoism and Shenism because the Government also continued to emphasize the role of religion in building a "Harmonious Society," which was a positive development with regard to the Government's respect for religious freedom. The Chinese religions are family-oriented and do not demand the exclusive adherence of members. Some scholars doubt the use of the term "religion" in reference to Buddhism and Taoism, and suggest "cultural practices" or "thought systems" as more appropriate names. Generally, the percentage of people who call themselves religious in China has been among the lowest in the world. Buddhism remains a main popular religion in China since its introduction in the 1st century; the largest group of religious traditions is however that of Chinese folk religion or "Shenism", a term coined by A.J. Elliot, which he used to collectively name Chinese folk religions, as the ethnic religion of the Hans, which encompasses Taoism, and the worship of the shens, a collection of various local ethnic deities, heroes and ancestors, and figures from Chinese mythology, among which the most popular ones in recent years have been Mazu (goddess of the seas, patron of Southern China), Huangdi (divine patriarch of all the Chinese, "Volksgeist" of the Chinese nation), the Black Dragon, Caishen (god of prosperity and richness), and others. Various new religious movements, both indigenous and exogenous, are scattered across the country. Confucianism as a religion is popular among intellectuals. Orthodox doctrines and structures Confucianism stresses duty, sincerity, loyalty, honour, filial piety, respect for age and seniority. Through maintaining harmonious relations as individuals, society itself becomes stable. Membership of each religion Nowadays Shenism-Taoism and Buddhism are the largest religions in China with respectively over 30% (of which 160 million, or 11% of the total population of the country, are Mazuists) and 18-20% of the population adhering to them, thriving throughout the country as the government is allowing them to spread. Almost 10% of the population is composed of those regarded as non-Han ethnicities who following their traditional tribal religions. Christians are 3-4% of the population according to various detailed surveys, although American press states there might be more due to the house church movement Muslims are 1-2%. The remaining section of the population, ranging between 40% and 60%, is mostly agnostic or non-religious Purely atheists are 14-15%.
  26. 26. Cultural Analysis of China Aesthetics Literature Chinese literature began with record keeping and divination on Oracle Bones. The extensive collection of books that have been preserved since the Zhou Dynasty demonstrate just how advanced the intellectuals were at one time. Indeed, the era of the Zhou Dynasty is often looked to as the touchstone of Chinese cultural development. The Five Cardinal Points are the foundation for almost all major studies. Concepts covered within the Chinese classic texts present a wide range of subjects including poetry, astrology, astronomy, calendar, constellations and many others. Some of the most important early texts include I Ching and Shujing within the Four Books and Five Classics. Many Chinese concepts such as Yin and Yang, Qi, Four Pillars of Destiny in relation to heaven and earth were all theorized in the dynastic periods. The Song Dynasty was also a period of great scientific literature, and saw the creation of works such as Su Song's Xin Yixiang Fayao and Shen Kuo's Dream Pool Essays. There were also enormous works of historiography and large encyclopedias, such as Sima Guang's Zizhi Tongjian of 1084 AD or the Four Great Books of Song fully compiled and edited by the 11th century. Notable confucianists, taoists and scholars of all classes have made significant contributions to and from documenting history to authoring saintly concepts that seem hundreds of years ahead of time. Many novels such as Four Great Classical Novels spawned countless fictional stories. By the end of the Qing Dynasty, Chinese culture would embark on a new era with written vernacular Chinese for the common citizens. Hu Shih and Lu Xun would be pioneers in modern literature.
  27. 27. Cultural Analysis of China Visual arts Chinese art encompasses all facets of fine art, folk art and performance art. Porcelain pottery was one of the first forms of art in the Palaeolithic period. Early Chinese music and poetry was influenced by the Book of Songs, and the Chinese poet and statesman Qu Yuan. Chinese painting became a highly appreciated art in court circles encompassing a wide variety of Shan shui with specialized styles such as Ming Dynasty painting. Early Chinese music was based on percussion instruments, which later gave away to stringed and reed instruments. By the Han dynasty papercutting became a new art form after the invention of paper. Chinese opera would also be introduced and branched regionally in additional to other performance formats such as variety arts. Martial arts China is one of the main birth places of Eastern martial arts. Chinese martial arts are collectively given the name Kung Fu ((gong) "achievement" or "merit", and (fu) "man", thus "human achievement") or (previously and in some modern contexts) Wushu ("martial arts" or "military arts"). China also includes the home to the well-respected Shaolin Monastery and Wudang Mountains. The first generation of art started more for the purpose of survival and warfare than art. Regardless, China has produced some of the most renowned martial artists including Wong Fei Hung and many others. The arts have also co-
  28. 28. Cultural Analysis of China existed with a variety of weapons including the more standard 18 arms. Legendary and controversial moves like Dim Mak are also praised and talked about within the culture. Architecture Chinese architecture, examples for which can be found from over 2,000 years ago, has long been a hallmark of the culture. There are certain features common to Chinese architecture, regardless of specific region or use. The most important is its emphasis on width, as the wide halls of the Forbidden City serve as an example. In contrast, Western architecture emphasize on height, though there are exceptions such as pagodas. Another important feature is symmetry, which connotes a sense of grandeur as it applies to everything from palaces to farmhouses. One notable exception is in the design of gardens, which tends to be as asymmetrical as possible. Like Chinese scroll paintings, the principle underlying the garden's composition is to create enduring flow, to let the patron wander and enjoy the garden without prescription, as in nature herself. Feng shui has played an important part in structural development.
  29. 29. Cultural Analysis of China Fashion Different social classes in different eras boast different fashion trends, the colour yellow is usually reserved for the emperor. China's fashion history covers hundreds of years with some of the most colourful and diverse arrangements. During the Qing Dynasty, China's last imperial dynasty dramatic shift of clothing occurred, the clothing of the era before the Qing Dynasty is referred to as Hanfu or traditional Han Chinese clothing. Many symbols such as phoenix have been used for decorative as well as economic purposes. Music The music of China dates back to the dawn of Chinese civilization with documents and artifacts providing evidence of a well-developed musical culture as early as the Zhou Dynasty (1122 BCE - 256 BCE). Some of the oldest written music dates back to Confucius's time. The first major well-documented flowering of Chinese music was for the qin during the Tang Dynasty, although the instrument is known to have played a major part before the Han Dynasty. There are many musical instruments that are integral to Chinese culture, such as the zheng (zither with movable bridges), qin (bridgeless zither), sheng and xiao (vertical flute), the erhu (alto fiddle or bowed lute), pipa (pear-shaped plucked lute), and many others.
  30. 30. Cultural Analysis of China Folklore and other relevant symbols YinYang In Asian philosophy, the concept of yin yang, which is often referred to in the West as "yin and yang", is used to describe how polar opposites or seemingly contrary forces are interconnected and interdependent in the natural world, and how they give rise to each other in turn. Opposites thus only exist in relation to each other. The concept lies at the origins of many branches of classical Chinese science and philosophy, as well as being a primary guideline of traditional Chinese medicine and a central principle of different forms of Chinese martial arts and exercise, such as baguazhang, taijiquan (tai chi), and qigong (Chi Kung) and of I Ching divination. Many natural dualities—e.g. dark and light, female and male, low and high, cold and hot— are thought of as manifestations of yin and yang (respectively). Wu Xing The Wu Xing, also known as the Five Phases, the Five Agents, the Five Movements, and the Five Steps/Stages, are chiefly an ancient mnemonic device, in many traditional Chinese fields. Wood (Chinese: 木, pinyin: mù) Fire (Chinese: 火, pinyin: huǒ) Earth (Chinese: 土, pinyin: tǔ) Metal (Chinese: 金, pinyin: jīn) Water (Chinese: 水, pinyin: shuǐ ) This system of five phases was used for describing interactions and relationships between phenomena.
  31. 31. Cultural Analysis of China Living Conditions Cuisine Chinese cuisine is any of several styles originating in the regions of China, some of which have become highly popular in other parts of the world – from Asia to the Americas, Australia, Western Europe and Southern Africa. The overwhelmingly large variety of Chinese cuisine comes mainly from the practice of dynastic period, when emperors would host banquets with 100 dishes per meal. A countless number of imperial kitchen staff and concubines were involved in the food preparation process. Types of Dishes 1. Poultry-based dishes 2. Pork-based dishes 3. Grain-based dishes a. Rice-based dishes – fried rice b. Noodles – noodle soup, fried noodles c. Legume-based dishes – Doufu, Mapo Doufu d. Vegetable-based dishes Typical Meals Over time, many dishes became part of the everyday-citizen culture. 1. Staple Foods a. Rice – steamed rice b. Noodles c. Soybeans – Tofu d. Wheat – Noodles, breads, dumplings and steamed buns e. Vegetables – Chinese Spinach, Chinese Cabbage f. Herbs g. Seasonings – Soy sauce, Oyster Sauce, Rice Vinegar, Fermented Tofu, Hoisin Sauce h. Desserts – served with tea and meals 2. Beverages a. Chinese Tea – with Dim Sum, black tea, Oolong tea, green tea, scented tea b. Liquor – yellow wine
  32. 32. Cultural Analysis of China c. Herbal Drinks – medicinal Chinese herbs Dining Etiquettes The Chinese prefer to entertain in public places rather than in their homes, especially when entertaining foreigners. If you are invited to their house, consider it a great honour. If you must turn down such an honour, it is considered polite to explain the conflict in your schedule so that your actions are not taken as a slight. Arrive on time. Remove your shoes before entering the house. Bring a small gift to the hostess. Eat well to demonstrate that you are enjoying the food! Table manners Wait to be told where to sit. The guest of honour will be given a seat facing the door. The host begins eating first. You should try everything that is offered to you. Never eat the last piece from the serving tray. Be observant to other peoples' needs. The host offers the first toast. Do not put bones in your bowl. Place them on the table or in a special bowl for that purpose. Hold the rice bowl close to your mouth while eating. Do not be offended if a Chinese person makes slurping or belching sounds; it merely indicates that they are enjoying their food. There are no strict rules about finishing all the food in your bowl. Chopstick Usage Etiquettes It does not matter whether you hold the chopsticks in the middle or at the end, but you should make sure that the ends are even. Chopsticks are not used to move bowls or plates. Chopsticks are not used to toy with one's food or with dishes in common. When not in use, chopsticks must always be placed neatly on the table with two sticks lying tidily next to each other at both ends. Treat chopsticks as extension of your fingers, and do not point at other people or wave chopsticks around. Do not suck the tips of chopsticks. Do not impale food with chopsticks. Do not point the chopsticks at another person. This amounts to insulting that person. Do not bang your chopsticks as though you were playing a drum. It implies you are a child, or a beggar. Do not stick chopsticks vertically in a bowl of rice; it implies the food is for the dead.
  33. 33. Cultural Analysis of China Some of the highest quality restaurants with recipes close to the dynastic periods include Fangshan restaurant in Beihai Park Beijing and the Oriole Pavilion. Arguably all branches of Hong Kong eastern style or even American Chinese food are in some ways rooted from the original dynastic cuisines. Malnutrition rates Though China has uplifted a huge number of people out of poverty, many social issues still remain unsolved. One of them is malnutrition among rural children in China. The problem has diminished but still remains a pertinent national issue. The stunting rate among children in China was 22 percent and was as high as 46 percent in poor provinces. A survey conducted by China’s Ministry of Health showed the kind of food consumed by rural households. 30 percent consume meat less than once a month. 23 percent consume rice or egg less than once a month. Up to 81 percent consume less than one cup of dairy products a week. Dairy products and eggs provide essential nutrients that are important for a child’s physical development. Housing The Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development is a ministry of the government of the People's Republic of China which provides housing and regulates the state construction activities in the country. As part of US$586 billion economic stimulus package of November 2008, the government plans to: 1. Housing – Increase the construction of more affordable and low-rent housing and the speeding up of slum demolition, to initiate a pilot program to rebuild rural homes, and a program to encourage nomads to move into permanent housing. 2. Rural infrastructure – Improve roads and power grids in the countryside, and drinking water, including a huge project to divert water from the South to the North of China. Also, poverty relief initiatives will be strengthened. Urban Planning Urban Planning in China or The People's Republic of China is currently characterized by a top down approach, high density urban development and extensive urbanization. Types of Cities by Urban Planning Morphologies Over the years, urban planning philosophies and practices have represented a divergence from traditional Chinese urban planning morphologies. They are: 1. Traditional City – walled cities, for example, Xi'an and Beijing's Forbidden City. Traditional cities, were planned in a manner similar to that of present day, was they were also directly affected by the philosophies, governance and economies of their time. Traditional cities are often planned in accordance with archaic concepts of geomancy, Feng-shui, I-Ching. The Rites of Zhou dating to approximately (1100–256 BC) serve to emphasize the importance of such philosophies, the cardinal directions and harmony between the human and natural realms. China's history is rich
  34. 34. Cultural Analysis of China with examples of early planning philosophies and practices evidenced by traditional cities such as, but not limited to Chang'an (Xi'an), Beijing, Nanjing and Luoyang. 2. Socialist City – (1950–1980) Planning efforts focused to increase the percentage of blue-collar workers, create affordable housing, urban communes, work unit (danwei), discrete enclosures, broad, central avenues and large squares and Soviet style exhibition halls. Examples include: Harbin or Kharbin and Beijing. 3. Hybrid City – (1860–Present) Planning that incorporating western planning and design principles meshed with traditional Chinese street grids and architectural principles. These were often the first cities to develop modern infrastructures networks and include cities such as Shanghai and Tianjin. 4. Global City – (1990–Present) Planning aimed to encourage strategic economic development of a region for the purposes of global economic participation as a key node in the globalized market; coined and conceptualized by Saskia Sassen. Global cities are characterized by international familiarity, participation in international events and global affairs, densely populated metropolitan areas, Central Business Districts (CBD) housing key financial, corporate headquarters and national services, extensive public transportation systems, internationally
  35. 35. Cultural Analysis of China networked airports, large-scale commercial and industrial zones and multiple urban cores. Examples include Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Guangzhou and more recently Shenzhen. The sustained growth of the Chinese economy and the number of cities and towns in China continues to rise from 640 in 1995 to 660 in 2002, while organic towns rose from 17,000 to 20,600 with a total population reaching 502 million with an urbanization level of approximately 39.1%. To mirror such rapid urbanization rates, the quality of urban planning in China continues to increase as corresponding plans are made in all cities, most towns and many villages with an aim to guide and facilitate land use and construction activities, while promoting economic and social development to improve the living conditions of urban and rural areas alike. Clothing Chinese clothing is the clothing, ancient and modern, worn by the Chinese people. It has varied by region and time, and is recorded by the artifacts and arts of Chinese culture. National dress Tangzhuang refers to the Chinese jacket that originated at the end of the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911) and is the national costume for men of China, although women wear it as well. Tangzhuang is made in
  36. 36. Cultural Analysis of China different colors, most commonly red, dark blue, gold and black. One common design is the usage of Chinese characters as monogram such as Fu ('happiness' in Chinese) , Shou ('longevity' in Chinese) to spread good luck and wishes. Contemporary Chinese Clothing Chinese fashion has drastically changed over time. Following the relaxation of communist clothing standards in the late 70s, the way Chinese dressed and the fashion trends of the country were also changing. Contemporary urban clothing seemed to have developed an obsession with brand names. In major urban centres, especially Shanghai, an increased western look is preferred, and there is an emphasis on formal wear over casual wear for adults on the streets. Teenagers prefer brand names and western clothing. Children usually wear clothes decorated with cartoon characters. However in rural China, clothing tends to be the same as it was in the 1960s. This is because life in rural China has not been influenced by western lifestyle. Also, most people residing in rural China cannot afford such new and pricey clothing from new western style companies. However, many rural Chinese in the less isolated areas have blue jeans, T-shirts, and modern jackets because of many factories that manufacture these goods at an affordable price. Rural Chinese just don't have the fancier modern clothing such as designer jeans, high heels, miniskirts, dresses, etc. People in rural China also tend to have cotton shoes, but the wealthier areas may have cheap sneakers. In rural China non-western modern clothing e.g. Mao suit are usually hand-made by grandmothers who are very experienced in tailoring and sewing. Sports and other leisure activities Sport Although China has long been associated with the martial arts, sport in China today consists of a small variety of competitive sports played in China. Traditional Chinese culture regards physical fitness as an important aspect, and, since the 20th century, a large number of sports activities, both Western and traditionally Chinese, are popular in China. The country has its own national quadrennial multi-sport event similar to the Olympic Games, the National Games of the People's Republic of China. Football, basketball, and ping pong are the main sports in China. A comprehensive list of the types of sports played in China is:
  37. 37. Cultural Analysis of China 1. Badminton 2. Bandy – Russian Hockey 3. Baseball 4. Basketball 5. Boxing 6. Chess 7. Cricket 8. Curling – the stone sliding game 9. Figure Skating 10. Football 11. Golf 12. Motor racing 13. Rugby 14. Snooker 15. Ping Pong 16. Tennis China led the gold medal count (51) at the 2008 Summer Olympic Games which were held in Beijing from 8 August to 24 August 2008. Leisure A number of games and pastimes are popular within Chinese culture. The most common game is Mah Jong – a board game. The same pieces are used for other styled games such as Shanghai Solitaire. Others include Pai Gow, Pai gow poker and other bone domino games. Weiqi and Xiangqi are also popular. Ethnic games like Chinese yo-yo are also part of the culture.
  38. 38. Cultural Analysis of China Social welfare in China Social welfare in the People's Republic of China has undergone various changes throughout history. The Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security is responsible for the social welfare system. In pre-1980s reform China, the socialist state fulfilled the needs of society from cradle to grave. Child care, education, job placement, housing, subsistence, health care, and elder care were largely the responsibility of the work unit as administered through state-owned enterprises and agricultural communes and collectives. As those systems disappeared or were reformed, the "iron rice bowl" approach to welfare changed. Article 14 of the constitution stipulates that the state "builds and improves a welfare system that corresponds with the level of economic development." In 2004 China experienced the greatest decrease in its poorest population since 1999 – number of people with a per capita income of less than 668 renminbi (RMB; US$80.71) decreased 2.9 million or 10 percent, those with a per capita income of no more than 924 RMB (US$111.64) decreased by 6.4 million or 11.4 percent. Welfare reforms since the late 1990s have included unemployment insurance, medical insurance, workers’ compensation insurance, maternity benefits, communal pension funds, and individual pension accounts.
  39. 39. Cultural Analysis of China Health Care in China China is undertaking reform of its health-care system. The New Rural Co-operative Medical Care System (NRCMCS) is a 2005 initiative to overhaul the healthcare system, particularly intended to make it more affordable for the rural poor . Under the NRCMCS, the annual cost of medical coverage is 50 yuan (US$7) per person. Of that, 20 yuan is paid in by the central government, 20 yuan by the provincial government and a contribution of 10 yuan is made by the patient. As of September 2007, around 80% of the rural population of China had signed up (about 685 million people). The system is tiered, depending on the location. If patients go to a small hospital or clinic in their local town, the system will cover roughly 70- 80% of their bill. If the patient visits a county clinic, the percentage of the cost being covered falls to about 60%. If the patient requires a specialist in a modern city hospital, the plan would cover about 30% of the bill. Health Indicators Indicators of the status of China’s health sector can be found in the nation’s fertility rate of 1.8 children per woman (a 2005 estimate) and the infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births was 25.3 (a 2004 estimate). In 2005 China had about 1,938,000 physicians (1.5 per 1,000 persons) and about 3,074,000 hospital beds (2.4 per 1,000 persons). Health expenditures on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis were US$224 per capita in 2001, or 5.5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). Some 37.2 percent of public expenditures were devoted to health care in China in 2001. However, about 80 percent of the health and medical care services are concentrated in cities, and timely medical care is not available to more than 100 million people in rural areas. To offset this imbalance, in 2005 China set out a five-year plan to invest 20 billion renminbi (RMB; US$2.4 billion) to rebuild the rural medical service system composed of village clinics and township- and county-level hospitals. Healthcare situation post 1990 Western style medical facilities with international staff are available in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and a few other large cities. Many other hospitals in major Chinese cities have so-called V.I.P. wards or gaogan bingfang. These feature reasonably up-to-date medical technology and physicians who are both knowledgeable and skilled. Despite the introduction of western style medical facilities, the PRC has several emerging public health problems, which include problems as a result of pollution, a progressing HIV-AIDS epidemic, hundreds of millions of cigarette smokers, and the increase in obesity among the population. The HIV epidemic, in addition to the usual routes of infection, was exacerbated in the past by unsanitary practices used in the collection of blood in rural areas. The problem with tobacco is complicated by the concentration of most cigarette sales in a government controlled monopoly. The government, dependent on tobacco revenue, seems hesitant in its response and may even encourage it as seen from government websites. Hepatitis B is endemic in mainland China, with about 10% of the population contracting the disease. Some hepatitis researchers link hepatitis infections to a lower ratio of female births. If this link is confirmed,
  40. 40. Cultural Analysis of China this would partially explain China's gender imbalance. A program initiated in 2002 will attempt over the next 5 years to vaccinate all newborns in mainland China. Strains of avian flu outbreaks in recent years among local poultry and birds, along with a number of its citizens, have caused great concern for China and other countries. While the virus is currently mainly animal-human transmissible (with only two well documented cases of human-human have been to the present known of to scientists), experts expect an avian flu pandemic that would affect the region should the virus morph to be human-human transmissible.[13] A more recent outbreak is the pig-human transmission of the Streptococcus suis bacteria in 2005, which has led to 38 deaths in and around Sichuan province, an unusually high number. Although the bacteria exists in other pig rearing countries, the pig-human transmission has only been reported in China. By 2002, 92 percent of the urban population and 8 percent of the rural population had access to an improved water supply, and 69 percent of the urban population and 32 percent of the rural population had access to improved sanitation facilities.
  41. 41. Cultural Analysis of China Language Chinese languages, or the Sinitic languages (Hànyǔ; Huáyǔ; Zhōngwén) is a language family consisting of languages which are mostly mutually unintelligible to varying degrees. About one-fifth of the world’s population, or over one billion people, speak some variety of Chinese as their native language. Internal divisions of Chinese are usually perceived by their native speakers as dialects of a single Chinese language, rather than separate languages, although this identification is considered inappropriate by some linguists and Sinologists. There are between 7 and 13 main regional groups of Chinese (depending on classification scheme), of which the most spoken, by far, is Mandarin (about 850 million), followed by Wu (90 million), Cantonese (Yue) (70 million) and Min (50 million). Most of these groups are mutually unintelligible, although some, like Xiang and the Southwest Mandarin dialects, may share common terms and some degree of intelligibility. Official Language Standard Chinese is the official language of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC, also known as Taiwan), as well as one of four official languages of Singapore.Standard Chinese (Putonghua / Guoyu / Huayu) is a standardized form of spoken Chinese based on the Beijing dialect of Mandarin Chinese, referred to as Guānhuà or Běifānghuà in Chinese. It is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Of the other varieties of Chinese, Cantonese is influential in Guangdong Province and Cantonese-speaking overseas communities, and remains one of the official languages of Hong Kong (together with English) and of Macau (together with Portuguese). Min Nan, part of the Min language group, is widely spoken in southern Fujian, in neighbouring Taiwan (where it is known as Taiwanese or Hoklo) and in Southeast Asia (known as Hokkien in Singapore and Malaysia). There are also sizeable Hakka and Shanghainese diaspora, for example in Taiwan, where most Hakka communities maintain diglossia by being conversant in Taiwanese and Standard Chinese. Dialects Traditional Chinese classification lists seven groups, comprising: Gan (Jiangxinese) – 9 dialects Guan (Mandarin or Beifanghua) – 50 dialects Kejia (Hakka) – 10 dialects Min (including the Hokkien and Taiwanese variants) Wu (including the Shanghainese variant) Xiang (Hunanese) Yue (including the Cantonese and Taishanese variants) James Matisoff’s – a modern linguist’s, widely accepted classification is as follows: Mandarin → Jin Wu → Huizhou
  42. 42. Cultural Analysis of China Yue → Pinghua Min Xiang Hakka (Kejia) Gan
  43. 43. Cultural Analysis of China Sources of information China and other related pages, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China China: Chinese Culture, Etiquette, Manners And Protocol; www.kwintessential.com “Family Dynamics in China – A Life table Analysis”, by Yi Zeng China: A country analysis for Staples Incorporated, www.sixsmart.com

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