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Constructed wetlands 2
Constructed wetlands 2
Constructed wetlands 2
Constructed wetlands 2
Constructed wetlands 2
Constructed wetlands 2
Constructed wetlands 2
Constructed wetlands 2
Constructed wetlands 2
Constructed wetlands 2
Constructed wetlands 2
Constructed wetlands 2
Constructed wetlands 2
Constructed wetlands 2
Constructed wetlands 2
Constructed wetlands 2
Constructed wetlands 2
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Constructed wetlands 2

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  • Reclamation of Wastewater global trend as a way to increase water supplies. Natural method for WW treatment Low Cost No additives Water scarcity is the major issue in all parts of world. Wastewater reuse is one alternative. SAT proves to efficient, economical and feasible method for wastewater treatment. SAT system achieves an excellent reduction of biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, and fecal coliform. About 90% of water applied to SAT site is returned to watershed.
  • Nitrogen pre-treatment is capable of efficiently removing nitrogen prior to SAT and has a major effect on the total oxygen demand. Nitrogen Removal - concern when secondary effluents are applied with total nitrogen concentrations greater than 10 mg-N/L . Sufficient oxygen demand to create anoxic conditions was necessary to promote nitrogen removal during SAT nitrogen removal was observed at efficiencies of 50% or greater at sites where anoxic or anaerobic conditions developed. Nitrate - primary form of nitrogen in applied effluents, concentrations ranged from 2-8 mg N/L mass of nitrate removed limited by the amount of available biodegradable carbon exception - wetland system plants provided an abundant source of carbon to efficiently remove nitrate during infiltration. Ammonia - primary form of nitrogen applied at concentrations greater than 10 mg-N/L, the high nitrogen removal efficiencies could not be explained by heterotrophic denitrification since insufficient carbon was present. Therefore, the mechanism of anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) sustainable mechanism for nitrogen removal During SAT - possible for adsorbed ammonia to serve as an electron donor to convert nitrate to nitrogen gas . Since adsorbed ammonia is available for nitrification when oxygen reaches soils containing adsorbed ammonia, ANAMMOX activity could occur as nitrate percolates through soils containing adsorbed ammonia under anoxic conditions. This implies that there is a sustainable mechanism for nitrogen removal during SAT when effluent pre-treatment does not include nitrogen removal and the majority of applied nitrogen is ammonia. Appropriate wetting/drying cycles are necessary to promote nitrification in the upper vadose zone during drying cycles.
  • Nitrogen pre-treatment is capable of efficiently removing nitrogen prior to SAT and has a major effect on the total oxygen demand. Nitrogen Removal - concern when secondary effluents are applied with total nitrogen concentrations greater than 10 mg-N/L . Sufficient oxygen demand to create anoxic conditions was necessary to promote nitrogen removal during SAT nitrogen removal was observed at efficiencies of 50% or greater at sites where anoxic or anaerobic conditions developed. Nitrate - primary form of nitrogen in applied effluents, concentrations ranged from 2-8 mg N/L mass of nitrate removed limited by the amount of available biodegradable carbon exception - wetland system plants provided an abundant source of carbon to efficiently remove nitrate during infiltration. Ammonia - primary form of nitrogen applied at concentrations greater than 10 mg-N/L, the high nitrogen removal efficiencies could not be explained by heterotrophic denitrification since insufficient carbon was present. Therefore, the mechanism of anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) sustainable mechanism for nitrogen removal During SAT - possible for adsorbed ammonia to serve as an electron donor to convert nitrate to nitrogen gas . Since adsorbed ammonia is available for nitrification when oxygen reaches soils containing adsorbed ammonia, ANAMMOX activity could occur as nitrate percolates through soils containing adsorbed ammonia under anoxic conditions. This implies that there is a sustainable mechanism for nitrogen removal during SAT when effluent pre-treatment does not include nitrogen removal and the majority of applied nitrogen is ammonia. Appropriate wetting/drying cycles are necessary to promote nitrification in the upper vadose zone during drying cycles.
  • Nitrogen pre-treatment is capable of efficiently removing nitrogen prior to SAT and has a major effect on the total oxygen demand. Nitrogen Removal - concern when secondary effluents are applied with total nitrogen concentrations greater than 10 mg-N/L . Sufficient oxygen demand to create anoxic conditions was necessary to promote nitrogen removal during SAT nitrogen removal was observed at efficiencies of 50% or greater at sites where anoxic or anaerobic conditions developed. Nitrate - primary form of nitrogen in applied effluents, concentrations ranged from 2-8 mg N/L mass of nitrate removed limited by the amount of available biodegradable carbon exception - wetland system plants provided an abundant source of carbon to efficiently remove nitrate during infiltration. Ammonia - primary form of nitrogen applied at concentrations greater than 10 mg-N/L, the high nitrogen removal efficiencies could not be explained by heterotrophic denitrification since insufficient carbon was present. Therefore, the mechanism of anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) sustainable mechanism for nitrogen removal During SAT - possible for adsorbed ammonia to serve as an electron donor to convert nitrate to nitrogen gas . Since adsorbed ammonia is available for nitrification when oxygen reaches soils containing adsorbed ammonia, ANAMMOX activity could occur as nitrate percolates through soils containing adsorbed ammonia under anoxic conditions. This implies that there is a sustainable mechanism for nitrogen removal during SAT when effluent pre-treatment does not include nitrogen removal and the majority of applied nitrogen is ammonia. Appropriate wetting/drying cycles are necessary to promote nitrification in the upper vadose zone during drying cycles.
  • Nitrogen pre-treatment is capable of efficiently removing nitrogen prior to SAT and has a major effect on the total oxygen demand. Nitrogen Removal - concern when secondary effluents are applied with total nitrogen concentrations greater than 10 mg-N/L . Sufficient oxygen demand to create anoxic conditions was necessary to promote nitrogen removal during SAT nitrogen removal was observed at efficiencies of 50% or greater at sites where anoxic or anaerobic conditions developed. Nitrate - primary form of nitrogen in applied effluents, concentrations ranged from 2-8 mg N/L mass of nitrate removed limited by the amount of available biodegradable carbon exception - wetland system plants provided an abundant source of carbon to efficiently remove nitrate during infiltration. Ammonia - primary form of nitrogen applied at concentrations greater than 10 mg-N/L, the high nitrogen removal efficiencies could not be explained by heterotrophic denitrification since insufficient carbon was present. Therefore, the mechanism of anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) sustainable mechanism for nitrogen removal During SAT - possible for adsorbed ammonia to serve as an electron donor to convert nitrate to nitrogen gas . Since adsorbed ammonia is available for nitrification when oxygen reaches soils containing adsorbed ammonia, ANAMMOX activity could occur as nitrate percolates through soils containing adsorbed ammonia under anoxic conditions. This implies that there is a sustainable mechanism for nitrogen removal during SAT when effluent pre-treatment does not include nitrogen removal and the majority of applied nitrogen is ammonia. Appropriate wetting/drying cycles are necessary to promote nitrification in the upper vadose zone during drying cycles.
  • Many plants have been used in Phytoremediation. List above represents some of the variety used. In this presentation, I will be discussing the phytoremediation capabilities of some of these. A major effect of waste water treatment with plants was the elimination of the disturbing smell. Water Environment Research, May-June 2004 issue – exp. Used naturally growing plants along the Kishon River for wastewater purification. Plants consume part of the pollutants and
  • Transcript

    • 1. Introduction : Land areas that are wet during part or all of the year are referred as wetlands. Decentralized waste water treatment system. Low operational cost important role in many ecological sanitation concepts. These are secondary treatment. Water reuse.
    • 2. Classification of wet lands: - Typically a constructed wetland can be classified as: - free water surface flow - subsurface flow - horizontal - vertical
    • 3. Process description :  Pre treatment  material that are easily collected(tree, leaves) Screening  pass through bar (cans ,plastic packet) Girt removal  settlement of sand ,girt, stones. Primary treatment  to settle sludge and to remove oil and grease Bio filtration  periphyton(group of micro organism that break down organic material)
    • 4. Horizontal flow beds(HFB)  common type of subsurface flow constructed wetland  low maintenance requirements.  interesting option especially in locations without energy supply and low hydraulic gradient.  the wastewater flows slowly through the porous medium under the surface of the bed in a horizontal path until it reaches the outlet zone.  At the outlet the water level in the HFB is controlled with an adjustable standpipe.  For continuous operation the submerged height of the bed should be less than one third of the total height of the filter bed to avoid anaerobic conditions in the bed.
    • 5. Diagram of Horizontal Flow Beds :
    • 6. Vertical flow bed(VFB)  higher treatment efficiency  Safer and more effective at removing the more directly harmful toxic trace metals  Expensive Compared to Surface Flow  In VFBs wastewater is intermittently pumped onto the surface and then drains vertically down through the filter layer towards a drainage system at the bottom.  The intermittent batch loading enhances the oxygen transfer and leads to high aerobic degradation activities.
    • 7. Diagram of Vertical flow bed
    • 8. Chemical process  general contamination removal  physical  chemical and biological process  specific contaminant removal  nitrogen( ammonia )  Phosphorus  biochemical oxygen demand removal and chemical oxygen demand  total suspended solids  fish and bacteria
    • 9. Nitrogen (ammonia) Removal :  It form by mineralization or ammonifiacation of organic matter  Primary source for most flooded wetland soil Ammonifiacation: NH3 + H2O (NH4+) + OH −⇌  Absorbed by plant or by electro statically on negatively charged surface(anaerobic condition)  Nitrification  Bacteria responsible (nitrosomonas and nitrobacter)
    • 10. Phosphorus removal Occur naturally both in organic and in organic form Soluble reactive phosphate Dissolved organic and inorganic phosphorus are generally not biologically available until transform into soluble organic form Binding of phosphorus Precipitation of insoluble phosphorus with ferric iron calcium and aluminum Transient nutrient storage compartment Luxury uptake of nutrient Aquatic phosphorus (if harvested extend life of system)
    • 11. Bio chemical oxygen demand Chemical oxygen demand Amount of oxygen consumed by micro organism during biological reaction Different bio activity of microbes with temperature increase turbidity and light penetration. Total suspended solid
    • 12. Graph for specific contaminant removal under hot and cold condition nitrogen phosphorus For bod and cod
    • 13. Various Plant Types Water Hyacinths Eichhornia crassipes Forage Kochia Kochia spp Poplar Trees Populus spp Willow Trees Salix spp Alfalfa Medicago sativa Cattail Typha latifolia Coontail Ceratophyllum demersvm L Bullrush Scirpus spp Reed Phragmites spp. American pondweed Potamogeton nodosus Common Arrowhead Sagittaria latifolia
    • 14. Application  Though built to treat wastewater, constructed wetlands provide habitat for: Birds Municipal wastewater treatment  Treatment of household wastewater or grey water Tertiary treatment of effluents from conventional wastewater treatment plants  Sludge dewatering and mineralization of fecal sludge or sludge from settling tanks.  Storm water treatment and temporary storage  Treatment of water from swimming pools without chlorine.
    • 15. Conclusion : Increase water quality  stop pollution  think for a solution Bring out a revolution  constructed wetlands are referred as kidneys of mother land.

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