A V12 engine is a V engine with 12 cylinders mounted
on the crankcase in two banks of six cylinders, usually
but not always at a 60° angle to each other, with all 12
pistons driving a common crankshaft.
A V12 engine is a V engine with 12 cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two banks of
six cylinders, usually but not always at a 60° angle to each other, with all 12 pistons
driving a common crankshaft. Since each cylinder bank is essentially a straight-6, this
configuration has perfect primary and secondary balance no matter which V angle is
used and therefore needs no balance shafts. A V12 with two banks of six cylinders
angled at 60°, 120° or 180° (with the latter configuration usually referred to as a flat-12)
from each other has even firing with power pulses delivered twice as often per
revolution as a straight-6. This allows for great refinement in a luxury car. In a racing car,
the rotating parts can be made much lighter and thus more responsive, since there is no
need to use counterweights on the crankshaft as is needed in a 90° V8 and less need for
the inertial mass in a flywheel to smooth out the power delivery. In a large displacement,
heavy-duty engine, a V12 can run slower than smaller engines, prolonging engine life.
The straight-six engine or inline-six engine (often abbreviated I6 or L6) is an
internal combustion engine with the cylinders mounted in a straight line along
the crankcase with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft. The bank of
cylinders may be oriented at any angle, and where the bank is inclined to the
vertical, the engine is sometimes called a slant-six. The straight-six layout is
the simplest engine layout that possesses both primary and secondary
mechanical engine balance, resulting in much less vibration than engines
with fewer cylinders.
• The first V12 engine was used in 1912 in
Packard’s "Double Six", but before the World War
II the engine was used in a lot of luxury cars:
Cadillac, Packard, Lincoln, Franklin, Rolls-
Royce, and Hispano-Suiza.
V12 engines are or were used in for the following purposes:
They were once used in aviation industry
For road cars
In heavy trucks
In Auto Racing
In Large Diesel Engines
Tanks and other AFVs(Armoured fighting vehicles)
The first V12 engines were used in aircraft. By the end of
World War I, V12s were popular in the newest and largest
fighters and bombers and were produced by companies
such as Renault and Sunbeam. Many Zeppelins had
12-cylinder engines from German manufacturers Maybach
and Daimler. Various U.S. companies produced the
Liberty L-12; the Curtiss NC Flying boats, including the
four V12 engine poweredNC-4, the first aircraft to make
a transatlantic flight.
In automobiles, V12 engines have not been common due to their
complexity and cost. They are used almost exclusively in expensive
sports cars and luxury cars because of their power, smoother
operation, and distinctive sound.
Prior to World War II, 12-cylinder engines were found in many
luxury models, including cars from: Packard 1916 to 1923, Daimler
1926 to 1937, Hispano-Suiza 1931, Cadillac 1931, Auburn 1932,
Franklin 1932, Lincoln 1932, Rolls-Royce 1936, and Pierce-Arrow
Ferrari has traditionally reserved their top V12 engine for their
top-of-the line luxury sports coupes since 1949. Ferrari's closest
rival, Lamborghini has also used the V12 configuration for many
of its road cars since the company's inception in 1963. In 1972,
Jaguar came out with the XJ12, equipped with a 5.3 litre V12,
which continued (after revisions in 1993) until the 1996 model
year, after which the marque discontinued the twelve-cylinder
Figure: Jaguar V12 engine
Tatra used a 17.6 L (1,070 cu in) air-cooled naturally aspirated V12
diesel engine in many of their trucks; for instance, the Tatra T813
and uses 19 L air-cooled naturally aspirated or turbo V12
diesel engine in Tatra T815. Some large trucks have been fitted
with twin V12s that drive a common shaft, although this is often
advertised as a V24.
V12 engines used to be common in Formula One and endurance
racing. From 1965 to 1980, Ferrari, Weslake, Honda, BRM, Maserati,
Matra, Delahaye, Peugeot, Delage, Alfa Romeo, Lamborghini and
Tecno used 12-cylinder engines in Formula One, either
V12 or Flat-12, but the Ford (Cosworth) V8 had a slightly better
power-to-weight ratio and less fuel consumption, thus it was more
successful despite being less powerful than the best V12s. During the
same era, V12 engines were superior to V8s in endurance racing,
reduced vibrations giving better reliability. In the 1990s,Renault V10
engines proved their superiority against the Ferrari and Honda V12s
and the Ford V8. The last V12 engine used in Formula One was the
Ferrari 044, on the Ferrari 412T2 cars driven by Jean Alesi and
Gerhard Berger in 1995.
V12 is a common configuration for large diesel engines; most are
available with differingnumbers of cylinders in V configuration to
offer a range of power ratings. Many diesel locomotives have V12
Large V12 engines are also common in ships.
These engines are commonly used especially in cruise ships,
which may have up to six such main engines. In the past the
largest medium-speed diesel engine in the world, Wärtsilä 64,
was also offered in V configuration, and a single 12V64 prototype
with an output of 23,280 kW (31,220 hp) was produced for an
experimental power plant in thelate 1990s.
The V12 is a common configuration for tank and other armoured fighting vehicles (AFVs).
Some examples are:
German Maybach HL120TRM gasoline engine, used on World War II Pz Kpfw III and
Pz Kpfw IV tanks.
British Rolls-Royce Meteor gasoline engine, derived from the Merlin aero-engine, used
on World War II Cromwell and Comet tanks and the post-WWII Centurion and Conqueror
The 26.6 litre Perkins diesel engine in the Challenger 2 main battle tank and its variants.
The worlds smallest V12 engine was developed by
spanish engineer Patelo spending more than 1200
hours transforming blocks of aluminium, bronze and
stainless steel.Into the intricate pasts needed to
build this amazing V12 engine. The tiny V12 engine is
powered by compressed air which is injected into the
engine at 0.1kg/sq cm.