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A General Review of China                              Wang Yaping                          Ministry of CommerceThe basic ...
major plateaus in China, which are the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, theInner Mongolian tableland, the loess plateau and the Yu...
The Chinese territory runs through 50 latitude zones from the south tothe north, spanning five temperature zones. The Trop...
2020; the peak time will come around 2033 when the population will be1.5 billion. After that, the population will be kept ...
self-government of their affairs, support themselves on their own andpractice religion independently.4、Development History...
and to enact laws. 2. To exercise the power of appointing andremoving from office state leaders and of electing its Standi...
form of organization of multi-party cooperation and politicalconsultation under the leadership of the Communist Party of C...
The country is divided into 23 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4municipalities directly under the Central Government a...
established, and an open economy has taken shape. The socialproductivity and comprehensive national strength are constantl...
natural gas took the 15th place in the world with the output volume of76.08 billion m3. Besides, China is the largest stee...
consumption of 250 million tons of oil, occupying 7% of the world‘sannual output, taking the second place in terms of oil ...
China has a rich cultural heritage with far-reaching influence of Confucianism. It boasts many world   famous historical r...
million in secondary vocational or technical schools, 24.763 million insenior high schools, 55.742 million in junior high ...
The Bamboo Sector as an Effective Stakeholder Network and                    the Role of INBAR                   J. Coosje...
ministries of commerce, chambers of commerce, fair trade groups, allof which have varying roles within it.The environmenta...
The different levels of knowledge and awareness of what bamboo cando across the world is vast. INBAR often finds that when...
production of bamboo products in different locations, with differentbamboo species, under different environmental, social ...
INBAR runs three thematic programmes and also three specialpartnership programmes – the NTFP Global Partnership Programme(...
more widely in East Africa. Its thriving Google group is a forum fordiscussion and exchange amongst individuals and instit...
Directly improving the lives of thousands of people in Asia, Africa and Latin America in development projects INBAR and it...
With local partners in Sichuan, Yunnan and Hunan provinces in China, INBAR has innovated new conservation techniques for e...
connect with many partners, to link in with new ones, and we lookforward to working in an even more close partnership with...
The General Condition and Related Policies of Bamboo           Industry Development in China                              ...
floor board, bamboo mat, bamboo charcoal products, bamboo fibreproducts (clothes, socks, et al), bamboo building material,...
High-yield and fast-growth forest project: in this project, the centralgovernment provides financial support to farmers an...
Recently, in order to cooperating to the being-practiced reform ofcollective forest right system, the People‘s Bank of Chi...
Fifthly, establish forest insurance systems. Facing the conditions of longmanagement period, being apt to be harmful of fo...
Fourthly, according to the newly amended administrative system of forestcultivation funds, the forest cultivation fund lev...
bamboo industry of China. In west China, for example, Guangxiautonomy region, Sichuan province, Yunnan province, Guizhou p...
irrigation and other infrastructure building, to increase the managementlevel and productivity of bamboo forest.(3) Enforc...
Main Experience of Sustainable Bamboo Development                      in China                               Zhu Zhaohua ...
pointed out that the Chinese have always viewed bamboo as a spiritualsymbol. Celebrities and writers through the ages have...
China is a centre of bamboo diversity with nearly 500 species in 39 generapresent within its borders, among which there ar...
2.2 The output of Chinese bamboo industry and the export of bambooproductsSince 1985, China has begun to introduce bamboo-...
Figure 3: Increase of Chinas bamboo production                (in million tons/year, not include Moso bamboo)  20         ...
The output of the bamboo industry has seen remarkably steady increasesfrom 1990 (figure 4), with the output value touching...
Following resource research, researchers also carried out studies on ex situconservation and the related topic of bamboo b...
studies mentioned above provide a theoretical basis for properpropagation and cultivation techniques. In anatomic research...
have increased the efficiency and benefits of cultivation for bamboofarmers.The above-mentioned species are all subtropica...
Compared with wood timber, bamboo culm has several advantages thatmake it ideal for use in construction and decoration: fa...
What China Is
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  1. 1. A General Review of China Wang Yaping Ministry of CommerceThe basic national conditions of China are as follows: China is a countrywith a vast territory, abundant natural resources but a relatively low percapita possession of resources. It has a long history and an advancedculture but with a relatively low level of culture and education amongits citizens. It has an advanced socialist system but with relativelybackward productivity and economic development due to a pooreconomic foundation. It has some advanced high technologies up tothe world standard but a relatively weak competitiveness in the world.It has relatively big overall economic aggregates but a relatively lowlevel of per capita national income. The economy in the east andsouth coastal areas is comparatively developed while that in thesouthwest and northwest is less developed. Therefore, China is still atthe primary stage of socialism and remains to be the largestdeveloping country in the world.I.GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE1、GeographyChina is located in the east of Asia and on the western coast of thePacific, covering an area of 9.6 million square kilometers. It is the largestcountry in Asia and the third largest in the world, after Russia andCanada.China faces sea on its east and south, with over 5,000 islands and islets,among which the biggest is Taiwan Island and the second one HainanIsland. China has a 20,000km-long land boundary and the coast line isabout 18,000 km.It is bordered with over 10 neighboring countries including Russia,Mongolia, Pakistan, India, Laos, Vietnam, South Korea, etc. and facessuch countries as South Korea, Japan, Philippines, and Malaysia acrossthe sea.China has lots of mountains and hills, among which there are seven ofthe twelve mountains in the world that are more than 8,000 meters high.For instance, the Himalayas in Tibet of China is the highest mountain inthe world. Besides, there are many famous mountains of touristattraction in China.China has various topographic features. Three major plains in Chinaare the Northeast China plain, the North China plain and the plain ofthe middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. And there are four 1
  2. 2. major plateaus in China, which are the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, theInner Mongolian tableland, the loess plateau and the Yunnan-Guizhouplateau. Besides, it has four major basins, namely the Tarim Basin,Junggar Basin, Qaidam Basin and Sichuan Basin.China has many rivers distributed in many parts of its territory. TheYangtze River, with a total length of 6,300 kilometers, is the longest riverin China and the third longest in the world. The Yellow River, which isthe second longest in China, is 5, 464 kilometers long. The third longestriver in China is the Heilongjiang River, with a total length of 4,370kilometers. The Yarlung Zangbo Canyon is the largest canyon in theworld.China has many long rivers covering a large area of drainage basin. Itis abundant in hydropower resources but also vulnerable to floods andother natural disasters. However, generally speaking, China lacks inwater resource, especially the northwest part of China which alwayssuffers from drought. The per capita possession of water resource is2,048 m3, only one fourth of the world‘s average.Due to the imbalanced distribution of water, power and gas resources,the country has launched some big projects including channeling thewater from the south to the north, transmitting the gas from the west tothe east and transmitting the power from the west to the east. The4,000km-long pipe for gas transmitting has been completed and putinto us. The effort of transmitting power from the west to the east isfurthered, and up to now it has been able to provide over 30 millionkilowatts power. As to the project of channeling water from the southto the north, the three lines including the east line, middle line and westline are all processing smoothly. The Three Gorges dam, which attractsthe world‘s attention, was completed on May 20, 2006. The dam is2,309m long and 185m high, and the quality of the project is of topstandard in the world. Now it‘s playing a comprehensive role againstflooding, in generating power and in facilitating navigation.China has a large number of lakes. There are 13 lakes of which thearea is more than 1,000 square kilometers, and 130 lakes covering anarea over 100 square km, and more than 2,800 lakes‘ area are over 1square km. Qinghai Lake in western part is the largest salt lake in Chinawith an area of 4,583 square kilometers. Poyang Lake in Jiangxiprovince is the largest freshwater lake covering an area of 3,583 squarekilometers.At the end of 2008, China has only 121.7 million hectares of arable landand 128.63 million hectares of forest; though the figures seem to be big,the per capita possession is far below the world‘s average level.2、Climate 2
  3. 3. The Chinese territory runs through 50 latitude zones from the south tothe north, spanning five temperature zones. The Tropic of Cancer runsthrough the southern part of the country, making 90% of its territory bein a temperate zone with distinct climatic differences of four seasons. In2008, the average temperature in China is 9.6 degrees centigrade. Insouth china the highest temperature can reach 40 degrees while thelowest in the north can reach minus 50.II 、 POPULATION, ETHNIC GROUPS, RELIGION AND DEVELOPMENTHISTORY1、PopulationAccording to the census in 2000, China had a population of 1.295billion, ranking the first in the world. By the end of 2008, the populationof mainland China had reached 1.32802 billion; plus the population ofTaiwan, Hong Kong and Macao, the total population of China wasover 1.35 billion. In 2008, in mainland China, there were 16.08 millionnewborns and 9.35 million death toll, which means a net increase of6.73 million in population. In mainland China, 45.7% of the people live inurban area, while the other 54.3% in rural area. In terms of the gendercomposition, male accounts for 51.5%, while female takes up 48.5%.Due to the huge population, China faces great pressure inemployment. We have about 800 million work force, whereas the workforce in all the developed countries in Europe and United States onlyamounts to 430 million. By the end of 2008, there had been 774.8 millionwork force, including 302.1 million in urban area. Only in 2008, Chinahad a net increase of over 20 million work force, among which over 5.4million are undergraduates or postgraduates. The registered urbanunemployment rate was 4.2%. Besides, there is more than 100 millionsurplus labor in rural area; most of them are migrant workers in the citiesnow. Confronted with such a huge population, in order to bring about acoordinated development between population and our economy,society, resources and environment, the country launched a law offamily control to promote family happiness, national prosperity andsocial progress. The government encourages late marriage, latechildbearing and one family, one child. However, in some specialcases regulated by laws and regulations, a couple can give birth to asecond child. In fact, at present, 30%-40% of Chinese have two or morekids. Therefore, in China, people have their rights to have or not tohave children. Through years of education and encouragement, ―onefamily, one child‖ has become a voluntary act of Chinese citizens.Without the family control policy, China would have 400 million morepeople over the past 30 years; therefore, we have made greatachievement in controlling the population. According to the forecast,China‘s population will rise to 1.36 billion by 2010, and 1.45 billion by 3
  4. 4. 2020; the peak time will come around 2033 when the population will be1.5 billion. After that, the population will be kept stable. However,concerning the population, there are two problems, namely, agingand imbalance of gender. According to the common practice ofinternational community, if people above 65 years old account formore than 7% of the total population, that society is called agingsociety. By the end of last year, elder people above 65 years oldaccounted for 8.3% of the total population, and this figure might rise to11.8% by 2020 and 25% by 2050. In recent years, the ratio of new-borngirls to new-born boys is becoming higher and higher; for example, theratio in 1981 was 108.47, but in 2008 the ratio became 120.56. That is tosay, when 100 girls are born, there are over 120 boys born at the sametime, which is far beyond the normal range from 103 to 107. By the year2020, there will be 30 million more males than females between 20 to 45years‘ old.2、Ethnic GroupsChina is a unified multi-ethnic country with 56 ethnic groups, of whichthe Han nationality accounts for 91.59% of the total population in themainland. Relatively populous minority groups are Zhuang, Islamic,Uigur, Yi, Miao, Manchu, Tibetan and Mongolian. Among the 56nationalities, 53 have their own spoken languages, and the ethnicgroups of Han, Islamic and Manchu use Chinese language, and 23ethnic groups have their own written languages. Chinese is thecommon language in China and one of the languages used by theinternational community.China‘s policies toward ethnic minorities are: adhering to the equalityand unity among all ethnic groups; helping each other and pursuingcommon prosperity; implementing self-government in autonomousregions of ethnic minority groups; training leaders of minority groups;helping them develop their economy and culture; attachingimportance to the use and development of their spoken and writtenlanguages; respecting their customs and way of living; respecting theirreligious beliefs; and adopting a preferential population policy towardminority groups.3、ReligionChina is a country with many religions. On almost two-thirds of theterritory, there are religious believers with the number of about 100million. Major religions are Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism andChristianity.Chinas policies toward religions are: People have freedom in theirreligious belief. They‘re free to believe or not believe in any religion andto change their religious belief. The nature of the policy is to make theissue of religion an entirely private affair of the citizen. China pursues anindependent policy of religion, under which religious groups conduct 4
  5. 5. self-government of their affairs, support themselves on their own andpractice religion independently.4、Development HistoryChina is one of the countries in the world with an ancient civilizationand has a recorded history for more than 4,000 years.China is one of the countries with the oldest economy and culture inthe world. China is well-known for its four major inventions -- papermaking technology, type printing, powder and compass. There arealso numerous ancient historical and cultural relics.Two thousand years ago, China‘s annual GDP occupied one fourth ofthe world‘s total. In 1400, China‘s GDP was nearly the same as that ofthe whole Europe, and in 1820 China‘s annual GDP constituted onethird of the world‘s total.However, after the Opium War in 1840, many western countries cameto China, turning it into a semi-colonial and semi-feudal country, and itseconomy suffered a great recession. After longtime arduous andcourageous struggles, Chinese people of all ethnic groups, under theleadership of the Communist Party of China, ultimately overthrew therule of imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat-capitalism, and foundedthe Peoples Republic of China on October 1, 1949. The PeoplesRepublic of China is a socialist country with peoples democraticdictatorship held by the working class and based on the alliance ofworkers and peasants. Since the foundation, the country has carriedout the socialist reform, achieved the transition from neo-democracyto socialism, established the basic system of socialism and developedconstantly the modern socialist economy, politics and culture.III、POLITICAL SYSTEM AND ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION1、Political SystemChina is a democratic and law-ruling country. The Constitution protectsthe fundamental rights of every citizen. The system of the PeoplesCongress is the fundamental political system of China, and the systemof multi-party cooperation and political consultation is the basic systemof China.The National Peoples Congress (NPC) is the highest body of statepower and also the highest body of legislative power. The NationalPeoples Congress is composed of deputies elected from the provinces,autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the CentralGovernment and of deputies elected from the armed forces on thebasis of general elections among the people of the whole country. Thefunctions and responsibilities of the National Peoples Congress: 1. Toexercise the legislative power, to enact and amend the Constitution, 5
  6. 6. and to enact laws. 2. To exercise the power of appointing andremoving from office state leaders and of electing its StandingCommittee; to elect the President and Vice President of the state; todecide on the choice of the Premier, Vice Premiers and other membersof the State Council; to elect the Chairman of the Central MilitaryCommission and other commission members; to elect the President ofthe Supreme Peoples Court and the Procurator General of theSupreme Peoples Procuratorate. The above members are responsibleto the National Peoples Congress and report on their work to theCongress and accept its supervision. The National Peoples Congress isempowered to remove the above members from office. 3.To exercisethe power of deciding on major state affairs of the country, includingthe powers of: the supervision of the enforcement of the Constitution;examination and approval of the plan for national economic andsocial development and the report on its implementation; examinationand approval of the state budget and the report on its implementation;alter or annul inappropriate decisions of the Standing Committee ofthe National Peoples Congress; approving the establishment ofprovinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under theCentral Government, approving the establishment of specialadministrative regions and making decisions on issues of war andpeace.The State Council: It is the executive organ of the National People‘sCongress and the highest organ of state administration. It is responsiblefor the enforcement of the laws, regulations, decisions, plans, budgetsand other resolutions enacted and endorsed by the National People‘sCongress and its Standing Committee. The State Council consists of 29ministries and commissions. It is also the Central People‘s Government,which exercises leadership over local people‘s governments at variouslevels.The Supreme People’s Court is the highest judicial organ of the state. Itexercises judicial power independently. The Supreme PeoplesProcuratorate is the highest state procuratorial organ and the stateorgan for legal supervision. Both of them are responsible to theNational People‘s Congress and its Standing Committee.The Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC)conducts political consultations over major policies of the state andother issues concerning the life of the people, and plays the role ofdemocratic supervision through suggestions and criticisms. The CPPCCconsists of representatives of the Communist Party of China, alldemocratic parties, patriotic persons without party affiliation, people‘sorganizations, all ethnic minority groups, compatriots of Hong Kong,Macao and Taiwan, overseas Chinese and people from all walks of life.It is the patriotic united front of the Chinese people and an important 6
  7. 7. form of organization of multi-party cooperation and politicalconsultation under the leadership of the Communist Party of China.2、Political PartiesThe Communist Party of China is the organization of the vanguard ofnot only the working class but also Chinese people and Chinese nation.It is the core leader of the socialism with Chinese characteristics,representing the requirement of the development trend of China‘sadvanced productive forces, representing the orientation of China‘sadvanced culture and representing the fundamental interests of theoverwhelming majority of the Chinese people. Founded on July 1, 1921,the Communist Party has over 70.8 million members. It is the ruling partyof China.There are eight democratic parties, which are participating in politicaland government affairs in cooperation with the Communist Party ofChina. (1) The Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Kuomintangconsists of the democratic forces within Kuomintang and otherpatriotic democratic personages. (2) China Democratic League: consists of middle and upper-classintellectuals who work for the socialist cause. (3) China Democratic National Construction Association: consistsmainly of people from the economic circle as well as experts andscholars, which has the nature of a political league and servessocialism. (4) China Association for Promoting Democracy: consists ofintellectuals in the fields of education, culture, science and other areas,working for the socialist construction. (5) China Peasants and Workers Democratic Party: consists ofintermediate and senior intellectuals from the medical circle and thecommunities of science and technology, culture and education,working for the socialist construction. (6) China Zhi Gong Dang: consists of returned overseas Chinese,the family members of overseas Chinese, prominent figures withoverseas connections, experts and scholars working for the socialistconstruction. (7) Jiu San Society: consists of intermediate and senior intellectualsfrom the communities of science and technology, culture, education,and the medical circle, serving socialism. (8) Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League: consists ofpersonages from Taiwan province who are socialist laborers andpatriots upholding socialism. The above-mentioned democratic parties participate in and discuss political and government affairs mainly by political consultation and other forms.3、Administrative Division 7
  8. 8. The country is divided into 23 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4municipalities directly under the Central Government and 2 specialadministrative regions. Four municipalities directly under the Central Government are Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and Chongqing. Beijing, capital of the people‘s republic of China, is the national center of politics and culture with an area of 16,800 square kilometers, and a population of over 13 million. Shanghai, with a population of more than 17 million, is the largest industrial and commercial city in China, is an international metropolis full of potential of development. Two special administrative regions are Hong Kong and Macao, which the Chinese government resumed the exercise of sovereignty on July 1, 1997 and Dec. 20, 1999 respectively.Taiwan is a province of China and an inalienable part of the Chineseterritory. The Chinese government will endeavor to resolve the Taiwanissue in accordance with the policy of "peaceful reunification, onecountry, two systems." However, if the Taiwan authorities claim itsindependence, or foreign forces invade Taiwan, we‘ll have to resort tomilitary forces to solve this issue.China‘s local governments are divided into four levels: provinces,autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the CentralGovernment; cities, regions and autonomous prefectures; counties,autonomous counties and cities at county level; townships, nationalitytownships, and towns. There are 2,135 units at county level. A smallcounty has a population of tens of thousands while a large county,near a million.4、Diplomatic PoliciesChina pursues an independent foreign policy and adheres to the FivePrinciples of mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity,mutual non-aggression, non-interference in each others internal affairs,equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence. China is readyto develop diplomatic relations and economic and cultural exchangeswith other countries on the basis of the Five Principles. It firmly opposeshegemony, power politics and terrorism, safeguards world peace andpromotes human progress. China has established diplomatic relationswith more than 160 countries and maintained trade ties and friendshipwith more than 200 countries and regions. China will unswervinglypursue its peaceful development and go on carrying out its opening-up strategy based on mutual benefit and striving for all-win results.IV、ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT1、Overall SituationAfter the People‘s Republic of China was founded in 1949, particularlysince 1978 when China carried out the policy of reform and opening-up, China has scored remarkable economic achievement. Over thepast 30 years, China has been taking a firm step in promoting its reformand opening-up. The socialist market economy has been generally 8
  9. 9. established, and an open economy has taken shape. The socialproductivity and comprehensive national strength are constantlyenhanced, public services have been developed all-roundly, andpeople‘s living standards have been improved greatly from havingenough food and clothing to being well-off. From 1978 to 2007, theannual economic growth rate is 9.8% on average, which is far highercompared to the 3.3% average growth rate of the world‘s economy.In 2008, though challenged by the devastating natural disasters andsevere international financial crisis, the national economy still achievedrather fast development: the GDP reached 30.067 trillion RMB Yuan,increased by 9% compared to that in 2007. Based on rough estimation,China‘s economy contributed over 20% to the world‘s overalleconomic growth. Currently, China‘s aggregate economic volumeranks the fourth in the world, following the US, Japan and Germany. In2008, we had tax revenue of 5421.962 billion Yuan and foreign reservesover 1.946 trillion USD. The proportion of the three industries in 2008respectively was: primary industry 11.3%, secondary industry 48.6%, andthe tertiary industry 40.1%. The disposable income of urban citizens was15,781 Yuan, and the net income of rural residents was 4,761 Yuan;after adjusting for inflation, the real growth rate was 8.4% and 8%respectively. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) increased by 5.9%. Theconsumption structure is updated very quickly, and now housing,automobile, telecommunication, traveling and education havebecome the five new hot spots in consumption. For example, by theend of last year, the total number of private cars in China reached19.47 million, up 28% compared to the previous year.2、AgricultureChina remains to be an agricultural country. China ranks the first threeplaces in the world in terms of the output volumes of such products ascorn, cotton, meat, peanut, rapeseed, fruit, tea and sugarcane. Thegrain output of 2008 totaled 528.5 million tons, increased by 5.4%compared to that in 2007; besides, the output volume of cottonamounted to 7.5 million tons, oil–bearing crops 29.5 million tons, sugarcrops 130 million tons, tea 1.24 million tons, and meat 72.69 million tons.3、IndustryChina is also a big industrial country. The output volume of someindustrial products such as steel, coal, cement, chemical fertilizer, TVset, electricity, cotton cloth and chemical fiber takes the lead in theworld. Now China is the second largest energy producer as well asconsumer in the world. In the year of 2008, the output of coal was 2.793billion tons, ranking the first in the world and constituting more than onethird of the world‘s total output; electricity generated amounted to3.4668 trillion kilowatt hours, taking the second place in the world;crude oil took the fifth place with the output volume of 190 million tons; 9
  10. 10. natural gas took the 15th place in the world with the output volume of76.08 billion m3. Besides, China is the largest steel and iron producerand consumer for 13 years running. In last year, the output volume ofcrude steel was 500.915 million tons, rolled steel 584.881 million tons,cement 1.4 billion tons, 9.3455 million automobiles, 90.33 million color TVsets, 559.64 million mobile phones, and 136.666 million microcomputers.4、Foreign Trade and Domestic MarketIn 2008, the foreign trade volume amounted to 2.5616 trillion USD,increased by 17.8% than that in 2007. Among that, export volume was1.4285 trillion USD, up by 17.2%, and import volume was 1.1331 trillion,up by 18.5%. Besides, China leads the world in terms of the exportvolume of over 700 commodities such as textiles, clothing, shoes, colorTV, motorcycles, air-conditioning, DVD and containers. China is thethird largest exporter and importer in the world, making over 12%contribution to world‘s trade growth. Since China‘s entry into WTO in2001, its import volume is over 630 billion USD annually, having createdmore than 10 million job opportunities for relevant countries andregions. Currently, China is the third largest importer for the mostunderdeveloped countries, after the EU and US; and it‘s the largestimporter of copper and rolled steel as well as one of the mostimportant importers of other primary products.China has been taking the first place in attracting foreign investmentamong all developing countries for 16 consecutive years. Last year, theactual utilized FDI was 92.4 billion USD, up by 23.6%. 27,514 foreignenterprises were approved to get registered last year. At present, theactual utilized FDI totals 859.1 billion USD, and there are altogether660,000 foreign enterprises registered in China. Besides, China has over700 foreign-funded R & D centers and more than 30 headquarters oftransnational companies; among the Fortune 500, over 480 have hadinvestment in China.Last year, China‘s direct investment in other countries was 40.7 billionUSD, and the total aggregate of China‘s investment in other countriesamounted to 134 billion USD. The turnover of foreign projectscontracting in 2008 reached 56.6 billion USD, up 39.4%; laborcooperation with other countries realized a turnover of 8.1 billion USDwith an increase of 19.1%; and the total number of labor force workingin other countries was about 600,000.Besides, China has a huge domestic market. Taking the year 2003 forexample, China consumed 260 million tons steel, exceeding the totaloutput of US and Japan in that year and making China the biggeststeel consumer in the world. In addition, in that year, China used 820million tons cement which accounted for 45% of the world‘s totaloutput; 30% of the world‘s glass was used by China; and it had a 10
  11. 11. consumption of 250 million tons of oil, occupying 7% of the world‘sannual output, taking the second place in terms of oil consumptionafter the US. Besides, China consumes one third of coal and 30% of ironand aluminum of the world‘s total output every year.With the constant increase of people‘s demand and updating ofconsumption structure, China is beginning to lead the world in theconsumption of some traditional electric home appliances such ascolor TV, IT products such as mobiles, new service products such aswideband Internet and means of production such as iron and steel. In2008, the gross retail sales of consumables reached 10.8488 trillion Yuan,up by 21.6% compared to that in 2007. Fixed asset investment in 2008amounted to 17.2291 trillion Yuan, increased by 25.5%. In thecircumstances of the global economic recession and challenged bythe slowdown of foreign trade growth, giving an impetus to thedomestic demand, stimulating the consumption and increasinginvestment are the fundamental measures that China takes to dealwith problems caused by the global financial crisis and keep its stableand rapid economic development.5、Transportation, telecommunications & tourismThe transportation, telecommunications and tourism are developingsteadily. A three-dimensional transportation network has been formed,integrating railway transportation, road transportation, inland waternavigation, maritime and air transportation with road and railwaytransportation as the backbone. At present, 54,000 km-long expresswayand 78,000 km-long railway have been put into use, and there havebeen 148 airports in use. The cargo throughput of ports reached 5.87billion tons last year, up by 11.5%, and the container throughputamounted to 128.35 million TEU, up by 12.2%. Shanghai Port, which isthe biggest port in China, has exceeded Rotterdam Port in theNetherlands in terms of the handling capacity of cargo and now ranksthe first in the world. Its handling capacity of containers is also similar toSingapore and Hong Kong, which take the first and second placerespectively in the world. Therefore, Shanghai Port has become thelargest port in the world.By the end of last year, we had 64.67 million private ownedautomobiles, 982.04 million phone users including 641.23 million mobilephone subscribers and 340.81 million fixed-phone users, and 300 millionpeople using Internet including 270 million using wideband Internet.Last year, 45.84 million person-times went abroad, and 130.03 millionperson-times came to China for travel, bringing 40.8 billion USD foreignrevenues. In terms of domestic travel, 1.71 billion person-times wenttraveling with total revenue of 874.9 billion Yuan.V. EDUCATION & SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY1. Culture, health care and physical education 11
  12. 12. China has a rich cultural heritage with far-reaching influence of Confucianism. It boasts many world famous historical relics, among which the Great Wall and the Terra Cotta Warriors are listed as two of the eight wonders in the world. Representative literary forms include prose of Han Dynasty, poem of Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty, verse of Yuan Dynasty, and novels of Ming and Qing Dynasties. The modern and contemporary literatures enjoy a brisk and prosperous situation of "letting a hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools of thought contend". Painting, calligraphy and dramas also have their unique characteristics.Now, there are 2,575 art-performing groups, 3,171 cultural centers,2,825 public libraries, 1,798 museums, 257 radio broadcasting stationsand 277 TV stations with 45 educational TV stations. In addition, thereare 163.42 million cable TV users and 45.03 million digital TV users. By theend of last year, the broadcasting coverage was 96%, and TVcoverage reached 97%. Besides, China publishes 44.5 billion pieces ofnewspapers, 3 billion copies of magazines and 6.9 billion copies ofbooks. There are 3,987 archives where 72.67 million documents areopen to the public.Progress is also made in medical care service. Up to now there areabout 300,000 health care institutions, including 60,000 hospitals andclinics with 3.69 million sickbeds and 4.92 million health workers of which2.05 million are practicing and assistant doctors and 1.62 millionregistered nurses.Remarkable achievements have been scored in sports. In 2008,Chinese athletes won 120 world champions in 24 contests, and broke16 world records. China‘s basketball and volleyball teams are ratherstrong in Asia, and women‘s volleyball and women‘s football teams areamong the best teams in the world. Besides, China is undoubtedlystrong in table tennis, badminton, weightlifting, shooting, gymnasticsand diving. In the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, Chinese athletes won51 gold medals, 21 silver medals and 28 bronze medals, ranking the firstin terms of the number of gold medals and the second in terms of thetotal number of medals. In the Beijing Paralympic Games, our athleteswon 89 gold medals, 70 silver medals and 52 bronze medals, taking thefirst place in terms of both the number of gold medals and totalnumber of medals as we did in 2004 Athens Paralympic Games.2、EducationChinese government and people have always been attaching greatimportance to education and adopting the strategy of rejuvenatingthe nation through science and education. There are over 700,000schools of various kinds in China. The 9-year compulsory educationcovers over 95% of the population. The enrollment rate for children is99.27 %. Young illiterate rate has been reduced to as low as below 5%.Enrollment rate for high school has reached 60%, and higher educationhas been popularized with an enrollment rate of 23%. Education inChina involves a huge number of students; if all the classes start at thesame time, there will be 250 million students in the classroom. (Including1.283 million postgraduates, 20.21 million university students, 20.563 12
  13. 13. million in secondary vocational or technical schools, 24.763 million insenior high schools, 55.742 million in junior high schools, 103.315 million inprimary schools, 417,000 in special education schools and 24.75 millionin kindergarten).3. Science and technologyAt present, China has over 30 million professional technicians of variousfields. In 2008, the R & D expenditure was 457 billion Yuan, up by 23.2%compared to that in 2007, accounting for 1.52% of China‘s GDP. Wehave our own atomic bombs and hydrogen bombs used for self-defense and man-made satellites. In addition, more than 10% of thescientific technology is of world-leading level.All in all, China has made remarkable achievements in economy,scientific technology and culture and education. But owing to thehuge population and poor foundation, China is still backward in manyaspects. Though China‘s total economic volume ranks the fourth in theworld, the per capita GDP is only around 2600 US dollars.The rapid growing economy of China has created a lot of employmentopportunities; however, the registered unemployment rate in urbanarea at the end of 2008 reached 4.2% with over 100 million surplus laborforces in the rural area. Particularly, in the middle and western area,there are still 40.07 million poor people whose average per capitaannual income is less than 1,196 Yuan. In addition, China‘s economy isdeveloping fast while it is confronted with the arduous task of resourceand environment protection. Therefore, all in all, China is still adeveloping country and remains to be the largest developing countryin the world. 13
  14. 14. The Bamboo Sector as an Effective Stakeholder Network and the Role of INBAR J. Coosje Hoogendoorn1 and A. Benton21. Director General, INBAR, P.O.Box 100102-86, Beijing, China (choogendoorn@inbar.int)2. Manager, Networking and Partnerships Unit, INBAR, P.O.Box 100102- 86, Beijing, China (andrew@inbar.int)INTRODUCTIONBamboos grow naturally in almost all tropical and sub-tropical countries,except those in the Persian Gulf, North Africa and the Sahel, andextend well into the temperate zones of each hemisphere. Manysocieties have developed integrally with bamboo, and the ubiquityand utility with which bamboo is relied upon by people in over half thenations of the world for varied aspects of their lives is well documented.Cultures have evolved with bamboo, and it has been a significantcontributor to the development of civilization.With perhaps a billion of the world‘s population relying on bamboo insome way or another for some aspect of their lives or livelihoods, thevast majority of those poor and in developing countries, theopportunity that bamboo offers to improve their situations by buildingon inherent bamboo skills and knowledge is huge. Already, innovationof products, policies and support structures have led some countries,particularly China, and to a lesser extent India, Colombia and thePhilippines amongst others, to develop thriving commercial bamboosectors that employ millions of people.Because of the versatility of uses of bamboo wood, the productionchains of bamboo for different products often involve a range ofpeople at different stages, each stage a different processing step, andeach step involving value addition by the producers, and henceincome generation. As a result the value chain of bamboo products isvery pro-poor. Even with products that are finished in large factories,much primary processing is required and is usually done by the farmersthat grow and harvest them or in their communities, which not onlybenefits the processors, but is usually cheaper for the factory owner asthey can work with semi-processed materials. A production chain canthus involve many stakeholders, from individual farmers to NGOssupporting their work, funding agencies such as banks, commercialcompanies, government agencies from forestry departments to 14
  15. 15. ministries of commerce, chambers of commerce, fair trade groups, allof which have varying roles within it.The environmental benefits of bamboo in relation to coping withclimate change are presently very topical - annual non-destructiveharvesting of bamboo means that the canopy is retained over the soiland permanently and significantly reduces soil erosion, whilst providinga predictable supply of wood for income generating activities.Bamboo‘s very rapid growth rate means it sequesters carbon rapidly,though the extent to which this happens needs further research (Liese,in press). Most high-value bamboo products have a long life, and thecarbon can be captured and held for many decades. As analternative to timber wood, using bamboo would help reduce thedestruction of forests, particularly tropical forests - activities which inthemselves release large amounts of carbon.At the Conference on ―Climate Change, Global Risks, Challenges andDecisions‖ in Copenhagen in March 2009, noted Climate Changespecialist Prof. John Schellnhuber said: ―We are facing the MADchallenge: Mitigation, Adaptation and Development‖ (seehttp://climatecongress.ku.dk/). He argued for holistic approaches, notmarginal changes, that actively involve developing countries – and thevast majority of these already have bamboo. The inherent ability ofbamboo to combine protection of the environment with incomegeneration ensures it is a strong candidate for contributing to theseholistic integrated development systems that will be necessary fordealing with the MAD challenge. At the same time, researching andimplementing holistic development systems can only be successfulthrough a partnership approach.INBAR AS A NETWORKING AGENCYA good partnership brings together organizations and individuals withsimilar goals but different and complementary skills, which ensuresmore effective and efficient progress towards their common aims, andenables them to learn together, and from each other. Partnerships areoften formalized by an MoU indicating a general agreement to worktogether, or by a contract in order to implement a project or otheractivity. In the latter case, careful inclusion of appropriate technical,national/local support, field implementation, innovation, marketing,training organizations (amongst others) at appropriate levels –international, national, local or community – can build strong links thatincrease local and national capacities to implement the project, tocontinue its development or adapt it for broader uptake after theproject has finished. 15
  16. 16. The different levels of knowledge and awareness of what bamboo cando across the world is vast. INBAR often finds that when we bringpeople from countries with untapped bamboo-based developmentpotential to China to see the bamboo value chain, or to our ActionResearch Sites in Asia, Africa or Latin America, they are amazed at thepossibilities bamboo has to offer. Unless specific action is undertaken,ideas and innovations tend to remain where they originate and withthe people who originated them. This is to be expected particularly inthe case of new products where many have a financial value. Clearlysharing of information across boundaries, be they national, cultural,economic or social, is an essential first step to enabling decision makersto decide whether and which bamboo-based solutions to trial in theirown regions. Linking appropriate partners to the decision makers andthe implementers to help them achieve their bamboo-based aims isthe second step, and providing guidance and assistance to enablethem to achieve these aims is the third.Recognizing the essential need for sharing and enhancing existing skillsand experiences from the very diverse backgrounds from which theycome in order to grow the world‘s bamboo sector, INBAR wasestablished to act as the hub of a network of bamboo expertise,implementation, adaptation and adoption organizations andindividuals. This confers certain advantages, responsibilities and ways ofworking on INBAR. Firstly, networks, and the partnerships that developfrom them, enable learning and innovation amongst their members –sharing of information and skills increases the abilities of members, andbuilds stronger partnerships between them. This leads to increasedmutual trust and support that strengthens the network, includingsharing information that would not otherwise be shared. Finally,networks and partnerships lead to an increased capacity to managechange by the members and empower them to deal with the broader,more complex issues that affect their common interests (Svendsen andLaberge, 2007).Over the years INBAR has formally partnered (ie by MoU, contract orsimilar agreement) well over 200 organizations, companies andindividuals for its work, and worked informally with many more. Ourmailing list includes over 5500 institutions and individuals throughout theworld. As a hub, INBAR aims to collate and provide up-to-dateinformation on all aspects of bamboo-based development to theworld community, and we are continually working to improve ourinformation services. INBAR coordinates a range of training andawareness- raising activities, focusing on its abilities as a globalnetworking organization to share skills across national and continentalboundaries. INBAR also needs to lead the development of innovativebamboo-based solutions to poverty and environmental amelioration,and runs Action Research Projects to do this. Not only do they trial the 16
  17. 17. production of bamboo products in different locations, with differentbamboo species, under different environmental, social and marketconditions and different levels of policy support and investment, butthey also trial different partnerships and show how they can work forsustainable development. INBAR shares the experience gained toguide and help other members of the network achieve similar success.INBAR’S PARTNERSThe world‘s bamboo sector is very diverse. Within the sector, differentsets of stakeholders have different demands, and so INBAR works todevelop sub-networks where appropriate, sometimes thematic,sometimes geographical, that bring like-minded stakeholders together.In general our main groups of stakeholders can be categorized as: The approximately one billion rural poor people who depend in some way or another on bamboo for some or all of their lives and livelihoods The governments of INBAR‘s member countries and, by default, all their citizens (ie. over 3 billion people) The consumers of bamboo products throughout the world Actual or potential investors in the bamboo sector Bamboo innovators and implementers The world‘s development communityINBAR has developed formal structures for some of its partnerships:MEMBERSHIPMembership of INBAR is open only to sovereign states registered withthe United Nations. Nine states signed INBAR‘s establishment treaty in1997, and presently 34 states have acceded – 10 in Asia, 13 in Africa, 9in Latin America, one in North America and one in Oceania.Membership of INBAR confers certain advantages on these states, butalso requires their commitment to helping INBAR develop for the goodof their own citizens. Representatives of the Member Countries meetonce every two years as the INBAR Council to review INBAR‘s progressand take decisions about its future.AFFILIATESINBAR‘s affiliates scheme, with about 170 members, is regarded as asecond tier of membership, and is open to individuals andorganizations alike for a small fee. It offers a range of benefits tomembers. The scheme in Latin America is particularly successful, andacts as a network of geographically and culturally-similar partners,sharing a common language.PARTNERSHIP PROGRAMMES 17
  18. 18. INBAR runs three thematic programmes and also three specialpartnership programmes – the NTFP Global Partnership Programme(NTFP-GPP), the Global Bamboo Housing Programme (GBHP) and theGlobal Rattan Programme (GRP). These are multi-level partnershipsthat work with stakeholders ranging from governments (eg. for policy,investment) to NGOs (eg. for community training or access tocommon-use processing facilities). They work by either encouragingformal membership of organizations in the partnership, and/or by beingopen to individuals and institutions via memberships of online discussiongroups.The NTFP-GPP was established under the aegis of the Global Forum onAgricultural Research in 2005 and currently has 22 members, includingthe governments of India, Mozambique and Ecuador, SNV - theNetherlands Development Organization, the Asian and Arab Networksfor Sustainable Agricultural Development, and a range of NGOs andcompanies. Its goals are ensconsed in the Marrakech Declaration, andit aims to promote collaborative efforts, synergies and economies ofscale to address strategic NTFP research and development issues ofglobal relevance in order to contribute to achieving the MillenniumDevelopment Goals. Projects to date have included evaluations ofNTFP potential in Mozambique and reviews and policy work ofcharcoal production and use in Africa. The NTFP-GPP helps the INBARnetwork to learn from other NTFPs, and the NTFPs represented by theGPP members learn from INBAR‘s network to improve theireffectiveness.The Global Bamboo Housing Programme aims to promote anddevelop appropriate sustainable housing solutions using bamboo. Witha global need for 4000 new houses every day, pressure on timber andthe rising costs of mineral-based raw materials, the programme and itspartners have demonstrated bamboo as an effective alternativeresource for construction in a number of countries in Asia, Africa andLatin America. The programme has trained hundreds of houseconstructors, fostered innovation of new housing construction systemsusing engineered bamboo, and developed support systems such asstandards for building with round-pole bamboo that can be used todevelop national legislation that provides a legal framework forbuilders of bamboo houses. With its partners it has innovated aprototype refugee shelter from bamboo in Ghana, and builtemergency shelters in Sichuan after the earthquake in 2008. Theprogramme has organized two international workshops on housing andhas organized a highly acclaimed design competition (see Xiao et al.2008; Paudel et al. 2008). The programme presently supports projects todevelop modular bamboo housing production facilities in Nepal andEthiopia, to develop pre-formed bamboo components and relevantpolicy supports in India, and has started working on bamboo housing 18
  19. 19. more widely in East Africa. Its thriving Google group is a forum fordiscussion and exchange amongst individuals and institutions, with wellover 150 members.The Global Rattan Programme commenced in 2008, and has a specificaim to foster links between Asia, Africa and Latin America. Currently itruns its first project in Ghana. It is presently an informal network, and notdirectly relevant to bamboo, expect for the fact that in a significantnumber of countries the bamboo and rattan sectors are very muchintertwined.As part of its core activities, INBAR runs to develop innovative andsustainable solutions to environmental degradation, poverty and fairertrade with bamboo, in partnership with a wide range of expertorganizations and individuals. Project partners are a.o. multilateralagencies, funding agencies, government departments, NGOs,research and development agencies, community-based organizations,and marketing organizations.IMPACT OF INBAR’S WORKINBAR‘s work aims to contribute to the United Nations MillenniumDevelopment Goals, particularly MDG 1 (eradicate extreme povertyand hunger), MDG 7 (ensure environmental sustainability) and MDG 8(develop a global partnership for development). To ensure that INBARworks effectively, INBAR developed four strategic goals in 2006 that itaims to achieve over the following decade (INBAR, 2006): 1. An expanded, highly effective network of committed stakeholders (MDG 8) 2. Better ways and means of livelihood development, particularly in rural areas (MDG 1) 3. Increased and more effective conservation of the environment and of biodiversity (MDG 7) 4. A better and more innovative market environment, providing fair global-to-local and local-to-global trading systems for income generation (MDG 8)INBAR with its partners is making good progress towards realizing itsgoals.MDG 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 19
  20. 20. Directly improving the lives of thousands of people in Asia, Africa and Latin America in development projects INBAR and its partners work with a small but representative sample of the rural poor in our field projects to develop replicable and adaptable development models with bamboo and rattan that can be scaled up and applied more widely. We have helped thousands of men and women in the Action Research Sites earn incomes from bamboo, and have developed a Global Marketing Initiative to promote better products that meet international market demand, to help increase the benefits they accrue from their work (eg. see Ramanuja Rao et al, in press).. Helping innovate bamboo technologies and products with market potential INBAR and partners have fostered the development of a wide range of new products, and the systems used to produce them, including flat-pack bamboo furniture, bamboo crisps, stylish round-pole furniture, mass produced incense sticks and commoditized bamboo laths and slats, all of which meet market demand, or open up new trading avenues. Training over 6000 people in bamboo production and processing INBAR run training courses with partners in all developing continents. Many trainees use their new skills to establish businesses or take jobs in the sector. Courses targeted towards government decision-makers have encouraged some of them to develop national bamboo-based development programmes and projects in their own countries.MDG 7: Ensure environmental sustainability Demonstrating bamboo for rehabilitating degraded lands and preventing soil erosion The bamboos that INBAR supported the NGO ―UTTHAN‖ to plant on land severely degraded by mining for brick making in Allahabad, India raised the water table by 7m in five years. In only two years bamboo plantations in China reduced soil erosion by 75% whilst providing incomes to local people who processed them for sale (see Kutty and Narayanan, 2003). Evaluating the state of the World‘s bamboo resources INBAR and FAO have agreed to include bamboo in FAO‘s pentennial Forest Resources Assessment, which will give a more accurate picture of the state of the world‘s bamboo forests. We estimated global bamboo species diversity and highlighted threatened habitats and species with UNEP(see Bystriakova et al 2002). Demonstrating new conservation techniques 20
  21. 21. With local partners in Sichuan, Yunnan and Hunan provinces in China, INBAR has innovated new conservation techniques for endangered bamboo stands that improve productivity whist protecting the forest, and together we are developing a management standard to enable replication.MDG 8: Develop a global partnership for development Facilitating development of national and local institutional support systems in nine countries Through our development projects we have fostered the development of bamboo based NGOs in INBAR member countries, such as Ecuador, Ghana, India, Tanzania, Ethiopia and Mozambique and helped facilitate government bamboo initiatives in India, Ghana and Mozambique that are now leading the development of the sector in these countries. Developing standardized customs codes for more accurate reporting of bamboo and rattan trade, and an online trade statistics database We worked with the World Customs Organization and other partners to produce bamboo specific categories and codes that are being used to track international trade more accurately since 2007. The INBAR online bamboo and rattan trade database provides easy access to the data. Developing building codes for bamboo structures Bamboo building codes for round pole houses have been adopted by the International Standards Organization and provide a basis for developing national legislation for bamboo buildings (see Anon, 2004). The GBHP is presently working on similar codes for engineered bamboo buildings. Promoting commodity-based development As the International Commodity Body for Bamboo and Rattan of the Common Fund for Commodities, INBAR facilitates the development and implementation of many bamboo commodity-based projects that help our member states develop bamboo and rattan as viable market-based options.These achievements would not have been possible without thenetworking approach. We like to believe that the work done togethernot only has had real impact in the communities and on theenvironment, but that it also has grown all the partners involved,helped partners to learn from each other, and made all better atdoing development with bamboo. Further development of the networkis essential, as more and more organizations are seeing the possibilitiesof bamboo. Meetings such as this one are excellent opportunities to re- 21
  22. 22. connect with many partners, to link in with new ones, and we lookforward to working in an even more close partnership with the bamboosector, not least so we can respond effectively to the MAD challenge.ReferencesAnon. 2004. Bamboo - Structural Design. ISO 22156:2004 InternationalStandards Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.Bystriakova, N.; Kapos, V.; Lysenko, I. 2002. Potential distribution ofwoody bamboos in South, South-East and East Asia, Papua NewGuinea and Australia. INBAR, Beijing.Bystriakova, N.; Kapos, V.; Lysenko, I. 2002. Potential distribution ofwoody bamboos in Africa and America. INBAR, BeijingINBAR, 2006. In Partnership for a Better World – Strategy to the Year 2015.Beijing, China. 20ppKutty, V.; Narayanan, C. 2003. Greening Red Earth - Bamboos role inthe environmental and socio-economic rehabilitation of villagesdevastated by brick mining. INBAR, BeijingLiese, W. In Press. Bamboo as carbon sink – fact or fiction? Proceedingsof the 8th World Bamboo Congress, Bangkok, Thailand..Paudel, S.K.; Greenberg, D.; Henrikson, R. 2008. Visionary BambooDesigns for Ecological Living. INBAR, Beijing, China. 102ppRamanuja Rao, I.V.; Kumar, A.; Reza, S.; Motukuri, B. In press. A Pathwayout of Poverty – Bamboo incense stick production as a livelihoodoption for rural women in Tripura, India. INBAR, Beijing.Svendsen A, Laberge, M. 2007. How to Build a Stakeholder Network.Notes for Practitioners Series. Corerelations Consulting Inc, USA.(www.sfu.ca/cscd/cli/network.pdf - accessed 20 July 2009)Xiao, Y.; Inoue, M.; Paudel, S.K. 2008. Modern Bamboo Structures.Proceedings of the First International Conference on Modern BambooStructures (ICBS-2007), Changsha, China, 28 – 30 October 2007. CRCPress, Boca Raton, USA. 22
  23. 23. The General Condition and Related Policies of Bamboo Industry Development in China Jiang Sannai Email: jiangsannai@sina.com Afforestation Department of SFA, P R China1. BAMBOO RESOURCE IN CHINA(1) Bamboo Area: Bamboo forest is an important part of forest resources inChina. There are 16 provinces in Southern China where is suitable to plantbamboo. According to the result of the 6 th national forest resource survey(released in 2005), there are more than 4.8 million hectares of bamboonow in China, while there was 4.2 million hectares in the 5th national forestresource survey result (released in 2000). It means that from 2000 to 2005,the bamboo area has been increasing by rate of 1300 thousandshectares annually. In the recent years, promoted by the six key forestryprojects such as converting grain-land to forest-land project (grain togreen), shelterbelt forest projects, high-yield and fast-growth forest project,and so on, the bamboo planting area is increased by higher rate annually.(2) Bamboo Species: There are 37 genus and more than 500 species ofbamboo in China, and among them, there are 16 genus and more than200 species have high economical and ecological value. Mao bamboo(Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens) is the most widely plantedand utilized specie. According to the using purpose, bamboo forest canbe classified into four types as culm-producing bamboo forest, shoot-producing bamboo forest, culm and shoot-producing bamboo forest,and ornamental bamboo forest.2. BAMBOO PRODUCTS AND ECONOMYFrom the Reforming and Opening policy was put into effect, especially inthe recent years, bamboo industry in China has been developing highlyand an integrated industry chain line has been formed, which includesbamboo cultivation, bamboo products, bamboo export trade and otherservice for bamboo industry. Bamboo industry has become the fastest-developing and most potential industry in forestry industry in China. Up todate, the total annual bamboo industry producing values in China havereached up to more than 66 billion RMB.(1) Bamboo products: In China, the bamboo products include bambooplywood, bamboo shaving/particle board, bamboo furniture, bamboo 23
  24. 24. floor board, bamboo mat, bamboo charcoal products, bamboo fibreproducts (clothes, socks, et al), bamboo building material, bamboo food(shoot), and so on. Generally, there are more than 100 series of bambooproducts and thousands species of bamboo products. In last two years,1.2 to 1.3 billion poles of bamboo, more than 4 million tons of freshbamboo shoot, more than 600 thousands tons of dry bamboo shoot, morethan 3.3 million cubic meters of bamboo plywood and bamboo shavingboard, more than 20 million cubic meters of bamboo-wood compositefloor board were produced in China every year.(2) Bamboo scientific-technical research and development: In the recentyears, we have acquired great progresses in these fields as bamboo forestmanagement technologies (such as fertilizing, irrigation and othertechnical for high-yield bamboo forest management), bamboo productsresearching and developing, bamboo product quality and processingtechnical standards. By now, we have recommended and practicedmore than 500 practicable technologies of bamboo industry, and havemore than 450 patent bamboo products and bamboo technologies.3. MAIN SUPPORTING POLICIES(1) Governmental subsidy policy supported by key forestry projects:Among the existing key forestry projects, there are three projects havefinancial subsidy policy to support bamboo industry development, theyare converting grain-land into forest-land project, Yangtze River and PearlRiver shelterbelt project, high-yield and fast-growth forest project.The converting grain-land into forest-land project: the central governmentprovides food subsidy and living fee subsidy to farmers who convert grainland into forest land (including bamboo forest). The subsidy standard is: inYangtze River area and southern China, the central government provides2250 kg grain (rice or wheat) per hectare per year to farmers whoconverted grain land into forest land. And from 2004, the grain subsidy hasbeen changed into money subsidy (the exchanging ratio is that 1 kg grainmeans 1.40 yuan RMB). Since 2009, the subsidy standard is increased up to3000 yuan per hectare. On the mean time, the central governmentprovides farmers 300 yuan RMB as living fee subsidy for per hectare ofconverted grain-land. The subsidy period is 8 years. 24
  25. 25. High-yield and fast-growth forest project: in this project, the centralgovernment provides financial support to farmers and corporation whocultivate high-yield and fast-growth forest including bamboo forest. Thegovernmental financial subsidy is mainly used to forest fire control, forestpest control and high quality seedling breeding and application. On theother hand, the central government provides state loans to high-yield andfast-growth forest project, the repaying period and guarantee conditionfor these state loans are loosened than common loan.Yangtze River and Pearl River shelterbelt forest project: in this project, thecentral government subsidizes those farmers 1500 yuan RMB who finished1 hectare of shelterbelt forest plantation. Since 2009, the subsidy standardis increased up to 3000 yuan RMB per hectare.Integrated agricultural development fund for bamboo industry: in order topromote the process of modern agriculture, the central governmentestablished a special fund called integrated agricultural developmentfund. Farmers can apply for this fund to develop bamboo industry, anduse it to carry out these activities as follow: low-quality bamboo forestregeneration (including fertilizing, irrigation, reclamation, tending and soon), infra-structure building for bamboo industry (including working-roadbuilding and repairing in forest land, irrigation installation building in forestland), and popularizing and training the farmers about bamboocultivating technologies.(2) Bamboo cutting policyIn order to accelerate bamboo forest cultivating process, the state andlocal government have amended the forest cutting policies several timesin the recent years. According to the actual forest cutting policy, the all-level forestry administration must simplify the examining and approvingprocedure for forest cutting, and should provide technical service andsupervising management to the farmers. Especially, since 2002, the centralgovernment no longer sent down annual plan for bamboo forest cutting,the bamboo cutting plan has been decided by the farmers themselvesunder the supervision of local forestry administration agencies.(3) Financial supporting policy 25
  26. 26. Recently, in order to cooperating to the being-practiced reform ofcollective forest right system, the People‘s Bank of China (PBC, thefinancial administration agency of the central government of China) andother 4 ministries hand in hand draw up a series of financial supportingpolicy to promote forestry reform and development. All these policies arebeneficial to bamboo industry development, too.Firstly, all banks are required to carry out forestry loan businesses actively.By the time being, State Development Bank, Agricultural DevelopmentBank of China, Agricultural Bank of China, and Countryside CreditCooperation of China carry out loan businesses for farmers guaranteedby their forest right. According to the requirement of PBC, all kind, all levelof financial organizations should carry out forestry loan businesses forfarmers, these loan businesses include loan businesses guaranteed byforest right, small-scale credited loan businesses for farmers, loanbusinesses guaranteed by farmers leagues and so on. On the mean time,in those key forestry counties, it is supported to accelerate establishingcountryside banks, countryside mutual funds, loan companies and othernew countryside financial organizations. By these policies, we hope toestablish high effective loan market systems for countryside forestrydevelopment.Secondly, the forestry loan period are required to elongate. By now,implemented by various financial organizations, the forestry loan period tofarmers is 1 year, and the forestry loan to forestry corporations is less than 5years, generally. This period is too short for forestry development.According to the new policy for forestry reform and development, thelongest loan period has been extended to 10 years.Thirdly, the loan interest rate is required to let down. According to the newpolicy sent by PBC, The interest rate for small-scale loan for forestry farmersis required to be low than 1.3 times of the standard interest rate prescribedby PBC. On the other hand, all-level governmental financial agencies arerequired to subsidize interest rate for forestry farmers.Fourthly, loan services are required to improve. In order to make farmersget loan as soon as possible, PBC requires all financial organizations(various banks) to expand the loan business right of their local branches,optimize and simplify their loan examining procedures. 26
  27. 27. Fifthly, establish forest insurance systems. Facing the conditions of longmanagement period, being apt to be harmful of forest fire, flood, snow,freeze and other disasters to forestry management, the central andseveral province government ( for example, Zhejiang province, Jiangxiprovince) have been exploring to establish forest insurance systems. Thesesystems are being testing and experimental stage.(4) Reform of collective forest rightSince 2006, this reform started in Jiangxi province and Fujian province.Then, the reform zone extended gradually. On the base of trial andexperiment, in 2008, the central government let out the comment on howto promote collective forest right reform all over the country. By now,there are 5 province have finished key reform, 25 province are improvingthis reform, and they are amending related policies to accelerate forestrydevelopment. According to this reform,Firstly, farmers can truly own forest land right and forest woods right, andfarmers‘ host status to their forest land and forest woods have beenconfirmed through contractual management responsibility.Secondly, the contractual management period for forest land have beenelongated up to 70 years, this is corresponding to forestry management,and is very good for farmers to manage their forest sustainability.Compared to forest land, the contractual management period foragriculture land is only 30 years.Thirdly, the earnings from contractual forest land belong to farmers. Inorder to protect farmer benefits, if government levies forest landcontracted by farmers, the government must pay the farmers full of theirforest land compensating fee, settlement subsidy fee, forest woodscompensating fee and so on. If government brings the forest landcontracted by farmers into national ecological forest, the governmentneed pay these farmers ecological forest subsidy fee. ( the subsidystandard is 75 yuan RMB per hectare now, since 2010, it maybe increaseup to 10 yuan RMB, and this standard will be increased gradually ). By now,there are two subsidy ways, one is from central government financialsubsidy, and other is from provincial government financial subsidy. 27
  28. 28. Fourthly, according to the newly amended administrative system of forestcultivation funds, the forest cultivation fund levied from farmers must below than 10 percent of the selling income value of forestry products, andin certain district the levying standard for this fund can be 0. Supported bythis policy, farmers can be greatly encouraged to cultivate forestresources including bamboo forest, and it is beneficial to wood productsand bamboo industry development.(5) Support for bamboo industry associations and farmer’s specialtycooperative organizationsFirstly, in 2008, according to the law of farmer‘s specialty cooperativeorganizations, Treasury ministry and General Taxation Administration of thecentral government made a rule that, for agricultural product, seed,fertilizer, pesticide, agricultural machines sell by farmer‘s specialtycooperative organizations to their own members, the value added tax isduty free.Secondly, treasury ministry of the central government establishes specialtraining subsidy fund for farmers. This fund is specially subsidized to thetraining organizations which provide scientific and technical training tofarmers. The training organizations must be openly selected by certainagencies (for example, central ministry and local-level bureaus of humanresource and social guarantee), including a variety of agriculture colleges,agricultural research institutes, farmer‘s specialty cooperativeorganizations, agricultural industry companies and so on.Thirdly, the central government finance budget especially setupexpenditure for development of farmer‘s specialty cooperativeorganizations. This budget expenditure is mainly used in introducing newtechnologies and new plant species, employing technical specialists,providing training and information services to farmers and so on.4. MAIN PROBLEMSFirstly, bamboo industry develops non-balanced among different zone. Ineast China, for example, Zhejiang province, Fujian province andGuangdong province, bamboo industry have been developing very fastand sustainable in the recent years, bamboo industry product value ofthese 3 provinces have been more than 60 percent of the total value of 28
  29. 29. bamboo industry of China. In west China, for example, Guangxiautonomy region, Sichuan province, Yunnan province, Guizhou province,bamboo industry have been developing very fast recently, too. But, in thecentral part of China, for example, Hunan province, Jiangxi province,Hubei province, Anhui province, although they have abundant bambooresources, the bamboo product industry developed slowly in the recentyears.Secondly, the advantage of bamboo species can not be brought intoplay. There are more than 500 species of bamboo in China, but, by now,there are only 20 or so bamboo species have been developed andapplied widely in the practice. Mao bamboo have been developed andapplied more than thousands years and the management level is high,but some small-round bamboo and sympodial bamboo species can notbe developed and applied extensively.Thirdly, the productive ability of bamboo forest land is low. In China, thereis only one quarter of bamboo forest have reached the national standardof high-yield bamboo forest, the area of intensively managed bambooforest is not large, and there are large scale of low-quality, low-productivity bamboo forest.Fourthly, local bamboo industry associations can not be effectivelyorganized and developed. Currently, local bamboo industry association isbeing in beginning stage, the number of local associations is lack, theproportion of farmers in various bamboo industry associations is low, andthese local associations are too depend on government agency, theability of self-development, self-management and self-service is weak.5. MAIN COUNTERMEASURES(1) Enforce scientific and technical innovation. Try best to let all-levelfinance agencies to put more attention to bamboo product processingtechnologies, bamboo germ plasma resources protect, improved varietybreeding, bamboo forest management, integrated use of bambooresources and so on.(2) Enforce infrastructure construction of bamboo forest. Try best to let all-level financial agencies to put more attention to forest land road, fertilizer, 29
  30. 30. irrigation and other infrastructure building, to increase the managementlevel and productivity of bamboo forest.(3) Enforce balance development of bamboo industry. Encourage todevelop and research small-round and sympodial bamboo. On one hand,continue to develop economical bamboo forest as culm-producingbamboo stand, shoot-producing bamboo stand, culm and shoot-producing bamboo stand, on the other hand, put more attention to thedevelopment of ornamental bamboo stand, ecological bamboo forest.(4) Enforce bamboo industry association organizing ability. Encourage todevelop all-level bamboo industry association, actively cultivate bambooproduct broker and manager markets, actively support leaded bambooproduct companies.(5) Improve the ability of bamboo industry to cope with internationaleconomic risk. According to the new situation after China enter into WTO,on one hand, we will continue to accelerate domestic bamboo industrydevelopment, on the other hand, we will pay more attention to theinternational bamboo industry developing trend, enforce dealing withinternational dispute, enforce training and service about internationaltrade principle, patent right and so on, in order to improve the coping-with-risk ability of bamboo industry of China. 30
  31. 31. Main Experience of Sustainable Bamboo Development in China Zhu Zhaohua Email: zhzhu@inbar.int Distinguished Fellow of INBAR for Life1. BACKGROUNDThe cultivation of bamboo in China has a long history. During the reign ofthe Qin Dynasty (221-207 BC), there were large areas of cultivatedbamboo plantations, with a reach far north that of the present distribution.In his poem depicting the Qinchuan region of Shaanxi Province, Li Xin, apoet from the Tang Dynasty, wrote: ―The sound of the autumn bamboo intens of thousands of households, the colour of the cold pine on theimperial tomb.‖ Now, however, bamboo stands can no longer be found inthat region.The history of bamboo utilization and processing in China can be tracedback 5,000 to 6,000 years. The 200 sets of various kinds of woven bambooproducts excavated from Banpo Village (3,600-6,800 years ago) in Xi‘anand from Qianshan in Zhejiang province show that Neolithic man (3,200-3,000 BC) had already mastered bamboo weaving techniques. Therewere bamboo palaces in the Han Dynasty period (206 BC-220 CE) and, inthe Jin Dynasty period (265-316 CE), DaiKai,an expert inbamboo,published a special monograph on bamboo called Zhu Pu,which introduced techniques of bamboo cultivation and utilization anddried bamboo shoot making. It also states that bamboo is a special typeof plant---nonherb and nonwood, which belongs neither to anherbaceous plant nor to a woody plant.Before paper was invented, bamboo tablets were one of the earliestcarriers of Chinese characters. In the Yin and Shang period (1,600-1,100BC), there were books made from bamboo tabletss. The process ofbamboo pulping and high-grade paper making from year-old tenderbamboo has been around since the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220 CE). Thecalligraphy brush, with its animal hair tip and bamboo culm handle, hasbeen in existence before the Shang Dynasty, more than 4,000 years ago.In ancient China, bamboo was also used to issue orders and commands–a piece of wood as a symbol of power that military commanders used toissue orders and deploy forces. In ancient days, the Chinese also usedbamboo to make various kinds of musical instruments: these instrumentshave important place in traditional Chinese music. It should especially be 31
  32. 32. pointed out that the Chinese have always viewed bamboo as a spiritualsymbol. Celebrities and writers through the ages have written numerousarticles and poems praising bamboo. One of them is a poem wriiten bythe famous poet SuShi in Song Dynasty, which shows the high place ofbamboo in people‘s mind and life. It says that:‖ without meat people cansurvive but without bamboo they can‘t. Without meat people grow thin,but without bamboo they become vulgar. People can grow fat if they arethin, but have no way to become gentle if they are vulgar.‖ Thus,bamboo has contributed greatly to the material and spiritual culture ofChina.2. THE RAPID GROWTH OF CHINA’S BAMBOO INDUSTRYThe industralization of China‘s bamboo making begins very late. Before1980, China‘s bamboo industry was mainly based on traditional manulprocessing, besides using it as raw material for papermaking. Bamboofarmers sold raw bamboo as their main mode of operation which wasmostly used in civil architecture、knitted commodities、handicraft articlesand farm implements. Except for consuming by the famers, most ofbamboo shoots were directly sold in the local market when they werefresh. Some of them were made into dried bamboo shoot and brinybamboo shoot by traditional process techniqh. In the early 1980s, afterthe introduction of bamboo processing machine from Taiwan, bambooprocess industry began to mechanize. Bamboo and bamboo shootprodcts not only satisfied the needs of the people in our county, but alsoexported in the the large quantities. The output value of bamboo industryincreased from 0.6 billion USD in 1990 to 7.5 billion USD in 2006. We can seethe development from the figures below.2.1 Chinese bamboo resourcesChina has a rich reserve of bamboo resources. According to the 1993data from the Chinese Ministry of Forestry, there were 3.79 million hectares(ha) of bamboo stands (excluding alpine bamboo stands, mixed forests inwhich bamboo is not the primary species, and stands of useless bamboo),among which 3.52 million ha are natural and 0.27 million ha have beencultivated. State-owned bamboo stands account for only 6.93% of thetotal, while much of the remianing bamboo stands are managed byindividuals or collectives. Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens (Mazel)Ohwi, or Moso, is the predominate species, occupying an area of 2.60million ha. However, since 2000 manual management has beenintroduced in many natural bamboo forests, so most of them havebecome man-made bamboo plantations. 32
  33. 33. China is a centre of bamboo diversity with nearly 500 species in 39 generapresent within its borders, among which there are 179 species ofmonopodial bamboos (71.6% of the total number of monopodial speciesin the world) in 12 genera (92.3% that of the world). In China, there arefour regions and two sub-regions of bamboo distribution – within theoverall geographical limits between 18-35° and 85-120° and within N E,major distribution over the tropical and subtropical zones south of 40°N. Figure 1: Increase of Chinas bamboo plantation area (in million ha) 5 4.84 4.9 4.5 4.5 4.2 4.26 4 3.79 3.5 3.2 3 2.98 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 1976 1980 1995 1998 2000 2003 2004 2005Since the 1950s, the Chinese government has attached great importanceto the development of bamboo plantations. By 1980, the total area ofbamboo plantations in the country had reached 3.20 million ha and, forthe following 20 years, the national increase in bamboo plantationsaveraged 50,000 ha per year (Figure 1). Similarly, the culm production ofMoso bamboo increased from about 75 million in 1975 to 600 million by2003 (Figure 2). The output of other bamboo based on ton. In terms oftonnage, annual bamboo raw material production increased from 17million tonnes in 1975 to 18 million tonnes by 2003 and 20 million tonnes by2005 (Figure 3) 33
  34. 34. 2.2 The output of Chinese bamboo industry and the export of bambooproductsSince 1985, China has begun to introduce bamboo-processing machinesin mainland from Taiwan. The industrial processing first started in Zhejiangand Fujian, and then reached to Jiangxi、Yunnan、Hunan、Guangdongprovinces and so on. Up to 1990s, with the development of bambooprocessing machines, most of which are made by the companies inmainland, bamboo industrial processing has been extensively used in allthe provinces where produce bamboo. The annual output of freshbamboo shoot is about 5 million ton, of which 40% are treated in industrialprocessing. From 1990, mechanization and industrialization of bambooshoot processing began. Besides exporting to Japan 、Korea、China‘sHongkon and Taiwan, since 2000 the bamboo shoot has been exportedto the market in American and Europe. 34
  35. 35. Figure 3: Increase of Chinas bamboo production (in million tons/year, not include Moso bamboo) 20 20 18 15 16.3 10 10.5 5 1.7 1.9 0 1975 1979 1996 2000 2003 2005 Figure 4: Chinas bamboo industry production value (in billion US$) 8 7.2 7 6 5 6.3 4 5.45 3 3.5 2 2.3 1 1.7 0.6 1.1 0 1990 1996 1998 2000 2003 2004 2005 2006 Figure 5: Chinas bamboo product export (in million US$)1200 12001000800 800 950600 650 700400 439 500200 170 35 0 1990 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2005 2006
  36. 36. The output of the bamboo industry has seen remarkably steady increasesfrom 1990 (figure 4), with the output value touching US$ 7.2 billion by 2005.China‘s bamboo exports are mainly to Japan, North American and SouthAsia. Bamboo product exports have grown from US$170 million in 1990 toUS $ 1200 million in 2006 (figure 5).Figures 4 and 5 show that the output of bamboo production and bambooproduct export have both grown rapidly between 1990-2006. During thistime, the output and export values have increased by elevenfold andsixfold respectively. The main reason for export value‘s comparativelyslower growth is that the export value from some bamboo products isoften accredited to non-bamboo products. For example: the outputvalue of bamboo furniture is categorized under furniture; bamboo shootproducts are categorized under food. Therefore, the export value ofbamboo production is much higher than the stated in figure 5.3. Factors Contributing to the Success of China’s Bamboo IndustryWhy does China‘s bamboo industry have such rapid growth in twentyyears? What is the secret? Here I will answer it from several perspectives:the research and development of new technologies and new product;effective technology dissemination system; government‘s policies andsupport system; supply chain for bamboo industry development and multi-party NGOs.3.1 New technologies and new products: research and developmentChina has a long and rich bamboo culture. Bamboo is very important inpeople‘s life, so scientists have always attached great importance to theresearch on bamboo. Especially after the foundation of the PeoplesRepublic of China, it has been widely and thoroughly studied. There areabout 300 scientists do research on bamboo, meanwhile more scientistsand technicians engage in technology dissemination work. This providesthe good foundation for the rapid development of bamboo industry.3.1.1 Bamboo taxonomyChinese scientists have been researching the taxonomy of bamboo sincethe 1930s and as a result, a complete taxonomic system and theory ofidentifying different species have been established. The Flora ReipublicaePopularis Sinicae (FRPS), published in 1988, covers 515 species of bambooin 37 genera. Since then some botanists have discovered new speciesand genera. The current reckoning is that there are about 500 bamboospecies in 39 genera in China, although divergent views and disputes onthese figures still exist among botanists. For instance, FRPS records thatthere are 21 genera of monopodial bamboo. Dr. Li Dezhu believes thatthere are 15, while Professor Zhao Qiseng thinks that there are only 13. 36
  37. 37. Following resource research, researchers also carried out studies on ex situconservation and the related topic of bamboo biodiversity. Bambooarboretums of various scales were set up in some provinces, with thelargest ones located in Anji, Zhejiang province, and Zhangzhou, Fujianprovince. The 17 ha Anji Bamboo Arboretum is the largest for monopodialbamboo and contains almost 300 different species. The 60 ha AnhuaBamboo Arboretum in Zhangzhou is a subtropical and tropical bambooarboretum, which contains a collection of more than 350 species. Theother large-scale bamboo collections are located in the South ChinaArboretum in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, the World HorticulturalExposition in Kunming, Yunan Province, Changning Bamboo Garden inSichuan Province and Taipinghu Bamboo and Rattan Training Centre inHuangshan, Anhui Province.A national survey of China‘s bamboo plantations has been plannedbased on China‘s resource, distribution, and biological and ecologyresearch of bamboo. A survey of the forestry resources is organized everyfour years, which includes bamboo resources.3.1.2 Disease and pest controlAccording to a study, there are more than 600 species of insects from 280genera that attack bamboo plants. The life span, natural predators andprevention and control methods for 200 of these species have beenstudied, and 180 relevant academic theses published on this topic. Afterthe long-term research, the effective monitoring, forecasting andcontrolling system of bamboo disease and insect pest has beenestablished in the main bamboo production areas. Because prediction,prevention and control methods have been strictly adopted andrigorously administered, the bamboo areas like Zhejiang Anji Countyhaven‘t had the disastrous plant diseases and insect pests for nearlyhundred years.3.1.3 Bamboo‘s ecology, physiology and anatomySince the 1980s, research relating to the ecology and physiology ofbamboo and bamboo cultivation has been carried out. Studies havefocused on subjects such as bamboo‘s growth and flowering mechanisms,photosynthesis, mineral nutrition, hormones and enzymes, and thephysiological mechanisms of the on-year and off-year harvesting cycles.Subjects of study related to cultivation include bamboo biomass, carbondistribution, the movement and decomposition of dead plant material,and the moisture and nutrition balance of the land. Results from the 37
  38. 38. studies mentioned above provide a theoretical basis for properpropagation and cultivation techniques. In anatomic research, scientistshave used infrared electronic microscopes and specially preparedcarbonized specimens to observe, analyse, measure, and photographthe micro and super-micro structure and the ratios of tissues of 71 bamboospecies in 33 genera. They have also extracted, classified and compareddifferent types of fibre, creating a comprehensive index of bamboomaterials.3.1.4 High-yield techniquesPropagation techniques – such as raising nursery plants from mother stock,seeds, rhizomes, culm cuttings or internodes, as well as tissue culture –have all been systematically developed. In the field of afforestation,concerns such as plant density, bamboo stand patterns, planting seasonsand methods, tending, fertilization, irrigation, cultivation and naturalregeneration by shoots have been studied.The direction of research on bamboo cultivation has gone through threephases since the 1950s: the improvement of low-yield stands, themanagement of high-yield stands, and the cultivation of highly efficienthigh-yield plantations for specific purposes. Currently, 10% of bamboostands are high-yield type and 30% are medium-yield. Even though low-yield stands have been reduced by 20%, there are still large areas of low-yielding natural bamboo stands that can be improved and developed.As an example of the differences in output, high-yielding Phyllostachysheterocycla Var. pubescens (Mazel) Ohwi stands have a culm output of22.5-30.0 t/ha every two years while that of the medium-yield stands of thebamboo has an output of 15.0 t/ha in the same period. High-yieldingstands of the undersized Phyllostachys siebold Chust Chao andPhyllostachys praecox C.D.Chu et C.S.Chao can yield even more superiorbamboo shoots with an annual production of 30 t/ha.In order to obtain higher economic efficiency, the research target for thepast decade has been to achieve ―high yield of both shoots and culm‖.Present field production has reached the following standard levels: on a1,000 ha scale, high-yield plantations produce 20,000 bamboo culms/haand 1,600 shoots/ha every two years. However, there is scope for higheryields – on a scale of 100 ha, the output of bamboo culm can reach 30t/ha in two years and shoot output can reach 3 t/ha in two years. Thehighest output of bamboo culm at the scale of 1 ha is 47 t/ha in two yearsand for shoots 4.8 t/ha in two years. Much attention has also been paidrecently to the study of multi-species planting in order to ensure that freshbamboo shoots are available year round. These research achievements 38
  39. 39. have increased the efficiency and benefits of cultivation for bamboofarmers.The above-mentioned species are all subtropical bamboos. Tropicalsympodial species may be of higher yield than subtropical species. Forexample, the sympodial species, Dendrocalamus latiflorus, can reachproduction of 45 t/ha per year while D. giganteus can reach an evenhigher annual production rate of 70-80 t/ha.3.1.5 Genetic improvementFor the past 20 years, bamboo breeding in China has focused on thehybridization of sympodial species. Based on the biological and anatomicresearch on bamboo flowering cycles, pollination and bamboochromosomes, high-yield hybrids with superior culms, fibres and shootshave been developed. Scientists have mastered hybridizationtechnologies such as parent selection, pollen preparation and timing,optimal light exposure, pest and disease control, and hybrid propagation.The scientists have selected 4 superior hybrids from among 7 species in 4genera, which possess the advantages of fast growth, good stem form,high long-fibre content, long life span, resistance against disease, andtasty bamboo shoots with high amino acid content. For example, 100 g ofdried shoots of the hybrid Bambusa pervariablilis X Dedrocalamus latiflorusNo.7 contains 21.57 g of amino acids, of which 7.05 g are essential to thehuman body. This amino acid content is higher than that found in the non-hybrid species D. latiflorus.Because scientists have successfully resolved the technical problemssurrounding tissue culture, it is now possible to propagate hybrids at ahigher rate. The test-tube strike rate is 90% with an average transplantingsurvival rate of more than 70% (the highest survival rate is 93.3%). Hybridbamboo cultivation has now exceeded 666 ha in China. Research hasfound that there are many seedling varieties, providing opportunities forfurther selection. Suitable clones have already been selected from theseedlings of D. latiforus.Scientists have observed the flowering of three bamboo species in test-tubes – D. latiflorus, D. brandisii and Bambusa perariabilis x D. LatiflorusNo.7. They have discovered the genetic, physiological and micro-environmental factors that cause their flowering, opening the way forfuture acceleration of breeding.3.1.6 Bamboo processing technology 39
  40. 40. Compared with wood timber, bamboo culm has several advantages thatmake it ideal for use in construction and decoration: fast growth andregeneration, high density and production, better material properties,straight and smooth grain, and superior colour and lustre. However,properties such as the small culm diameter, thin outer skin, hollow stem,and high starch and protein contents (making it less resistant to pests andcorrosion) make bamboo less favourable than wood timber.Chinese scientists have carried our studies on preservation methods thatsuit the special properties of bamboo. They have also developedprocessing techniques for various kinds of bamboo plywood includingbamboo mat plywood, bamboo curtain plywood, bamboo chipboardand bamboo laminated board. They have developed a series of boardsof various industrial and commercial uses. The 4000-6000 mm × 15-25 mmoverlay board is used as flooring for motor trucks and railway carriages.The polished wooden cement mould board in large-scale constructionapplications, while the high-grade parquet flooring tiles have made amark in overseas market. Bamboo particleboard – which is made from lowquality bamboo and used as common concrete mould board – ischeaper, has a higher density, and a smaller expansion rate on moistureabsorption than wood timber. After it has been found that bamboocontains properties that make it suitable as a composite material,scientists have developed different types of bamboo-reinforcedcomposite materials. Other notable bamboo-based products includebamboo fibreboard, bamboo pipe, non-flat-board construction sets,bamboo core board, laminates and bamboo-wood composites. Bamboofurniture has been a success, with dining tables and office furnitureentering the market in large quantities.In the bamboo mat sector, domestic and export markets for severalproducts – such as bamboo mahjong mats (a mat of small bamboo tilesstringed together), strip mats, woven mats, various types of window anddecorative curtains, and non-woven bamboo carpet – have beengrowing rapidly.3.1.7 Bamboo shoot processing technologyMany bamboo species in China have edible shoots and, among them,more than 40 species are major shoot producers. These include:Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens, Ph. Iridescens, Ph. dulcis, Ph.nuda, Ph. praecox cv. prevernalis, Dendrocalamopsis oldhami, D.beecheyana, D. beecheyana var. pubescens, Dendrocalamus latiflorus,D. brandisii and Fargesia yunnanensis. Research has shown that thebamboo shoot is an ideal low-fat vegetable that creates no envriomentalproblem in its cultivation, has a high protein (2-4%) and edible cellulose 40

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