Encyclopedia of autism spectrum disorders


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Encyclopedia of autism spectrum disorders

  1. 1. 1SpringerReferenceSiena Whitham, Dr. Lindsey Sterling, Ph.D. C. Enjey Lin and Dr. Jeffrey J. WoodSocial Cognitive Learning Theory12 Dec 2012 15:37http://www.springerreference.com/index/chapterdbid/334339© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012Social Cognitive Learning TheoryDefinitionSocial cognitive learning theory is a broad-ranging theoretical model of human behavior and is a major contribution to thesocial and behavioral sciences developed by . theory posits that individuals areAlbert Bandura Social cognitive learningactive agents in their development, not simply passive observers. In this model, there is a dynamic, continuousinterrelationship between an individuals behaviors, the environment, and intrapersonal factors (i.e., cognitive, affective,and biological events) during development (Bandura, , ). The model seeks to explain the determinants of1986 1999behavior as well as the dynamic conditions that can over time.change behaviorHistorical BackgroundSocial grew from Miller and Dollards initial work in the area of in 1941.cognitive learning theory social learning theorytheory provides a foundation for the development of social theory, embodying the ideaSocial learning cognitive learningthat if an individual were motivated to learn a particular behavior, it would be learned through observation and imitation ofactions. Social cognitive learning theory expanded on this premise and is the product of decades of research and analysisof human functioning through the lens of learning frameworks. In 1963, Bandura and Walters wrote the seminal work, which set forth the most comprehensive and complex account of socialSocial DevelopmentLearning and Personalitylearning theory with its emphasis on and vicarious reinforcement. Social learning theory was aobservational learningdeparture from prevalent models of development of the time, such as psychoanalysis and (Grusec, ).behaviorism 1992Psychoanalysts described behavior as driven by internal impulses, whereas behaviorists described behavior ascompletely shaped by the environment (Davis & Luthans, ; Waller, ). Social learning theory, while drawing on1980 2004behaviorism in some ways, depicted behavior as a product of both internal factors and environmental factors and was thefirst major neo-behavior analytic theory to ascribe a role to cognition.Bandura considered observational learning and imitation to be core components of social learning theory (Bandura, 1969). Social learning theory posited that observational learning was a more effective method for behavioral change thandirect learning or successive approximations (Grusec, ). Social learning theory also conceptualized imitation1992differently than previous frameworks (Bandura & Walters, ; Grusec, ). In social learning theory, imitative1963 1992responses did not need to be reinforced for observational learning to occur (Grusec, ).1992In , Bandura renamed this framework from "social learning theory" to "social cognitive theory" with the publication of1986. The of the theory demonstrated the newSocial Foundations of Thought and Actions: A Social Cognitive Theory renamingemphasis on . The new terminology helped to better represent the components and processes he hadcognitive processesbeen advocating since the early 1960s (Grusec, ). From 1986 on, Bandura consistently referred to the theory as1992social cognitive theory although the underlying framework remained the same.This entry refers to the framework as "social cognitive learning theory" (SCLT) which combines the two names given byBandura for the framework and is used by some scholars (e.g., Money, ). This term will be used throughout the1996remainder of this entry.Current KnowledgeCore Concepts of SCLTAccording to SCLT, there is a dynamic relationship between behavior, cognition, and other personal and environmentalinfluences where each factor continually influences and impacts the others (i.e., reciprocal determinism) (Bandura,triadic). Individuals are both producers and products of their environment (Bandura, ). That is, the way people1989 1989interpret their behavior impacts and alters their beliefs and the environment they operate in, which then affects their futurebehaviors (Bandura, ).1986SCLT proposes that individuals are not simply passive observers but active agents in their development; therefore, ittakes an agentic perspective to human functioning (Bandura, ). That is, humans have control over their thoughts and2005behavior. They are active planners, forethinkers, self-regulators, and self-examiners by integrating their experiences to
  2. 2. 2SpringerReferenceSiena Whitham, Dr. Lindsey Sterling, Ph.D. C. Enjey Lin and Dr. Jeffrey J. WoodSocial Cognitive Learning Theory12 Dec 2012 15:37http://www.springerreference.com/index/chapterdbid/334339© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012actively interact within their environment (Bandura, ). The centrality of human agency is embodied by six core2005concepts that are fundamental to SCLT: the ability to symbolize and engage in forethought, ,vicarious learningself-regulatory mechanisms, self-reflection, and self-efficacy (Bandura, ). They place the individual as an active1986participant in the dynamic relationship between the environment, the individuals cognitions, , andpersonal factorsbehaviors rather than a passive bystander of environmental variables or unconscious internal conflicts. These keyconcepts are described in more detail below.Bandura noted that symbolization of thoughts allows people to store information that can be utilized for guiding futurebehavior (Bandura, ). Symbols are of thoughts or images, which allow people to have1989 mental representationsstructure, meaning, and continuity in their lives (e.g., language and ) to navigate their world, understand theirgesturesenvironment, and problem solve (Malone, ). For example, a child develops a mental image of a smile and2002simultaneously assigns emotional and verbal meaning to this representation such as "a smile indicates that someone isfriendly and approachable." He later recalls and builds onto this "symbol" based on his experiences. The childs internalof a smile influences him to respond positively to a smiling peer (e.g., by greeting or asking therepresentation peer toplay). It is proposed that the use of symbols allows for individuals to model observed behavior (Bandura, ).1971The concept of forethought is that individuals can assess the likely consequences of their actions before they actuallyengage in an activity. Forethought utilizes symbolic representations in order to create future-directed plans (Bandura,). For example, when approaching a group of people engaged in a conversation, a person may mentally assess a2005range of strategies to enter the conversation. The choices can vary from appropriate such as making an on-topiccomment (e.g., "Hi, thats a funny story you just shared!") to inappropriate (e.g., spontaneously dancing in front of thegroup to get their attention). The person assesses these choices and associated outcomes and then selects the strategythat would achieve the desired result (e.g., entering the conversation by commenting on the topic in order to be welcomedby the group). It is the mechanism individuals use to create a course of action, set goals, and predict the likelyconsequences of behavior, which motivate and influence future behavior (Bandura, ).2005Vicarious learning, also known as , is a departure from previous behavioral models of learning.observational learningRather than depending solely on ones own actions and experiences as a source of learning, Bandura suggested thatindividuals learn by observing and modeling others behavior. As such, individuals learn novel behaviors without theprocess of trial and error associated with direct learning (Bandura, ); learning by example reduces error in behavior.1986Observational learning involves , particularly when the observed behavior is rewarded. It is guided bymodeling behaviorattention to the models actions, forming symbolic representations of these new behaviors in memory, performing theobserved behavior, and experiencing motivation to produce the actions. For example, a child may observe a friendsuccessfully join a game by how the friend first stands next to and watches other children play, waits for anseeingappropriate , and finally expresses an interest in joining the game (e.g., "I want to play ball, too!"). The childpauseobserves that these behaviors were successful in entering a play situation. She later recalls and engages in similarbehaviors when presented with a related social scenario. The developmental level of the learner may also influencelearning and behavior, which has potential consequences for individuals on the autism spectrum (discussed in more detailin the next section). facilitates the acquisition of information that guides behavior (Grusec, ).Vicarious learning 1992Self-reflection is the ability for people to evaluate their experiences. It is a mechanism that allows people to ultimatelyadapt behaviors and cognitions according to what they have seen, heard, felt, realized, and so forth. For example, afterexperiencing a difficult conversation with a friend, a teenager may recall the conversation. He evaluates whether thesituation was handled appropriately by mentally reviewing his interactions as well as that of his friend. He assesses hisfeelings about the overall interaction and what actions he could have done differently to make the conversation moresuccessful. Bandura identified self-reflection as the most "distinctly human" capability ( , p. 21).1986Self-regulation refers to the ability to make adaptations to behavioral responses (Bandura , ). Motivation and2003 2005performance are not solely based on material incentives but social influences and personal standards as well (Bandura,). Personal standards are used as a yardstick for monitoring and comparing behaviors. If ones behavior does not2005measure up to these standards, the individual will self-evaluate and adjust behaviors accordingly. For example, a girl seesher friend in a quiet library and enthusiastically greets her peer. The librarian at the library responds by exclaiming "shh!"The girl takes into account this information from her environment (i.e., the feedback from others that she needs to speakquietly) and adapts her behaviors by speaking at a lower volume and standing closer to her continue thepeer tointeraction. The ability to engage in the self-regulation is shaped by the ability to accurately and reliably engage inself-observation and self-monitoring (Bandura, ).2003Self-efficacy, the belief that one is able to produce desired outcomes, is fundamental to SCLT. It is viewed as a
  3. 3. 3SpringerReferenceSiena Whitham, Dr. Lindsey Sterling, Ph.D. C. Enjey Lin and Dr. Jeffrey J. WoodSocial Cognitive Learning Theory12 Dec 2012 15:37http://www.springerreference.com/index/chapterdbid/334339© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012foundation for motivation, confidence, emotional and psychological well-being, and understanding and explaining peoplesactions (Bandura, ; Bandura, Adams, & Beyer, ). Bandura ( ) defines self-efficacy as "peoples judgments of1977 1977 1986their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances" (p. 391);so, it is a belief about ones capabilities, rather than necessarily knowing what to do. For example, a person with highself-efficacy about his social skills will feel confident in his ability to successfully enter social conversations at a party.Consequently, he will be more likely to try entering new social situations and interact with unfamiliar people because he issure that his strategies will lead to positive responses from others. Self-efficacy is essential for (Bandurabehavior change& Walters, ; Bandura, ) because a persons belief in the capability of producing a desired outcome influences1963 1977the incentive to act or change. Poor perceptions of self-efficacy will weaken motivation to persevere in the face ofchallenges. Self-efficacy beliefs are developed through successful experiences in particular situations (defined in SCLTas mastery of experiences), a person similar to oneself succeed (vicarious experiences), being told that one isseeingcapable of succeeding (social persuasion), and positive interpretation of an event (reduction of stress reactions andnegative affect) (Bandura, ).1994In summary, SCLT posits that specific mediate behaviors. In both direct and indirect learningcognitive processesexperiences, the environment and thoughts affect one another in an intertwined fashion. These theoretical underpinningsprovide an overarching understanding of human development. The theory has been highly influential in psychology,providing foundations for mid-level theories as well as intervention programs. It has provided a forconceptual frameworksome mid-level cognitive behavioral theories because it embraces the combined importance of external factors (i.e.,experience and social contexts) and internal factors (i.e., cognition) in understanding and predicting human behavior.SCLT in Understanding Autism Spectrum DisorderAs outlined above, SCLT suggests that an individuals development and functioning relies on ones ability to symbolize, toengage in forethought, learn vicariously, self-regulate, self-reflect, and experience self-efficacy (Bandura, ).1986Individuals with may have limitations in a number of these areas, and these impairments likely have importantASDconsequences on their development, behavior, and capacity to benefit from intervention strategies.Impairment in the ability to symbolize, for example, is consistently reported in ASD (e.g., Bernabei, Palli, Levi, Mazzoncini,& Cannoni, ). These challenges are evidenced by lack of or (Jarrold, ; Varga, ),1999 imagination pretend play 2003 2010deficits in (Peterson, Garnett, Kelly, & Attwood, ), and limited use of and other nonverbaltheory of mind 2009 gesturesmeans of communication (Shumway & Wetherby, ). Such deficits impede ones ability to make sense of perceived2009information from people and their environment, create , and apply this to their behavioralmental representationsrepertoire. This can have detrimental consequences in terms of social cognitive development and understanding onessocial .milieuEvidence suggests that individuals with ASD exhibit atypical and attention (Brenner, Turner, & Muller,visual scanning), which impacts the ability to benefit from . For example, individuals with ASD may have2007 observational learningdifficulty processing visual information using a top-down strategy (Loth, Gomez, & Happe, ). Whereas typically2011developing individuals are able to use prior knowledge and context to perceive fragmented or degraded images asrecognizable stimuli (e.g., faces), individuals with ASD often attend to local features of a stimulus when processing visualinformation (e.g., Nakahachi et al., ; Rondan & Deruelle, ). In other words, individuals with ASD may attend to2008 2007details rather than relying on prior knowledge and experience and context to interpret ambiguous stimuli. In addition,evidence suggests that rather than attending to pertinent features of a face (e.g., eyes), individuals with ASD tend todevote attention to the mouth when viewing faces (e.g., Klin, Jones, Schultz, Volkmar, & Cohen, ). It has been2002hypothesized that these patterns of attention contribute to and recognition deficits associated with ASDface processing(Golarai, Grill-Spector, & Reiss, ), demonstrating how atypical impacts interpretation of social stimuli.2006 visual attentionAtypical processing of social stimuli undoubtedly impacts the ability to garner important information from onesenvironment, impeding successful observational learning. It has also been demonstrated that individuals with ASD fail toorient to social stimuli (e.g., their name being called; Dawson, Meltzoff, Osterling, Rinaldi, & Brown, ), indicating they1998may not be motivated to attend to social stimuli and likely miss critical cues in their environment. Failure to attend to socialcues suggests that individuals with ASD perceive, assimilate, and are shaped by a set of informational cues that differsfrom typically developing individuals. Studies of young children have also demonstrated that ASD is characterized bychallenges with , or difficulty disengaging from one stimulus and shifting eye gaze to a newdisengagement of attentionstimulus (Landry & Byson, ; Zwaigenbaum et al., ). This impedes successful visual scanning of ones2004 2005environment and ability to process salient stimuli, which are critical features of observational learning. Finally, it has
  4. 4. 4SpringerReferenceSiena Whitham, Dr. Lindsey Sterling, Ph.D. C. Enjey Lin and Dr. Jeffrey J. WoodSocial Cognitive Learning Theory12 Dec 2012 15:37http://www.springerreference.com/index/chapterdbid/334339© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012consistently been reported that individuals with have impairments in , or the sharing of attentionASD joint attentionbetween two people to reference a stimulus, and this finding is considered a token feature of ASD (e.g., Mundy, Sullivan,& Mastergeorge, ). This skill is fundamental to learning about ones environment and developing .2009 symbolic thoughtWithin a SCLT framework, deficits in these areas may have serious implications in terms of ones ability to learn from theirenvironment, develop appropriate social skills, and function in everyday life.According to SCLT, individuals with ASD may experience further disadvantage given their impaired imitation (i.e.,modeling) skills (Williams, Whiten, & Singh, ). Evidence suggests that dysfunction may partially2004 mirror neuronaccount for these difficulties (e.g., Williams, ). fire not only when an individual is actively imitating but2008 Mirror neuronsalso when observing others executing the same actions (e.g., Iacoboni & Depretto, ). Impairments in this neural2006system would suggest that in addition to the impact on the ability to imitate, individuals with ASD may not processanothers actions when observing them. This can have detrimental consequences on the capacity to learn from onesenvironment and integrate social information into their schema.Another aspect of autism is the failure to develop developmentally appropriate friendships (Bauminger & Kasari, ;2000Chamberlain, Kasari, & Rotheram-Fuller, ). This challenge may impact both motivation in and2006 observational learningdevelopment of self-efficacy. Motivation, in observational learning, refers to the incentive to reproduce the observedbehavior (Bandura, ; Malone, ). The incentive for observational is often a form of social1986 2002 learning behaviorreinforcement or approval. Social reinforcement or approval may be less motivating for individuals with autism due tosocial deficits, such as social and emotional reciprocity and developmentally appropriate relationships with peers(Bauminger & Kasari, ; Chamberlain et al., ).2000 2006These challenges associated with ASD have consequences on ones capacity to perceive and assimilate salientinformation from their environment, thereby impeding appropriate according to SCLT. Interventionsocial developmentstrategies targeted at these specific deficits (e.g., , imitation) may provide individuals with ASD with thevisual attentionopportunity to more efficiently and successfully acquire information from their environment and from other people. Forexample, Faja and colleagues (Faja, Aylward, Bernier, & Dawson, ) developed a computerized face-training program2008to facilitate proper visual attention and improved face recognition in individuals with ASD. And, teaching joint attention toyoung children with autism has led to improvements in related skills, including imitation and spontaneous speech(Whalen, Schreiberman, & Ingersoll, ). These examples demonstrate how targeting skills related to SCLT can have2006broad effects on social functioning in .ASDSCLT and Interventions for ASDVideo modeling is a form of behavioral intervention used to target numerous behaviors in individuals with autism. In videomodeling, the model is shown on a video rather than live, in an attempt to change a behavior or help the individual withautism learn a new, appropriate behavior (Grant & Evans, ). Generally, the individual views the video, observing the1994model engaging in the appropriate behavior, and then imitates the target behavior (Charlop-Christy, Le & Freeman, 2000). Video modeling has been shown to be an effective, and rapid, behavioral intervention in numerous single-case designstudies. It has been shown to be effective for low- and high-functioning individuals with autism (Charlop-Christy et al.,). Video modeling incorporates many tenets of SCLT in order to promote behavioral changes in individuals with2000autism.Primarily, video modeling incorporates the four processes required for observational learning, attention, retention,, and motivation, in order to enhance the effectiveness of observational learning for individualssymbolic representationwith autism. Charlop-Christy et al. ( ) found that video modeling was a more effective behavioral intervention than in2000vivo modeling for individuals with autism. Video modeling improved the attention of individuals with autism as comparedto in vivo modeling. Many individuals with autism have difficulty with stimulus overselectivity, failing to perceive the entirestimulus and its relevant cues. Video modeling can counteract this problem by focusing in on the specific stimulus cuesnecessary to learn the target behavior (Charlop-Christy et al.). Video modeling minimizes attentional requirements, allowsthe individual to focus on the appropriate stimuli repeatedly, and thereby facilitates successful acquisition of the targetbehavior and its maintenance in memory (Corbett & Abdullah, ).2005Video modeling reduces the amount of symbolic representation necessary for to occur byobservational learningdecreasing the amount of language present in the video. The individual with autism is only required to listen to andcomprehend minimal, if any, language (Sherer et al., ), which reduces or eliminates the challenge of symbolically2001representing language.Furthermore, motivation may enhance the effectiveness of video modeling as a behavioral intervention because video
  5. 5. 5SpringerReferenceSiena Whitham, Dr. Lindsey Sterling, Ph.D. C. Enjey Lin and Dr. Jeffrey J. WoodSocial Cognitive Learning Theory12 Dec 2012 15:37http://www.springerreference.com/index/chapterdbid/334339© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012viewing is an easy, low-demand activity, which many individuals with autism engage in at home (Shipley-Benamou,Lutzker, & Taubman, ). This method of teaching new information is less structured than many behavioral2002interventions and creates a more casual , which may encourage successful acquisition of newlearning environmentinformation (Charlop-Christy & Daneshvar, ). Studies by Charlop-Christy, Schreibman, Pierce, and Kurtz ( ) and2003 1998Schreibman ( ) found that individuals with autism often repeat phrases from videos, television, or ; watch1988 commercialsthe same video multiple times; or perseverate on a certain television show or video. These findings suggest that videoviewing is intrinsically reinforcing for some individuals with autism (Charlop-Christy et al., ).2000Video modeling has been used to target a wide range of skills in individuals with autism. A review of 19 studies on videomodeling and autism by Delano ( ) found that video modeling proved effective in addressing social-communicative2007skills, functional skills, perspective-taking skills, and . Haring, Kennedy, Adams, and Pitts-Conway (problem behavior 1987) used video modeling to promote the development of purchasing skills to individuals with autism. Video modeling wasused by Charlop and Milstein ( ) to promote conversational speech to children with autism. Grant and Evans ( )1989 1994showed that video modeling enhanced social initiation and appropriate toy play in children with autism. Studies byCharlop-Christy ( , ) demonstrated that play behaviors, such as independent play, and1993 1994 play, cooperative pretend, improved through a video modeling intervention. Video modeling also improved the level of verbal and motor playplayresponse in children with autism (DAteno, Mangiapanello, & Taylor, ) and reciprocal play skills (Nikopoulos &2003Keenan, ). Lastly, a few studies have used video modeling to reduce disruptive and challenging behaviors2004(Shipley-Benamou et al., ; Buggey, ).2002 2005SCLT is a core foundation of . Interventions using for individuals with autism (e.g.,cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) CBTChalfant, Rapee, & Carroll, ; Reaven et al., ; Sofronoff, Attwood, & Hinto, ; Wood et al., ) emphasize2006 2009 2005 2009attention, motivation, self-reflection, , and self-efficacy. In CBT, active participation by the child to developself-regulationand practice coping skills is key. Studies have shown CBT to be an effective intervention in reducing anxiety in childrenwith high-functioning autism and Aspergers disorder (Chalfant et al., ; Reaven et al., ; Sofronoff et al., ;2006 2009 2005Wood et al., ).2009A fundamental component of CBT with individuals with autism is developing awareness and identification of emotionfeelings in order to promote greater self-regulation of behavior. Self-reflection and self-regulation are often challenging forindividuals with autism; therefore, these are taught to participants in CBT by practicing the identification of cues ofemotion (e.g., through body feelings), which is one method of self-reflection (Chalfant et al., ; Reaven et al., ;2006 2009Wood et al., ). In addition, the interventions underscored teaching the connections between feelings and thoughts.2009Another component of SCLT utilized in CBT with individuals with autism is the promotion of self-efficacy. The work byWood et al. ( ) targeted improving self-efficacy as a fundamental component of the CBT intervention. Wood et al. (2009) and Drahota, Wood, Sze, and Van Dyke ( ) discussed the importance of improving self-care in individuals with2009 2011autism in order to increase individuals mastery experiences and ultimately improve self-efficacy. The focus on improvingself-care is important because researchers have found adaptive skill deficits in individuals with autism (Rodrigue, Morgan,& Geffken, ). As mentioned earlier, according to SCLT, one way of improving self-efficacy is through mastery1991experiences. CBT interventions also promote mastery experiences in feared situations. For example, Wood et al. ( )2009and Reaven et al. ( ) used a hierarchy of feared situations where participants are rewarded as they try increasingly2009challenging (feared) situations. The use of a hierarchy allows the participants to start with less fearful situations and worktheir way up to more challenging feared situations, gaining confidence with small steps as they go. The successfulachievement of the feared situations in vivo in CBT allows the participant to systematically confront and succeed inanxiety-provoking situations, which systematically increases the participants self-efficacy.Future DirectionsSCLT provides an informative framework for understanding human functioning and may have relevance to the impact ofsymptoms on learning and adaptive behavior in individuals with autism. Video modeling and CBT are twoASDinterventions that are influenced by SCLT in treating ASD symptoms, and each has evidence of efficacy. Future researchwith individuals with autism may consider incorporating SCLT principles to inform interventions in order to improve skilland comprehension. By creating interventions that consider how deficits in autism impact symboliclearningrepresentations, forethought, , self-reflection, , and self-efficacy, the interventions may bevicarious learning self-regulationable to better achieve their goals and meet the needs of affected individuals.
  6. 6. 6SpringerReferenceSiena Whitham, Dr. Lindsey Sterling, Ph.D. C. Enjey Lin and Dr. Jeffrey J. WoodSocial Cognitive Learning Theory12 Dec 2012 15:37http://www.springerreference.com/index/chapterdbid/334339© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012See AlsoCognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)Joint AttentionVideo Modeling/Video Self-modelingReferences and ReadingsAmerican Psychiatric Association. (1994). (4th ed.).Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disordersWashington, DC: Author.Bandura, A. (1969). Social-learning theory of identificatory processes. In D. A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of(pp. 213-262). Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.socialization theory and researchBandura, A. (1971). Analysis of modeling processes. In A. Bandura (Ed.), Psychological modeling: Conflicting. Chicago, IL: Aldine-Atherton.theoriesBandura, A. (1977). (pp. 10-21). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Social learning theoryBandura, A. (1986). . Englewood Cliffs, NJ:Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theoryPrentice Hall.Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory. , 1-60.Annals of Child Development, 6Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In L. W. Levy, K. L. Karst, & A. Winkler (Eds.), Encyclopedia of human behavior(Vol. 4). New York: Academic Press.Bandura, A. (1999). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. , 21-41.Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 2Bandura, A. (2003). Observational learning. In J. H. Byrne (Ed.), (2nd ed.,Encyclopedia of learning and memorypp. 482-484). New York: Macmillan.Bandura, A. (2005). The evolution of social cognitive theory. In K. G. Smith & M. A. Hitt (Eds.), Great minds in(pp. 9-35). Oxford: Oxford University Press.managementBandura, A., Adams, N. E., & Beyer, J. (1977). Cognitive processes mediating behavioral change. Journal of(35), 125-139.Personality and Social Psychology, 1977Bandura, A., & Walters, R. H. (1963). . New York: Holt, Rinehart &Social learning and personality developmentWinston.Bauminger, N., & Kasari, C. (2000). Loneliness and friendship in high-functioning children with autism. Child, 447-456.Development, 71Bernabei, P., Palli, F. G., Levi, G., Mazzoncini, B., & Cannoni, E. (1999). Disturbance of imagination andsymbolization in pervasive developmental disorders: Preliminary study utilizing the Rorschach Inkblot test., 917-930.Perceptual and Motor Skills, 89Brenner, L. A., Turner, K. C., & Muller, R. A. (2007). Eye movement and visual search: Are there elementaryabnormalities in autism? , 1289-1309.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37Buggey, T. (2005). Video self-modeling applications with students with autism spectrum disorder in a small privateschool setting. , 52-63.Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 20Chalfant, A., Rapee, R., & Carroll, L. (2006). Treating anxiety disorders in children with high-functioning autismspectrum disorders: A controlled trial. , 283-298.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33Chamberlain, B., Kasari, C., & Rotheram-Fuller, E. (2006). Involvement or isolation: The social networks ofchildren with autism in regular classroom. , 230-242.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37Charlop, M. H., & Milstein, J. P. (1989). Teaching autistic children conversational speech using video modeling., 275-285.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 22Charlop-Christy, M. H. (1993). Paper presented at the AnnualUsing video modeling with autistic children.Conference of the Northern California Association for Behavior Analysis, Berkeley, CA.Charlop-Christy, M. H. (1994). New procedures for treating the severe behavior problems of autistic children.Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Association for Behavior Analysis and Therapy/SouthernCalifornia, Los Angeles.Charlop-Christy, M. H., & Daneshvar, S. (2003). Using video modeling to teach perspective taking to children withautism. , 12-21.Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5Charlop-Christy, M. H., Le, L., & Freeman, K. A. (2000). A comparison of video modeling with in vivo modeling for
  7. 7. 7SpringerReferenceSiena Whitham, Dr. Lindsey Sterling, Ph.D. C. Enjey Lin and Dr. Jeffrey J. WoodSocial Cognitive Learning Theory12 Dec 2012 15:37http://www.springerreference.com/index/chapterdbid/334339© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012teaching children with autism. , 537-552.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30Charlop-Christy, M. H., Schreibman, L., Pierce, K., & Kurtz, P. F. (1998). Childhood autism. In R. Morris & T. R.Kratochwill (Eds.), (3rd ed., pp. 271-302). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.The practice of child therapyCorbett, B. A., & Abdullah, M. (2005). Video modeling: Why does it work for children with autism? The Journal of, 2-8.Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention, 2DAteno, P., Mangiapanello, K., & Taylor, B. A. (2003). Using video modeling to teach complex play sequences toa preschooler with autism. , 5-11.Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5Davis, T. W., & Luthans, F. A. (1980). A social learning approach to organization behavior. Academy of, 281-290.Management Review, 5Dawson, G., Meltzoff, A. N., Osterling, J., Rinaldi, J., & Brown, E. (1998). Children with autism fail to orient tonaturally occurring social stimuli. , 479-485.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28Delano, M. E. (2007). Video modeling interventions for individuals with autism. Remedial and Special Education,, 33-42.28Drahota, A., Wood, J. J., Sze, K. M., & Van Dyke, M. (2011). Effects of cognitive behavioral therapy on daily livingskills in children with high-functioning autism and concurrent anxiety disorders. Journal of Autism and, 257-265.Developmental Disorders, 41Faja, S., Aylward, E., Bernier, R., & Dawson, G. (2008). Becoming a face expert: A computerized face-trainingprogram for high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders. ,Developmental Neuropsychology, 331-24.Golarai, G., Grill-Spector, K., & Reiss, A. L. (2006). Autism and the development of face processing. Clinical, 145-160.Neuroscience Research, 6Grant, L., & Evans, A. (1994). . New York: Harper Collins.Principles of behavior analysisGrusec, J. E. (1992). Social learning theory and developmental psychology: The legacies of Robert Sears andAlbert Bandura. , 776-786.Developmental Psychology, 28Haring, I., Kennedy, C., Adams, M., & Pitts-Conway, V. (1987). Teaching generalization of purchasing skillsacross community settings to autistic youth using videotape modeling. ,Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2089-96.Iacoboni, M., & Dapretto, M. (2006). The mirror neuron system and the consequences of its dysfunction. Nature, 942-951.Reviews Neuroscience, 7Jarrold, C. (2003). A review of research into pretend play in autism. , 379-390.Autism, 7Klin, A., Jones, W., Schultz, R. T., Volkmar, F. R., & Cohen, D. J. (2002). Visual fixation patterns during viewing ofnaturalistic social situations as predictors of social competence in individuals with autism. Archives of General, 809-816.Psychiatry, 59Landry, R., & Bryson, S. (2004). Impaired disengagement of attention in young children with autism. Journal of, 1115-1122.Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45Loth, E., Gomez, J. C., & Happe, F. (2011). Do high-functioning people with autism spectrum disorderspontaneously use event knowledge to selectively attend to and remember context-relevant aspects of science?, 945-961.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41Malone, Y. (2002). Social cognitive theory and choice theory: A compatibility analysis. International Journal of, 10-13.Reality Therapy, 22Miller, N. E., & Dollard, J. (1941). . New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Social learning and imitationMoney, W. H. (1996). Applying group support systems to classroom settings: A social cognitive learning theoryexplanation. , 65-80.Journal of Management Information Systems, 12Mundy, P., Sullivan, L., & Mastergeorge, A. (2009). A parallel and distributed processing model of joint attention,social-cognition and autism. , 2-21.Autism Research, 2Nakahachi, T., Yamashita, K., Iwase, M., Ishigami, W., Tanaka, C., Toyonaga, K., et al. (2008). Disturbed holisticprocessing in autism spectrum disorders verified by two cognitive tasks requiring perception of complex visualstimuli. , 330-338.Psychiatry Research, 159Nikopoulos, C. K., & Keenan, M. (2004). Effects of video modeling on social initiations by children with autism., 93-96.Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 37Peterson, C. C., Garnett, M., Kelly, A., & Attwood, T. (2009). Everyday social and conversation applications oftheory-of-mind understanding by children with autism spectrum disorders or typical development. European Child
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  9. 9. 9SpringerReferenceSiena Whitham, Dr. Lindsey Sterling, Ph.D. C. Enjey Lin and Dr. Jeffrey J. WoodSocial Cognitive Learning Theory12 Dec 2012 15:37http://www.springerreference.com/index/chapterdbid/334339© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012Social Cognitive Learning TheorySienaWhithamPsychological Studies in Education, University of California, Los Angeles, LosAngeles, USADr. LindseySterlingDepartment of Psychiatry, Jane &Terry Semel Institute for Neuroscience &HumanBehavior UCLA, Los Angeles, USAPh.D. C.Enjey LinDepartments of Education and Psychiatry, University of California, Los Angeles,Los Angeles, USADr. Jeffrey J.WoodUCLA Departments of Psychiatry and Education, University of California, LosAngeles, Los Angeles, USADOI: 10.1007/SpringerReference_334339URL: http://www.springerreference.com/index/chapterdbid/334339Part of: Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum DisordersEditor: Dr. Fred R. VolkmarPDF createdon:December, 12, 2012 15:37© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012