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Engineers In Society Final Exam Revision

Engineers In Society Final Exam Revision

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    Final  -jan-apr_2013 Final -jan-apr_2013 Document Transcript

    • EK101 ENGINEERS IN SOCIETY - REVISIONChapter 1: ROLE OF ENGINEERS AND ITS JOB RESPONSIBILITIES1(a) Compare the career profiles (job responsibilities) of: (i) An Electrical Engineer with that of a Chemical Engineer, with examples. (ii) A Civil Engineer with that of a Mechanical Engineer, with examples. (iii) A Petroleum Engineer with that of a Mechatronic Engineer Sample Answers (i) Electrical Engineers: • Electrical engineers specialize in areas such as power systems engineering or electrical equipment manufacturing. • They design, develop, test, and supervise the manufacture of electrical equipments. • Electrical engineers also design the electrical systems of automobiles and aircraft. • Preparation and/or modification of electrical drawings, specifications, calculations, charts and graphs. • Project controls, cost estimates, quantity takeoffs and manpower requirements for proposals, forecasts and change orders. • electrical engineers handle the development of lighting, wiring systems, electric motors, navigation systems, and utilities.Chemical Engineers: • Design equipment and processes for large-scale chemical manufacturing. • Plan and test methods of manufacturing products and treating by products • Supervise production. • The chemical engineer must prepare data which specifically details the findings of certain tests and evaluations. • Work in a variety of manufacturing industries other than chemical manufacturing, such as those producing energy, electronics, food, clothing, and paper. • Prepare estimate of production costs and production progress reports for management. (ii) Civil Engineers: • Supervise and direct the design and construction of roads, bridges, water supply and sewerage systems and structures. • They take into account the local environment, anticipating earthquakes and hurricanes as well as the stress of daily use.
    • • Civil engineers have long been valued for their ability to create the structures and systems used every day. • Keep structures safe and create new systems for more efficient living. • The career may require travel, as civil engineers move from place to place to work on different projects. They spend time outside, monitoring the progress of construction and taking a closer look at problems. • Ensure that the construction of structures is carried out in a timely and safe manner. • Work on the design and plan with the clients and they also involved in the supervision of the daily works performed, alongside with other senior managers.Mechanical Engineers: • Works with many kinds of machines that produce, transmit or use power. • Concerned with mechanisms and methods that convert natural energy sources into practical uses. • Design and develop machines that produce energy, such as car engines and nuclear reactors. • They also design and develop machines that use energy including air conditioners, power saw, elevators and printing presses. • Work on various types of equipment and machines ranging from tiny mechanisms for delicate instruments to huge gears for bulldozers. • Mechanical engineers generally specialize in one area of engineering. • For example, they may work with aircraft engines or with commercial refrigeration equipment. • Other fields of specialty include fluid powder, instrumentation, and bioengineering. • Some works in a particular industry, such as petroleum or plastics.(iii) Petroleum Engineer • They design methods for extracting oil and gas from deposits below the earth. • They work with geologists and other specialists to understand the geologic formation and properties of the rock containing the reservoir, to determine the drilling methods to be used, and to monitor drilling and production operations. • They design equipment and processes to achieve the maximum profitable recovery of oil and gas • They develop and use various enhanced recovery methods, including injecting water, chemicals, gases, or steam into an oil reservoir to force out more of the oil and doing computer-controlled drilling or fracturing to connect a larger area of a reservoir to a single well. . • Because even the best techniques in use today recover only a portion of the oil and gas in a reservoir, petroleum engineers research and develop technology and methods for increasing the recovery of these resources and lowering the cost of drilling and production operations
    • Mechatronic Engineers • Mechatronic is a combination of computer, electrical and mechanical engineering. • The combination of these three key areas has resulted in the development and design of smart products • A mechatronic engineer designs mechanical devices that incorporate electrical, software and mechanical components. • The productions like washing machine, automated robotic assembly lines, cameras, laser printers, photocopiers, stair-climbing wheelchairs, hybrid autos and garage door openers. • Mechatronic engineers work with artificial intelligence, industrial systems and smart devices to create, implement and test such systems. • They also design safety processes for dangerous activities, such as underwater exploration. • They may research the cost, practicality and benefits of the equipment they design. • Research, design, develop, or test automation, intelligent systems, smart devices, or industrial systems control.(b) Describe the role of engineers in the following areas: (i) Research and Development (ii) Testing and Production (iii) Operation and Maintenance (iv) Sales and operation Sample answers (i) Research and Development  Research engineers are knowledgeable in principles of chemistry, biology, physics, and mathematics  Computer know-how is also recommended  A Masters Degree is almost always required, and a Ph. D is often strongly recommended  Development engineers bridge the gap between the laboratory and the production facility.  They also identify problems in a potential product.  An example is the development of concept cars for companies like Ford and GM.  (ii) Testing and Production • supervise production in factories;
    • • determine the causes of breakdowns; • test manufactured products to maintain quality; • estimate the time and cost to complete projects. (iii) Operations & Maintenance  Responsible for maintaining production line  Must have technical know-how to deal with problems  Responsible for inspecting facility and equipment, must be certified in various inspection methods. (iv) Sales and operationEngineers who work in Sales and operation: Sales • Deliver on-site and web-based customer training on the effective usage of software tools to address concrete business problems • Attend and/or prepare technical content to support marketing events such as trade shows, webinars, white papers. • Provide input to Product Development Team concerning what customers are seeking in terms of new functionality • Develop or contribute meaningfully to the development of new variants of existing product demos. Operation • Selects sites for facilities- • -Specifies the layout for all facets of the operation • -Selects the fixed equipment for climate control, lighting and communication. • -Responsible for maintenance and modifications
    • Chapter 8: Project ManagementPhases of Project Management1. Analyze the different phases of project management, and describe any two phases in detail. Sample answers Scoping the Project Developing the Plan Launching the Plan Monitoring & Controlling Closing Out the Project Adapted from Weiss, J.W., and Wysocki, R.K. 1992. 5-Phase Project Management: A Practical Planning and Implementation Guide. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley. Five Phases of Project Management(1) Scoping DocumentA short, crisply phrased piece of information covering-- what is to be done
    • -- why it is to be done-- value it provides if it is done(2) Scope the Project: (a) Problem/Opportunity • A statement of fact that everyone in the organization will accept as true • Should communicate why the project should be accomplished State the Problem/ Opportunity Establish the Project Goal Define the Project Objectives Identify the Success Criteria List Assumptions, Risks, Obstacles Adapted from Weiss, J.W., and Wysocki, R.K. 1992. 5-Phase Project Management: A Practical Planning and Implementation Guide. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley. Scoping The Project (b) Scope the Project - Goal • A project has one primary goal: to give purpose and direction – Defines the final deliverable and outcome – States in clear terms what is to be accomplished – Is a reference point for questions about scope and purpose of the project (c) Objectives & Success Criteria
    • • SMART Objectives – Specific – Measurable – Assignable – Realistic – Time-related(d) Success Criteria – Clearly states the bottom-line impact – Quantifies outcomes so success can be measured (e) Assumptions, Risks • Identify factors that might affect the outcome or completion of the project • Used to alert management to factors that may interfere with project work • Types of assumptions and risks – Technological – Environmental – Interpersonal – Cultural – Political
    • Chapter 2: Traditional Education Methods, OBE, EAC.(a) Main features of OBE and traditional education methods.(b) Focus and Benefits off OBEOBE addresses the following key questions: • What do we want the students to have or be able to do? • How can we best help students achieve it? • How will we know whether the students have achieved it? • How do we close the loop for further improvement (Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI))?Benefits of OBE • More directed & coherent curriculum. • Graduates will be more “relevant” to industry & other stakeholders (more well rounded graduates). • Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) is in place.(c) Expectations on Students under OBE – the Outcomes • Students are expected to be able to do more challenging tasks other than memorize and reproduce what was taught. • Students should be able to: write project proposals, complete projects, analyze case studies, give case presentations, show their abilities to think, question, research, and make decisions based on the findings. • Be more creative, able to analyze and synthesize information. • Able to plan and organize tasks, able to work in a team as a community or in entrepreneurial service teams to propose solutions to problems and market their solutions(d) Functions of the EAC: • To set policy and conduct approval and accreditation evaluations. • Maintain a list of accredited engineering program. • Oversee the development and operation of accreditation and mutual recognition of program with other countries. • Keep the Board informed of the activities of EAC. Where necessary make recommendations to the Board. • Foster the dissemination of developments and best practices in engineering education.
    • • Advice the Board on public statements or representations that should be made in relation to engineering education.(e) Roles of EAC (Engineering Accreditation Council) • Formulates and updates accreditation policies and criteria. • Approves guidelines and operating procedures. • Oversees operational arrangements and appoints evaluation panel. • Receives evaluation reports and decides on accreditation. • Responds to complaints, appeals or any proposals for change. • Oversees development and operation of accreditation and mutual recognition agreement with other countries. • Fosters the dissemination of developments and best practices in engineering education.Chapter 3 Engineering Problems3 (i) STEPS IN PROBLEM SOLVING (ii) STEPS IN PROBLEM PRESENTATION
    • Chapter 3a,3b & 8b:Risk Management: Purposes, Scope.(a) The purpose of studying Risk Management
    • • To develop the capability to identify, assess, improve and limit risk in the management and practice of engineering through the application of concepts and tools of risk engineering. • On completion, you will be able to identify hazards in an engineering project and design an appropriate risk management strategy.(b) Widely used areas of Risk Management • Risk Management practices are widely used in public and the private sectors, covering a wide range of activities or operations .These include: • Finance and Investment • Insurance • Health Care • Public Institutions • Governmentsii) Various process steps involved in the risk management process The basic process steps are: 1. Establish the context - The strategic and organizational context in which risk management will take place. - For example, the nature of your business, the risks inherent in your business and your priorities. 2. Identify the risks - Defining types of risk, for instance, ‘Strategic’ risks to the goals and objectives of the organization. - Identifying the stakeholders - Past events, future developments. 3. Analyze the risks - How likely is the risk event to happen? (Probability and frequency?) - What would be the impact, cost or consequences of that event occurring 4. Evaluate the risks - Rank the risks according to management priorities, by risk category and rated by - likelihood and possible cost or consequence. - Determine inherent levels of risk. 5. Treat the risk
    • - Develop and implement a plan with specific counter-measures to address the identified risks. - Consider: Priorities (Strategic and Operational) - Resources (human, financial and technical) - Risk acceptance; i.e., low risks 6. Monitoring and Review - In identifying, prioritizing and treating risks, organizations make assumptions and decisions based on situations that are subject to change, (e.g., the business environment, trading patterns, or government policies). - Risk Managers must monitor activities and processes to determine the accuracy of planning assumptions and the effectiveness of the measures taken to treat the risk. - Methods can include data evaluation, audit, compliance measurement. 7. Communication & Consultation.Chapter 6: Sustainable development and its impact on the environment(a) Pillars of Sustainable Development • Economic Development – poverty eradication • Social Development – active participation of women; education; good governance • Environmental Protection – prevent environmental degradation and patterns of unsustainable development At the local, national, regional, and global levels(b) Examples of Sustainable development • Sustainable cities, • Eco-industrial parks, and, • Corporations ….. all moving towards greater sustainability(c) What are the principles of sustainable development within a planned sustainable city/township?
    •  A sustainable city considers the natural environment in its design and aims to reduce the input of energy, water and other resources, as well as minimizing the generation of waste and other environmental disturbances.  Implementation of a policy of mixed land use and high density development along its major transport routes.  Provision of an upgraded public transport system allows more residents to live, while remaining green belts still provide habitat for wildlife and recreational areas for people.  Eco-industrial parks are areas where industries are placed together to co-operatively manage the use of resources and environmental impacts caused by their operations. By sharing resources they improve efficiency and create less waste.  Using recycled and more environmentally friendly products, and more efficient manufacturing processes, thereby reducing their energy and water consumption.  The levels of waste, particularly hazardous waste can also be greatly reduced.(d) Main features of sustainability and explain them briefly. • Sustainability is an attempt to merge ecology and economy into one system. • Sustainability means living a life of dignity in harmony with nature. • Sustainability means renewing resources at a rate equal to or greater than the rate at which they are consumed. • Sustainability means creating an economic system that provides for quality of life while renewing the environment and its resources. • A sustainable community is one that resembles a living system where all of the resources (human, natural and economic) are renewed and in balance for perpetuity. • Sustainability is creating a world where everyone can have fulfilling lives and enjoy a rich level of well-being within the limits of what nature can provide. • Sustainability means taking the long-term view of how our actions effect future generations and making sure we dont deplete resources or cause pollution at rates faster than the earth is able to renew them.
    • Case Study: Code of ethicsCase Study 1: Omission of data/Misleading data1. Read the following case study and answer the Questions given at the end of the case study:Thirty six year old Johnson was in his last semester of his graduate program in Civil engineering.Father of two small children, he was anxious to get his degree so that he could spend more timewith his family. Going to school and holding down a full-time job not only kept him from hisfamily but also shifted more parental responsibility to his wife Julie but also the end was in sight,and he could look forward both to a better job and to being a better father and husband.Johnson was following in the footsteps of his father, who received a graduate degree in chemicalengineering just months before his 50th birthday! Julie understood how important getting agraduate degree was to Johnson, and she never complained about the long hours he spentstudying. But she, too, was anxious for this chapter in their lives to end.As part of his requirement to complete his graduate research and obtain his advanced degree,Johnson was required to develop a research report. Most of the data strongly supportedJohnson’s conclusions as well as prior conclusions developed by others. However, a few aspectsof the data were at variance and not fully consistent with the conclusions contained in his report.Convinced of the soundness of his report and concerned that inclusions of the ambiguous datawould detract from and distort the essential thrust of the report, Johnson wondered if it would beall right to omit references to the ambiguous data.In this case, it seems clear why Johnson is tempted to omit references to the ambiguous data. Heis understandably anxious to graduate and move on to other challenges in his professional life.
    • He is worried that full disclosure of his findings could slow down this process that has imposed aheavy burden on his family.Questions: a. Is it right for Johnson to omit reference to the data? Can the omission of the data be deceptive even when there is no intention to deceive? b. Will Johnson’s actions have any implications for future researchers? c. What are the relevant kinds of ethical considerations (Code of ethics) that should be brought to bear on the situation?Suggested answersa). Is it right for Robert to omit reference to the data? Can the omission of the data be deceptive even when there is no intention to deceive? In my opinion, it is incorrect for Robert to omit his reference to the data. This is becauseby doing this, he will mislead the readers of his research report. The readers will assume thathis conclusion of research is correct and believable. It will bring in a lot of negative effects.For example, the readers will probably found that the conclusion of report cannot be at allapplied in reality. As a result, the research report cannot be categorized as a quality researchand the readers will not have confidence on his research report. As a responsible researcher, heshould reveals all the collected data without omitting any ambiguous data although it hascertain risk for him. For sure, it is difficult to make the decision to fully disclose his findings due to thesituation that he is under a lot of pressures. He has to play a lot of roles at the same time suchas father of two small children, husband, full time employee and part time student. If he prefersto fully disclose his finding it might slow down his graduating process and he sure will feel sorryto his wife which has to take more parental responsibility for a longer time. However, I thinkthis problem can be solved by having good communication with his wife. He can tell his wifethat he needs to take a longer time to complete a more quality report. And, I believe that if he isable to find out the variables which caused a few aspects of the data were at variance and notfully consistent with the conclusions contained in his report, he can get better grade for hisresearch and graduates with a better result.
    • The omission of the data can be deceptive even when there is no intention to deceive. Iview that honest means telling the truth fully without omitting any reality even it probably willinfluences our benefits. As a civil engineer, his research could bring important effects top civilfield. He should consider the long term effect and its effect to others. If he omits references tothe ambiguous data, he can graduate according to his plan and he could move on to otherchallenges in his professional life. However, he still cannot be a quality civil engineer due to henever make efforts to solve the problem which occur during research process. On the contrary,if he made the decision to fully disclose his findings and made efforts to find out the variableswhich caused the results, his problem solving ability will be improved. It is good for him in thelong term.b) Will Robert’s actions have any implications for future researchers? I view that Jack’s action will have implications for future researchers. His research report could give wrong information to the future researchers even though the future researchers probably unable to detect the problem in the short term. It is also will give wrong direction to the future researchers. The future researchers probably will refer to his research report to get inspiration. By giving not exact data, they will confuse once found that their similar research having different results. This means that the results of the research reports cannot support each other’s statements. The discussion which related to the ambiguous data could be controversy. c) What are the relevant kinds of ethical considerations(Code of ethics) that should be brought to considerations on the situation? According to the Code of Ethics for engineers which endorsed by The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, engineers are expected to show the highest standard of honesty and integrity. Engineers should exhibit honesty, impartiality, fairness and equity and must be dedicated to the protection of the public health, safety, and welfare. The relevant kinds of ethical considerations that should be brought to bear on the situation include issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner. To be an engineer, Jack shall be objective and truthful in his research report. In other words, he should disclose all relevant and pertinent information in his research report without omitting any vital references of the data. Engineers shall also be guided in all their relations by the highest standard of honesty and integrity. It means engineers shall acknowledge their errors and shall not distort or alter the facts. A few aspects of the Jack’s research data were not fully consistent with the conclusions contained in his report. Probably, it was caused by his errors during the research process. Jack should assure this possibility and shall acknowledge his errors and shall not distort or alter the facts.Case Study 2: Falsify data1. Read the following case study and answer the Questions given at the end of the case
    • study:Josephine knew Environmental Manager Richard would not be pleased with her report on thechemical spill. The data clearly indicated that the spill was large enough that regulations requiredit to be reported to the state. Josephine perceived Richard to be someone who thinks industry isover-regulated, especially in the environmental area. At the same time, he prided himself as amajor player in maintaining ABCs public reputation as an environmental leader in the chemicalindustry. "We do a terrific job," he often said. "And we dont need a bunch of hard to read,difficult to interpret, easily misunderstood state regulations to do it. We got along just fine beforethe regulators ran wild, and were doing fine now."When Josephine presented her report to Richard, he lost his temper. "This is ridiculous! Werenot going to send anything like this to the state. A few gallons over the limit isnt worth the timeits going to take to fill out those damned forms. I cant believe youd submit a report like this.Josephine, go back to your desk and rework those numbers until it comes out right. I dont wantto see any more garbage like this."Answer the following questions, based on the code of ethics:-(a) What should Josephine do?Josephine refused to rework the report. Instead she went back to her desk, signed the report,wrote a memo about her conversation with Richard and then returned to Richards office. Shehanded him the report and said, "You dont want to see any more garbage like this? Neither do I.Heres my original report--signed, sealed, and delivered. Ive had it here. Im not fudging data foranyone." As she turned to leave, she added, "By the way, Richard, before you get any ideasabout making it hard for me to get another job, I have a nice little memo about our earlierconversation. I wont hesitate to send it right upstairs at the slightest provocation."(b) Discuss Josephine s way of handling this problem.John was pleased to have the job vacated by Josephine. It was an advancement in bothresponsibility and pay. He knew about the circumstances of Josephines angry departure. Allwent well for the first several months. Then there was another spill. Johns preliminarycalculations indicated that the spill exceeded the specified limit requiring a report to the state. Healso knew how Richard would react to the "bad news". John had worked hard to get his presentposition, and he looked forward to "moving up the ladder" at ABC. He certainly did not want togo job hunting at this time in his career. He thought, "These numbers are so close to fallingbelow the limit that a little rounding off here or there might save us all a lot of grief."(c) What should John do?
    • Provide answers to the questions mentioned above, based on engineers ethical obligationsunder the circumstances. Apply an engineering code of ethics to the above situationrequiring ethical decision-making.Suggested answersa) Josephine is asked to rework those numbers so that the environmental report no longer indicates an excessive chemical spill. Reworking numbers to fit managements pleasure is dishonest, wrong and should never be done. There is no ethical problem about this; the problem is a personal one for Josephine since presumably her career is at risk. The problem may seem complicated because manager Richard thinks the regulations are excessive and the companys spill is trivial, which could very well be the case (Josephine may even agree with this assessment); nevertheless falsification of the report is not the way to handle the problem. So what Josephine should do is patiently explain to manager Richard why it would be wrong for her to falsify her data. Ultimately, her line must be that if he wants different data, he can provide it himself; let him write his own report. Theres no need to indicate on the report why Josephine didnt write it! Her course is to politely but firmly refuse, stating her reasonable grounds: it is a violation of ethics codes, its legally risky, it compromises her credibility, it undermines public respect for engineers and for ABC company. This refusal puts the ball in Richards court; what move Josephine will make next would depend on how Richard handles the situationb) Besides agreeing to falsify data as Richard directs, it is difficult to think of a less constructive course of action than the one that she pursues here. Perhaps there is little chance that Richards mind can be changed, but her actions eliminate that as a possibility. At the very least, Josephine should give him her reasons for refusing to do as he requests. Probably he will not be willing to listen to Josephine, but at least she should try. Furthermore, by resigning precipitously, she may be leaving a job that is in most respects a very good job and endangering her career. If the problem she is having with Richard could be resolved within ABC without her taking such drastic action, then that would seem to be a much more satisfactory outcome. Also, by leaving ABC abruptly, she does nothing to prevent similar situations in the future. Perhaps, Richards superiors at ABC are not fully aware of his behavior and would put a stop to it if it were reported to them. If Josephine resigns without attempting to correct the problems Richard is causing her, then it is likely that her successor(s) will encounter the same difficulties and that Richards mode of behavior will not change unless someone contests his decisions. Therefore, Josephine s passing the buck to someone else will at best only postpone resolution of the problem. Richard may well make Josephine s life unpleasant if she decides to defy him, and Richards superiors may take his side of the argument. However, if there is a significant chance that Richards behavior would be modified or curtailed in such situations as this one by her staying on the job, then this seems the most constructive choice.
    • c) The situation that John faces appears somewhat more problematic than the one that Josephine found herself in, since it is less clear that for John to "round off" in order to have the numbers fall below the limit for reporting to the state would constitute falsification of data and ethically impermissible lying or deception. In Johns case, there seems to be genuine uncertainty about the accuracy of the measurements (data) and, in particular, how significant are the digits that he is considering "rounding off". Engineers are taught early in their professional education how to tell which digits in calculated quantities are significant and should be taken into account. They also learn that measurements are often imprecise and can reliably be placed only within certain tolerances associated with the accuracy of the measuring instruments, the circumstances under which the measurements are obtained, etc. Thus, in some situations, whether a certain measurement is above or below a certain limit may be impossible to determine with assurance. In general, there is nothing wrong with "rounding off" if it is done in accordance with established engineering and mathematical precepts. However, if Johns rounding off were in violation of those precepts and were motivated by his desire not to antagonize Richard or not to jeopardize his job standing at ABC, then this would be a violation of the ethical considerations discussed in Scenario I above. It would be wrong for the same reasons that Josephines agreeing to falsify data at Richards insistence would be wrong. John should make the most reasonable estimate possible of the dimensions of the spill in light of the available data and what he knows about the accuracy of the measuring instruments or processes, and then he should use that estimate in his report. He should not "round off" primarily for the purpose of not confronting Richard with "bad news". No doubt Johns job and his career at ABC are important to him. However, it is difficult to see what ethical significance they have in this case.Chapter 10: Standard, Quality and ISO.1. Analyze the salient features of ISO 9001 and ISO 14001.Salient features of ISO 9001 and ISO 14001: • ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 are among ISOs most well known standards ever. • They are implemented by more than a million organizations in some 175 countries. • ISO 9001 helps organizations to implement quality management. • ISO 14001 helps organizations to implement environmental management. • ISO 9001 is for quality management.
    • • Quality refers to all those features of a product (or service) which are required by the customer. • Quality management means what the organization does to ensure that its products or services satisfy the customers quality requirements and • comply with any regulations applicable to those products or services. • Quality management also means what the organization does to enhance customer satisfaction, and • achieve continual improvement of its performance. • ISO 14001 is for environmental management. This means what the organization does to: • minimize harmful effects on the environment caused by its activities, • to conform to applicable regulatory requirements, and to • achieve continual improvement of its environmental performance. 2. List down some of the benefits of ISO 9001 and ISO 14001. • International, expert consensus on state-of-the-art practices for quality and environmental management. • Common language for dealing with customers and suppliers worldwide in B2B. • Increase efficiency and effectiveness. • Model for continual improvement. • Model for satisfying customers and other stakeholders. • Build quality into products and services from design onwards. • Address environmental concerns of customers and public, and comply with government regulations. • Integrate with global economy. • Sustainable business • Unifying base for industry sectors • Qualify suppliers for global supply chains • Technical support for regulationsChapter 9: Intellectual Property and Copyrights(a) Categorize the strategic elements and strategies under intellectual property rights.
    • STRATEGIC ELEMENTS of IPR • PROTECTION OFFERED BY EACH ONE OF THE TOOLS • PERIOD OF VALIDITY • GEOGRAPHICAL LIMITS • ENFORCEMENT FEATURES • LICENSING ISSUES, BENEFIT SHARING • OTHER LEGAL IMPLICATIONS Strategies of IPR • Effective use of International Conventions • Strategic options in the statutory provisions e.g. divisional applications, continuation, and continuation in part • Extending life of an invention • Joint IPR • IPR Leveraging(b) Describe the copyright protection and its limits. – “Copyright protection subsists … in original works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression … from which they can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated.” – Copyright protection extends to an original expression of an idea, but not the idea itself. – Copyright is an intangible, incorporeal right granted to the author or originator of certain literary or artistic productions, whereby the author or originator is vested, for a specified period, with the sole and exclusive privilege of multiplying copies of the same and publishing and selling them. Limits to Copyright Protection – “In no case does copyright protection for an original work of authorship extend to any idea, procedure, process, system, [or] method of operation … regardless of the form in which it is described, explained, illustrated, or embodied.”
    • – Even though the work is protected, the copyright may not extend to every element – Copyright protection extends to the author’s original expression only, not the idea itself – Copyright infringement can occur when the copied material is a protected expression NOT an idea, process, system or method of operation.(c) Differentiate between tangible and the intangible assets.Tangible assets are anything that has long term physical existence or is acquired for use in theoperations of the business and not for sale to customers.Tangible assets include: • property, plant and equipment • natural resources such as mineral deposits, oil and gas reserves, and timber • Property, plant and equipment can be classified as: 1. Land; 2. Land improvements; 3. Buildings; 4. EquipmentIntangible assets provide future benefits through the special rights and privileges they convey.Examples: Patents, copyrights, sports contracts, and trademarks o Intangible assets are rights, privileges, and competitive advantages that result from the ownership of long-lived assets that do not possess physical substance. o Intangibles may arise from government grants, acquisition of another business, and private monopolistic arrangements.