• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Rock Cycle ES
 

Rock Cycle ES

on

  • 619 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
619
Views on SlideShare
619
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
27
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Rock Cycle ES Rock Cycle ES Presentation Transcript

    • THE ROCKCYCLESHOULD IT BE A WEB?
    • DEFINITIONRock Cycle • Shows the origin of the 3 basic rock types and illustrates the different geological processes that transform one rock type into another • Is the natural process in which rocks transform from one rock type into another rock type over time, a type of natural recycling.
    • Igneous Solidification Weathering Crystallization Transportation Cooling Deposition Magma Sediments Compaction Lithification Melting Cementation MetamorphismMetamorphic Sedimentary Heat & Pressure
    • IGNEOUS ROCKS• Ignus – “fire”• Forms as magma cools and solidifies• Intrusive • Rocks that cool inside the earth • Plutonic (Pluto – The Roman god of the Underworld) • Ex. Granite• Extrusive • Rocks that cool on the surface of the earth • Volcanic (Vulcan – The Roman god of Fire) • Ex. Basalt
    • INTRUSIONS• An intrusion is liquid rock that forms under Earths surface. • Batholith • a large irregular discordant intrusion • Laccolith • concordant body with roughly flat base and convex top, usually with a feeder pipe below • Stock • a smaller irregular discordant intrusion • Sill • a relatively thin tabular concordant body intruded along bedding planes • Dike • a relatively narrow tabular discordant body, often nearly vertical
    • EXTRUSIONS• An extrusion is liquid rock that forms above Earths surface. • Volcanoes • A volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a planets surface or crust, which allows hot magma, volcanic ash and gases to escape from below the surface. • Lava Plateau • Lava plateaus are formed by highly fluid basaltic lava during numerous successive eruptions through numerous vents without violent explosions. • Rift Valley • A rift valley is a linear-shaped lowland between highlands or mountain ranges created by the action of a geologic rift or fault.
    • THE PROCESSCrystallization - As magma cools, the random movement of ionsslow; and then the ions rearrange themselves into an orderlypattern.The rate of cooling influences the size of the formingcrystals. - Slow cooling results in the formation of largecrystals - Rapid cooling results in the formation of a solidmass with small interlocking crystals.
    • CLASSIFYINGTexture- The overall appearance of an igneous rock is based on the size and arrangement of its interlocking crystal structure.- Phaneritic - Coarse grained. Magma solidifies under the earth’s surface as a result the rocks have a large crystalline structure. Ex. Granite.- Aphanitic - Fine grained . Magma solidifies quickly on the surface of the earth. The result is a solid mass with crystals too small to be seen by the unaided eye.
    • CLASSIFYING- Porphyritic - Magma already contains large crystals then is ejected and the remaining magma cools quickly. The result is in appearance of a large crystal embedded in a matrix of small crystals.- Glassy - Ions in magma does not have sufficient time to unite and create a crystalline structure.
    • BOWENS REACTIONSERIESMafic=Basaltic Extrusive/IntrusiveIntermediate=AndesiticFelsic= Granitic
    • TABLEChemical Composition Granitic Andesitic Basaltic Ultramafic [Felsic] [Intermediate] [Mafic]Dominant Mineral -Quartz -Amphibole -Pyroxene -Olivine -Potassium -Muscovite -Calcium Feldspar Mica Rich -Biotite Mica -Plagioclase Feldspar FeldsparColor Light Medium Dark Dark Phaneritic [Coarse] Granite Diorite Gabbro Perdiotite Aphanitic [Fine] Rhyolite Andesite Basalt Komatite rare Porphyritic “Porphyry” – follows any of the above names whereverTexture there are appreciable phenocrysts Glassy Obsidian – Compact glass Pumice – Frothy glass
    • EXAMPLES Granite Rhyolite Komatite Andesite Basalt Gabbro
    • SEDIMENTARY• “sedimentum”- settling• Sediments – unconsolidated particles created from weathering and erosion of rocks. Weathering can be mechanical of chemical in origin.• Sedimentary rocks – rocks formed from the weathering of pre-existing rocks that are transported, deposited and lithified.• Lithification – process that transforms sediments into solid sedimentary rock. • Compaction • Cementation (Calcite, Silica & Iron Oxide)
    • CLASSIFYING• Detrital • Materials that originate and are transported are derived from mechanical weathering.• Chemical • Soluble materials that largely come from chemical weathering that are precipitated either from organic or inorganic processes.
    • DETRITAL CLASTICSize Range Particle Name Texture Common Detrital Rock(mm) Name> 256 Boulder Conglomerate64 - 256 Cobble Coarse (rounded edge) Gravel4 - 64 Pebble Grained Breccia (angular edge)2-4 Granule1/16 - 2 Sand Medium Sand Sandstone1/256 – 1/16 Silt Mudstone/ Very Fine< 1/256 Clay Mud Siltstone/ Grained Shale
    • BIOCHEMICAL NON-CLASTICComposition Texture Rock Name Fine to coarse-grained Limestone Coarse-grained fossils & fossil fragments loosely CoquinaCalcite cemented Fine-grained shells of microorganisms, clay ChalkDolomite Textures very similar to limestone DolostoneQuartz Very fine-grained Chert/FlintGypsum Fine to coarse-grained GypsumHalite Fine to coarse-grained Rock Salt Clastic – broken or fragmented Non-clastic – not formed by mechanical breakup
    • FEATURES• Strata or Beds • Layers of sediments that were deposited• Ripple Marks • Nearly parallel ridges and troughs produced by moving waters• Mud Cracks • Polygonal cracks that form when mud dries and shrinks• Fossils • Traces or remains of prehistoric life
    • METAMORPHIC• Meta • Change• Morphosis • Form• Metamorphosis • the process that changes the size, shape, texture, or even mineral composition of pre-existing rocks due to heating and pressure.
    • 3 AGENTS OF METAMORPHISM1. Heat • Provides energy to drive chemical reactions to recrystallize minerals2. Pressure • Rocks located at a greater depth are quite warm and behave plastically during reformation3. Chemically active fluids • Water that surrounds the crystals serves as the catylist aiding the migration of ions.
    • 2 TYPES OF METAMORPHISM• Regional • Happens in rock when subjected to intense stress and high temperatures associated with large scale deformation • Ex. Mountain Building• Contact • Happens when rock is in contact with or near a mass of magma. • Ex. Volcanic Erruptions
    • CLASSIFYING• Foliated • Mineral alignment that gives rock a banded or layered appearance• Non-foliated • Minerals that form equidimentional crystals is not visibly foliated.
    • CLASSIFYING Low Medium High Very HighFoliated M Shale Slate Schist Gneiss ENon-foliated L T Peat Lignite* Bituminous* Anthracite I Limestone Marble N Quartz Quartzite G* Still considered as sedimentary rocks.