Minerals ES

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Minerals ES

  1. 1. MINERALSWe are what we are!
  2. 2. Minerals Typical minerals  Copper – Used in electrical wiring  Gold – Used for jewelry  Talc – Baby powder  Quartz – The main ingredient in glass A rock can be defined as an aggregate of two or more minerals, but there are some exceptions.
  3. 3. Earth Mineral An earth mineral is…  Naturally occurring  Inorganic  Solid  Possesses an orderly internal structure  Has a definite chemical composition
  4. 4. MINERAL GROUPSRUBY, Garnet, Sapphire, etc.
  5. 5. Mineral Groups Silicates  Silicone and Oxygen Non-silicates  Carbonates  Calcite & Dolomite  Oxides  Magnetite  Sulfides  Bornite  Halides  Fluoride  Native Elements  Diamond
  6. 6. Silicates Quartz Oxygen Feldspar Silicon Biotite Silicon Tetrahedron - The building block of all Silicates. Hornblende
  7. 7. Silicate SubgroupsFerromagnesian Non-ferromagnesian(dark) (light)Olivine Light Mica (Muscovite)Pyroxene group Orthoclase Feldspar(Augite)Amphibole group Plagioclase Feldspar(Hornblende)Dark Mica Quartz(Biotite)
  8. 8. Non-silicates Carbonates  Calcite & Dolomite Oxides  Magnetite Sulfides  Bornite Halides  Fluoride Native Elements  Diamond
  9. 9. PROPERTIESHardness, Cleavage, etc.
  10. 10. Crystal Form External expression of a mineral’s orderly internal arrangement of atoms. Examples  Pyrite – Cubic  Quartz – Hexagonal
  11. 11. Luster The quality of light reflected from the surface of a mineral. Examples  Galena - Metallic  Fluorite – Non-metallic
  12. 12. Types of Luster Metallic The mineral is opaque and reflects light as a metal would. Submetallic The mineral is opaque and dull. The mineral is dark Nonmetallic minerals are described using modifiers that refer to commonly known qualities. Waxy The mineral looks like paraffin or wax. Vitreous The mineral looks like broken glass. Resinous The mineral looks like hardened tree sap.
  13. 13. Color Unreliable Example  Quartz
  14. 14. Streak Color of a mineral in its powdered form. Examples  Mematite  Oolitic  Color - black  Steak - black  Sepoular  Color - black  Steak - black
  15. 15. Hardness The measure of the resistance of a mineral to scratching. Common testing materials  Copper – 3.5  Glass – 5.5  Fingernail – 2.2
  16. 16. Hardness [Scale] Mineral Moh’s Scale Rating Talc 1 Gypsum 2 Calcite 3 Fluorite 4 Apatite 5 Orthoclase Feldspar 6 Quartz 7 Topaz 8 Corundum 9 Diamond 10
  17. 17. Cleavage Tendency of a mineral to break along planes of bonding Fracture describes the quality of the cleavage surface.  fibrous ( dull, silky) fracture  conchoidal (curved, shell-like lines) fracture  irregular (rough, jagged) fracture
  18. 18. Cleavage Types Cubic Cleaves in three directions at 90° to one another Rhombohedral Cleaves in three directions but not at 90° to one another Octahedral Cleaves in four directions Dodecahedral Cleaves in six directions Basal Cleaves in one direction Prismatic Cleaves in two directions
  19. 19. Specific Gravity Specific Gravity of a mineral is a comparison or ratio of the weight of the mineral to the weight of an equal amount of water. The weight of the equal amount of water is found by finding the difference between the weight of the mineral in air and the weight of the mineral in water. The most common is 2.5 – 3
  20. 20. Others Taste  Only soluble minerals have a taste, but it is very important that minerals not be placed in the mouth or on the tongue. Feel Magnetism  Magnetism is the characteristic that allows a mineral to attract or repel other magnetic materials. Reaction to Acid

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