IS 4th Quarter

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IS 4th Quarter

  1. 1. IS REVIEW CHEMISTRY
  2. 2. MatterPhysical State Properties Changes Energy Solid Physical Physical Exothermic Liquid Chemical Chemical Endothermic Gas Intrinsic Plasma Extrinsic
  3. 3. Matter Composition Pure Substance Mixture Homogeneous Heterogeneous ColloidElement Compound Solution Suspension Metal Acid Coarse Non-metal Base Metalloid Salt
  4. 4. DEFINITIONSMATTER AND CHEMISTRY
  5. 5. CHEMISTRY• The science of matter, its properties, structure, composition and its changes during interactions and chemical reactions.• The branch of science that deals with the identification of the substances of which matter is composed; the investigation of their properties and the ways in which they interact, combine, and change; and the use of these processes to form new substances
  6. 6. MATTER• anything that occupies space, possesses mass, offers resistance and can be felt by one or more of our senses• Mass is the amount of matter in an object and volume is the amount of space occupied by an object
  7. 7. PROPERTIESCHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL
  8. 8. PROPERTIESGeneral Properties • Shape• Color • Electrical Conductivity• Odor • Size• Temperature • Mass• Taste • Weight• Specific Gravity Special Properties• Density • Liquid – Viscosity, Turbidity• Effect Of Magnet • Solid –• Solubility Ductility, Malleability, Elast icity
  9. 9. DEFINITIONSPhysical Properties• Properties that can be determined without necessarily changing the chemical compositionChemical Properties• Properties that cannot be determined just by viewing or touching the substance• Signs that chemical change has occurred: • Odor, color, or temperature change • Precipitate or gas formation
  10. 10. DEFINITIONSExtrinsic Properties• Properties that are dependent to the amount of the substance or its massIntrinsic Properties• Properties that are not dependent to the amount of the substance and is ,therefore, unaffected by mass.
  11. 11. PHASESSOLID, LIQUID, GAS, AND PLASMA
  12. 12. SOLIDS• Most compact• Has no ability to flow• Definite shape• Definite volume
  13. 13. LIQUIDS• Less compact when compared with solids• Has the ability to flow• Follows the shape of its container• Definite volume
  14. 14. GASES• Least compact• Follows the shape of its container• No definite volume
  15. 15. CHANGESCHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL
  16. 16. ENERGY USE• Endothermic • From a more compact state of matter, to a less compact state of matter. (ex: solid--->gas)• Exothermic • From a less compact state of matter to a more compact state of matter(ex: liquid--->solid
  17. 17. PHYSICAL• Physical changes are changes affecting the form of a chemical substance, but do not change the chemical composition of that substance.• Physical changes are used to separate mixtures into their component compounds, but cannot usually be used to separate compounds into chemical elements or simpler compounds.
  18. 18. CHEMICAL• Chemical changes occur when a substance combines with another to form a new substance or, alternatively, decomposes into two or more different substances.• These processes are called chemical reactions and, in general, are not reversible except by further chemical reactions.
  19. 19. EXAMPLESPhysical Chemical• Heating and cooling • Oxidation• Magnetism • Neutralization• Crystallization • Reduction• Mixtures • Decomposition• Solutions• Alloys
  20. 20. CLASSIFICATIONSUBSTANCES AND MIXTURES
  21. 21. PURE SUBSTANCE• Made up of only one kink of material• All particles are exactly the same• Has definite properties• Examples • Salt • Iron • Water• Can be classified into 2 groups • Elements • Compounds
  22. 22. ELEMENTS• Simplest form of matter• Atom • Smallest particle of an element• Atoms of the same element are alike• Operational Definition: • Substances that cannot be broken down any further
  23. 23. METALS• Most are conductors of heat and energy• Generally have high densities• Have a fairly high melting point• Shiny and are lustrous• Most are ductile and malleable• Tends to lose their outer most electrons when chemically combined• Most are solid at room temperature except for mercury (Hg) which is in its liquid form
  24. 24. METALS• Metals that are magnetic • Iron (Fe) • Nickel (Ni) • Cobalt (Co)• Reacts with water to form their metal oxide• Operational Definition: • Usually become basic when heated
  25. 25. NON-METALS• Dull in appearance• Brittle• Don’t conduct heat and electricity• Usually lower densities and melting points• Tends to gain electrons when chemically combined• Half of non-metals are gases at room temperature, such as noble gases, except for bromine which is liquid• Operational Definition: • Usually become acidic when heated
  26. 26. METALLOIDS• Has physical properties close to metals • Intermediate electrical conductivity • Intermediate reflectance• Has chemical properties close to non-metals • Low densities and melting points • Brittle• Examples : • Boron • Silicon • Germanium • Arsenic • Antimony • Tellurium
  27. 27. COMPOUNDS• Substances composed of 2 or more elements that are chemically combined• Molecule • Smallest particle of a compound• Operational Definition: • Substances that can be broken down into simpler elements (through heat/electricity
  28. 28. ACIDS• Tastes sour• Contains hydrogen• Ionizes to produce positive hydrogen ions(H+) which is a proton• Hydrogen ions makes acids good electrolytes • Electrolyte• Proton donors
  29. 29. BASES• Taste bitter• Slippery to the touch• Can be poisonous and corrosive• Contains Hydroxide ions (OH-)• Proton Acceptors
  30. 30. INDICATORS Indicators • Compounds that show a definite color when mixed wit an acid or baseSubstance Blue LP Red LP Methyl Orange Phenolphthalein Acid Red Red Red Clear Base Blue Blue Orange Magenta
  31. 31. SALT• Formed when an acid reacts chemically with a base. This process is called neutralization• Neutralization is only compete when the hydrogen and hydroxide ions are equal HCL NaOH H2O (Acid) (Base) NaCl
  32. 32. ELECTROLYSIS• A chemical separation of a compound into elements• Anode +• Cathode –• Reduction • An electron is gained • Happens at the cathode• Oxidation • An electron is lost • Happens at the anode
  33. 33. MIXTURES• May change physical appearance when dissolved• Operational Definition: • A mix of matter that can be separated through physical means
  34. 34. HETEROGENEOUS• A mixture that does not appear to be the same throughout• Particles are large enough to be seen and to separate from the mixture• Tends to settle when the mixture is left undisturbed• Types • Coarse - Mostly Solid • Suspension – Contains a liquid in which visible particles settle• Effect of Light • Light slightly passes through
  35. 35. HOMOGENEOUS• Mixtures appear to be the same throughout• Particles do not settle when allowed to stand
  36. 36. SOLUTION• The “best mixed” of all• Particles are too small to be seen• Formed when one substance dissolves another• Effect of Light • Light passes through
  37. 37. COLLOID• Particles are not dissolved but are dispersed• Do not settle but remain suspended for some time,• Somewhat large particles relative to a solution• Brownian Movement• Effect of light • Makes the colloid appear to glow • The colloid scatters the light
  38. 38. SEPARATING MIXTURES• Magnetism • Uses magnets to separate metallic and non-metallic components of a mixture• Decantation • Allowing solid particles to settle first then pouring the liquid into another container• Filtration • Separating undissoved solid particles from the liquid by allowing the liquid to pass through a filter
  39. 39. SEPARATING MIXTURES• Evaporation • Separating a liquid from a solid wherein the liquid part is lost and only the solid part is recovered• Distillation • separating a mixture of 2 liquids by evaporating the one with the lower boiling point• Chromatography • Method of physical separation making use of the adsorbent property of a substance
  40. 40. EXPERIMENT DATA
  41. 41. EXPT. #3Sample No. Physical Color Odor Solubility in Water Effect of Magnet StateCopper Strips Solid Copper Brown Odorless Insoluble Non MagneticSulfur Powder Solid Bright Yellow Reeking Insoluble Non MagneticSucrose Solid Crystal White Aromatic Soluble Non MagneticIodine Crystals Solid Metallic Gray Musty Slightly Soluble Non MagneticEthyl Alcohol Liquid Clear Fragrant Miscible Non MagneticSodium Chloride Solid Crystal White Odorless Soluble Non MagneticNaphthalene Solid White Fresh Insoluble Non MagneticSodium Bicarbonate Solid White Odorless Slightly Soluble Non MagneticCopper Sulfate Solid Light Blue Odorless Slightly Soluble Non MagneticDilute Acetic Acid Liquid Foggy White Pungent Miscible Non MagneticAcetone Liquid Clear Noxious Miscible Non MagneticIron Solid Silvery Odorless Insoluble Magnetic
  42. 42. EXPT. #4 Diff. Bet. Initial and Final Chemical System Initial State Final State StateLead Nitrite Colorless, Colder, Colorless, Odor and Temperature+ Hydrochloric Acid Pungent Odorless ChangeSodium Bicarbonate Colorless, Gas Formation, Gas Formation+ Hydrochloric Acid Odorless Colorless, OdorlessCopper Sulfate Blue, Blue, Odor Change+ Hydrochloric Acid Metallic Smell ReekingPotassium Chromate Yellow, Orange, Color Change+ Hydrochloric Acid Fresh Smell OdorlessMagnesium Chloride Colorless, White, Gas Formation, Gas Formation,+ Hydrochloric Acid Odorless Musty Odor ChangeLead Nitrite Colorless, White, Precipitate Formation+ Ammonia Pungent Foggy, PungentSodium Bicarbonate Colorless, Colder, Colorless, Odor and Temperature+ Ammonia Odorless Pungent Change
  43. 43. EXPT. #4Copper Sulfate Blue, Colder, Foggy, Precipitate Formation,+ Ammonia Metallic Smell Pungent, Blue Odor, Temp. ChangePotassium Chromate Yellow, Colder, Colorless, Odor and Temperature+ Ammonia Fresh Smell Pungent ChangeMagnesium Chloride Colorless, Colorless, Odor Change+ Ammonia Odorless PungentLead Nitrite Colorless, Foggy, Precipitate Formation+ Sodium Hydroxide Pungent OdorlessSodium Bicarbonate Colorless, White, Precipitate Formation+ Sodium Hydroxide Odorless FoggyCopper Sulfate Blue, Foggy, Precipitate Formation+ Sodium Hydroxide Metallic Smell BluePotassium Chromate Yellow, White, Precipitate Formation+ Sodium Hydroxide Fresh Smell FoggyMagnesium Chloride Colorless, White, Precipitate Formation+ Sodium Hydroxide Odorless Foggy
  44. 44. EXPT. #5Chemical System Observation AnalysisCopper turnings and sulfur The burning sulfur evaporated and leftExamined w/ lens - Copper and sulfur are separate. a noxious smell while the copper simply - Sulfur is yellow w/ large granules. melted. - Some of the copper is bent. - Produced a noxious smell - Sulfur evaporated - Copper meltedHeated together - Copper turned blackMagnesium ribbon The magnesium ribbon heated up untilBurned in air - Yellow-green flame its flash point and burned in a bright yellow green flame. The solutionCombustion product - Black, fragile, breaking, ashes produced a sour smell. - Cloudy waterDissolved in water - Grayish color - Red turned to blueSolution tested w/ red and blue litmus paper - Basic solution
  45. 45. Sulfur powder The sulfur powder was acidic after it wasBurned in air Turned black burned and dissolved in waterCombustion product Black, ashesDissolved in water Cloudy waterSolution tested w/ red and blue litmus paper Blue turned to red Acidic solutionIodine crystals The iodine crystals vaporized into pinkHeated Pink gas gas then formed crystals on the Evaporation of crystals evaporating dish above. The resulting crystals stain a yellow-orange tinge on Shiny, gray, yellow-orange stain, no handsVapor cooled smellCopper Sulfate The copper sulfate turned to whiteHeated Evaporation of copper sulfate crystals indicating a chemical change turned to whiteSodium Chloride and sand When the sand and salt was mixed, theyExamine w/ lens Sand sticks to salt can be clearly distinguished from each other.Mixed w/ water Cloudy brown water When mixed with water, the salt Salt dissolved dissolved while the sand settled at the Sand settled at the bottom bottom. We filtered the solution and after Murky, yellowish liquid evaporating the filtrate, the sandFiltered Small sand particles remained. Yellowish salt crystalsFiltrate allowed to evaporate Dark yellow middle
  46. 46. EXPT. #7 Color Odor Taste Water Colorless Odorless Tasteless Fresh but Sweet with a stingingEthyl Alcohol Colorless Stingy aftertaste Fresh but Sweet with a mild1st Distillate Colorless Stingy stinging aftertaste Sweet with a2nd Distillate Colorless Very Stingy dominant stinging aftertaste Cloudy Noxious and A mild stinging Residue Yellow Reeking aftertaste
  47. 47. EXPT. 8 Anode Gas Cathode GasRelative Volume Half compared to Two times larger in cathode gas volumeReaction to Fire Brightens the flame of Catches fire in a loud the match popping noise
  48. 48. EXPT. #9 Color Ds Df RfGreen~ Yellow 9.9 cm. 0.9~ Blue 10.9 cm. 0.99~ Water 11 cm.Blue~ Blue 10.4 cm. 0.99~ Water 10.5 cm.Yellow~ Yellow 10.3 cm. 0.9~ Pink 9.3 cm. 0.8~ Water 11.5 cm.Black~ Black 11.2 cm. 1~ Water 11.2 cm.

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