Biology as the Study of LifePresentation Transcript
Key WordsSOME THINGS YOU NEED TO KNOW
Cell Basic structural and functional unit of living organisms Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Prokaryotes don’t have a real nucleus Eukaryotes have a nucleus with a double membrane Plant vs. Animal Plant cells have a rigid cell wall and chloroplasts Animal cells have lysosomes
Regulation & Feed Back Regulation The adaptation of form or behavior of an organism to changed conditions. Feedback A cause and effect chain that loops back to the beginning.
Reproduction The creation of a new organism from a “parent.” The known methods of reproduction are broadly grouped into two main types: sexual and asexual.
Enzymes Catalyst in chemical reactions The purpose of an enzyme in a cell is to allow the cell to carry out chemical reactions very quickly.
Emergent Property & Homeostasis Emergent Property The emergence of properties at each step of the levels of organization. Homeostasis The tendency of a system to stay under stable conditions.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid Contains the genetic information used in the development and growth of an organism. Made up of nucleotides which are formed from a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and one of 4 nitrogen bases (Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine.)
Metabolism A set of chemical reactions that occur to sustain life. Catabolism A set of metabolic reactions that break down big, complex molecules. Anabolism A set of metabolic reactions that synthesize larger, more complex compounds.
Biodiversity The degree of variety of organisms in a given specific area or location. Biodiversity includes genetic variation within species and the variety of habitat types
Evolution Any change between successive generations in the inherited traits of populations.
Open System & Stimuli Open System A system that exchanges energy and materials with its outside environment. Stimuli A change that elicits or causes a response.
Taxonomy The science of Taxa: identifying, naming, and classifying organisms. Uses Binomial Nomenclature Uses two names
Characteristics of Life WHAT MAKES LIFE, LIFE.
Cellular and Organized Single-cell organisms have everything they need to be self- sufficient. In multicellular organisms, specialization increases until some cells do only certain things.
Reproduces Reproduction is not essential for the survival of individual organisms, but must occur for a species to survive. All living things reproduce in one of the following ways: Asexual reproduction - Producing offspring without the use of gametes. Sexual reproduction - Producing offspring by the joining of sex cells.
Genetic Code Offspring resemble parents because they inherit their traits. Nucleic acids is life’s manual, its blueprint to make an organism.
Grows and Develops An organism develops when it matures. Cell division is the orderly formation of new cells. Cell enlargement is the increase in size of a cell. Cells grow to a certain size and then divide. An organism gets larger as the number of its cells and size of its cells increases.
Energy Living things take in energy and use it for maintenance and growth.
Responds Living things will make changes in response to a stimulus in their environment. A behavior is a complex set of responses.
Adapts and Evolves Adaptations are traits giving an organism an advantage in a certain environment. Variation of individuals is important for a healthy species.
Homeostasis The ability of a system or living organism to adjust its internal environment to maintain a stable equilibrium.
“CHARRGED” C – Cellular and Organized H – Homeostasis A – Adapts and Evolves R – Responds R – Reproduces G – Grows and Develops E – Energy D – DNA, Genetic Code
Themes of Biology THE MAIN POINTS
Cell Cells are every organism’s basic units of structure and function. The two main types of cells are Prokaryotic cells (in Bacteria and Archaea) and Eukaryotic cells (in Protists, Plants, Fungi, and Animals).
Heritable Information The continuity of life depends on the inheritance of biological information in the form of DNA molecules. This genetic information is encoded in the nucleotide sequences of the DNA.
Emergent Properties The living world has a hierarchical organization, extending from molecules to the biosphere. With each step upward in level, system properties emerge as a result of interactions among components at the lower levels.
Regulation Feedback mechanisms regulate biological systems. In some cases, the regulation maintains a relatively steady state for internal factors such as body temperature.
Interaction with the Environment Organisms are open systems that exchange materials and energy with their surroundings. An organism’s environment includes other organisms as well as nonliving factors.
Energy and Life All organisms must perform work, which requires energy. Energy flows from sunlight to producers to consumers.
Unity and Diversity Biologists group the diversity of life into three domains: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. As diverse as life is, we can also find unity, such as a universal genetic code. The more closely related two species are, the more characteristics they share.
Evolution Evolution, biology’s core theme, explains both the unity and diversity of life. The Darwinian theory of natural selection accounts for adaptation of populations to their environment through the differential reproductive success of varying individuals.
Structure and Function Form and function are correlated at all levels of biological organization
Scientific Inquiry The process of science includes observation- based discovery and the testing of explanations through hypothesis-based inquiry. Scientific credibility depends on the repeatability of observations and experiments.
“LUDEECRISS” L – Life and Energy U – Unity and Diversity D – DNA E – Evolution E – Emergent Property C – Cell R – Regulation I – Interacts with its Environment S – Structure and Function S – Scientific Inquiry
Levels of Organization MICRO TO MACRO
Molecules Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems Organism Population, same species, area, & time Community Ecosystem Biosphere Cosmos