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EcologyAN INTRODUCTION
Key WordsSOME THINGS YOU NEED TO KNOW
Ecology from Greek: oikos, meaning “house”. First coined by Ernst Haeckel, a German biologist, in 1866. He related hous...
Biosphere Portions of the planet in which life exists. Self-contained and self-regulating Patchy
Ecosystem & Ecotone Ecosystem   Not self-contained   Abiotic ↔ Biotic   Removing biotic elements can dramatically affe...
Habitat & Niche Habitat   The area where an organism lives   An organism’s home or address Niche   Conditions in whic...
Ecological Succession    PIONEERS TO GENTLEMEN
Types of Successions Ecological Succession   An existing community is replaced by another    community     Directional ...
Communities Pioneer Community   Colonizes areas where no community exists Climax Community   A fairly stable collectio...
BiomesDESERT TO DESSERT
Tundra Coldest Dry Northern Hemisphere Flora   Stunted trees , dwarf woody shrubs , mosses , lichen ,    grass Fauna...
Grassland Warm to Hot Wet and Dry seasons All continents except Antarctica Flora   Grasses , few trees Fauna   Mamm...
Desert Extreme Temperature Very Dry Tropical and Temperate Zones Flora   Cactus , sage bush , dwarf shrubs , short wo...
Taiga A.K.A.   Coniferous Forest Cool Year-round Adequate Rainfall Underneath Tundra Biomes Flora   Conifers Fauna...
Deciduous Forest Seasons   Summer , fall , winter , spring Adequate Rainfall Temperate Zones Flora   Deciduous Trees
Tropical Rainforest Always Warm Very Wet Between Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn Flora   Vines , palms , orchids , fe...
Freshwater Less than 1% salinity Standing water   Littoral Zone        Near Shore    Limnetic Zone        Near-surfa...
Estuarine Salinity is more than 1% but less than 3% Organisms are highly tolerant to salt Spawning Grounds High Biodiv...
Marine More than 3% salinity Zones   Intertidal         Low/high tide area     Pelagic         Open Ocean     Benth...
Energy FlowPYRAMIDS AND CHAINS
Ecological Pyramids Shows the relative amounts of energy/matter contained at each trophic level
Feeding Relationships Food Chain   Organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten Food Web   Network of complex f...
Population Dynamics      PLUS MINUS
Characteristics of a Population Geographic Distribution or Range   The natural arrangements of organisms in particular  ...
Characteristics of a Population Age Structure   Distribution of the    population to different    age groups. Growth ra...
Growth Rate Exponential   Individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate. Logistic   A populations growth st...
Population Pyramid Types   Growing        Stable population growth    Expanding                           Stationary  ...
Core Concepts Five important characteristics of a population Three factors affect a population’s size Biotic potential ...
Factors Limiting Population Growth Limiting factor   A factor that causes the population growth to decrease    Density-...
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An Introduction to Ecology

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Transcript of "An Introduction to Ecology"

  1. 1. EcologyAN INTRODUCTION
  2. 2. Key WordsSOME THINGS YOU NEED TO KNOW
  3. 3. Ecology from Greek: oikos, meaning “house”. First coined by Ernst Haeckel, a German biologist, in 1866. He related houses as the levels of organization.
  4. 4. Biosphere Portions of the planet in which life exists. Self-contained and self-regulating Patchy
  5. 5. Ecosystem & Ecotone Ecosystem  Not self-contained  Abiotic ↔ Biotic  Removing biotic elements can dramatically affect an ecosystem’s abiotic conditions Ecotone  The overlap between two or more ecosystems/ biomes
  6. 6. Habitat & Niche Habitat  The area where an organism lives  An organism’s home or address Niche  Conditions in which an organism lives  The way an organism uses these conditions  An organism’s job or occupation
  7. 7. Ecological Succession PIONEERS TO GENTLEMEN
  8. 8. Types of Successions Ecological Succession  An existing community is replaced by another community  Directional  Usually predictable Primary Succession  Starts with virtually lifeless area; the soil has not formed yet or has been destroyed Secondary Succession  Occurs when an existing community has been cleared by some disturbance without destroying the soil
  9. 9. Communities Pioneer Community  Colonizes areas where no community exists Climax Community  A fairly stable collection of organisms that results from ecological succession Dominant Species  Most obvious or numerous species in a community
  10. 10. BiomesDESERT TO DESSERT
  11. 11. Tundra Coldest Dry Northern Hemisphere Flora  Stunted trees , dwarf woody shrubs , mosses , lichen , grass Fauna  Reindeer , migratory animals (feed on plants during the summer0 , wolves , foxes , mosquitoes ,
  12. 12. Grassland Warm to Hot Wet and Dry seasons All continents except Antarctica Flora  Grasses , few trees Fauna  Mammals ( giraffes , zebras , lions , etc. ) , birds , insects
  13. 13. Desert Extreme Temperature Very Dry Tropical and Temperate Zones Flora  Cactus , sage bush , dwarf shrubs , short woody trees Fauna  Kangaroo mice , lizards , insects , scorpions , snakes , birds
  14. 14. Taiga A.K.A.  Coniferous Forest Cool Year-round Adequate Rainfall Underneath Tundra Biomes Flora  Conifers Fauna  Black Bears , wolves , moose , migratory birds (during summer)
  15. 15. Deciduous Forest Seasons  Summer , fall , winter , spring Adequate Rainfall Temperate Zones Flora  Deciduous Trees
  16. 16. Tropical Rainforest Always Warm Very Wet Between Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn Flora  Vines , palms , orchids , ferns
  17. 17. Freshwater Less than 1% salinity Standing water  Littoral Zone  Near Shore  Limnetic Zone  Near-surface Open Water  Profundal Zone  Deep Water Flowing water
  18. 18. Estuarine Salinity is more than 1% but less than 3% Organisms are highly tolerant to salt Spawning Grounds High Biodiversity per unit area Highly Productive  Because of the nutrients deposited by the river or stream, low depth and high light exposure
  19. 19. Marine More than 3% salinity Zones  Intertidal  Low/high tide area  Pelagic  Open Ocean  Benthic  Ocean Floor  Abyssal  Deep Ocean
  20. 20. Energy FlowPYRAMIDS AND CHAINS
  21. 21. Ecological Pyramids Shows the relative amounts of energy/matter contained at each trophic level
  22. 22. Feeding Relationships Food Chain  Organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten Food Web  Network of complex feeding relationships Only 10% of the energy of an organism is passed on to the organism that eats it
  23. 23. Population Dynamics PLUS MINUS
  24. 24. Characteristics of a Population Geographic Distribution or Range  The natural arrangements of organisms in particular geographic locations Population Density  The number of individuals per unit area Population Dispersion  Pattern in spacing between other members of the population  Clumped , uniform , and random
  25. 25. Characteristics of a Population Age Structure  Distribution of the population to different age groups. Growth rate  3 Factors affecting the population size  Natality  Mortality  Migration  Number of organisms added or taken away from a population
  26. 26. Growth Rate Exponential  Individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate. Logistic  A populations growth stops after a period of exponential growth  Biotic Potential  Maximum growth rate under ideal conditions  Carrying Capacity  Maximum population size an environment can sustain  Environmental Resistance  Environmental conditions that limit a population’s growth
  27. 27. Population Pyramid Types  Growing  Stable population growth  Expanding Stationary Contracting  Exponential population growth  Stationary  No population growth  Contracting  Decreasing population growth Expanding Growing
  28. 28. Core Concepts Five important characteristics of a population Three factors affect a population’s size Biotic potential of an ecosystem is affected by environmental resistance , thus resulting in a maximum carrying capacity Factors that limit population growth include both density-dependent and density- independent factors Understanding the patterns in human population growth is important in addressing population problems around the world
  29. 29. Factors Limiting Population Growth Limiting factor  A factor that causes the population growth to decrease  Density-dependent factors  Becomes limiting when a population reaches a certain size  Competition  Diseases  Density-independent factors  Not affected by the size of the population  Natural Disasters
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