Insulin tells Liver to take glucose out of the blood, turn it into glycogen and store it in Liver cells
Respiration and Pulse Rate Aerobic respiration: Releasing energy from glucose using oxygen. Occurs in every cell in the body C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6H20 + 6CO2 Anaerobic respiration: Releasing energy from glucose without oxygen Produces less energy -> less efficient Produces lactic acid -> causes cramp and muscle fatigue -> removed with oxygen (debt) Glucose -> Lactic acid
Pulse rate and blood pressure During exercise you need more energy, so need to respire more, so need more oxygen, so breath faster and deeper Blood pressure: Systolic -> when heart contracts Diastolic -> when pressure in arteries drops High BP: Stress, smoking, diet -> heart attack Low BP: Low blood sugar -> dizzy and fainting
Food and Digestion Carb’s: provide energy Fats: provide insulation and energy Protein: builds cells & growth and repair Vit. C: Strengthen skins Iron: Making haemoglobin Fibre: keeps digestive system moving Q: What deficiency diseases do a lack of protein/Vit. C/ iron/ fibre cause? Kwashiorkor/Scurvy/Anaemia/Constipation
Body Mass Index: BMI Mass in kg / (height in m)2 Should be between 18 and 25 Q What is the BMI of a person who has a mass of 65kg, and a height on 1.6m?
Enzymes and digestion
Pathogens & Disease Fo
First Response to Disease Skin: (Thick, strong), (blood clots), (tears) Gaseous exchange system: (Cilia), (Mucus), (Patrol WBC’S) Food and Water: (Looks), (Cooking), (HCl in stomach)
Infection White blood cells destroy pathogens by: Engulfing and ingesting them Produce Antibodies which recognise & attach to the antigens on pathogen and destroy it Produce memory cells which stay in bloodstream on alert for repeat attack (means you are immune)
Once you have an infectious disease, you keep the memory cells & antibodies in you blood meaning you are immune.
Vaccinations and breastfeeding are 2 ways that we can become immune and have antibodies to a disease without ever having the disease
Accommodation: Eye’s ability to change focus on near or far objects For distant objects the ciliary muscles relax and the suspensory ligaments pull tight making the lens pull thin – the light doesn’t bend as much. For close objects the ciliary muscles contract allowing the lens to go fat, thus bending the light more.
Remember Nearby objects: Light rays need lots of refracting, So lens needs to be thick Ciliary muscles contract, so suspensory ligaments slacken
Remember Distant objects: Light rays parallel, do not need much refracting, So lens needs to be thin Ciliary muscles relax, so suspensory ligaments tighten Ciliary Muscles Ciliary Muscles
Eye Defects Myopia Short-sighted Eye ball too long Image is focused before the retina Blurred images Need concave lens Hypermetropia Long-sighted Lens not thick enough Light not refracted enough Image is focused behind the retina Blurred images Need Convex lens
Synapses Neurones do not touch each other They have small gaps in between one another called synapses When an impulse has travelled down a neurone, it stimulates a transmitter substance into the synapse which diffuses across to the next neurone. This trigger an electrical impulse in that neurone
Drugs Stimulants: Ecstasy, nicotine, cocaine Increase brain activity Increase level of dopamine in neurones Happier, chattier, energetic, higher blood pressure and faster heart beat Depressants: Alcohol, solvents Decrease brain activity Increases GABA (neurone transmitter that slows down impulse) Decreases Glutamate (neurone transmitter that speeds up impulses)
Cigarettes Cigarettes contain: Nicotine: Addictive, increases blood pressure Tar: Coats lungs and carcinogen Carbon Monoxide: Reduces oxygen in blood Particulates: Irritate lungs Short term: Coughing, bronchitis Alcohol: Depressant Loss of inhibitions and sense Loss of body heat -> hypothermia Cirrhosis (long term effect on liver)
Homeostasis “The maintenance of a constant internal environment”. Not just temperature that is controlled What else is? Blood glucose Water levels Carbon Dioxide
Negative Feedback Hypothalamus senses change in temperature Temperature rises too high Temperature falls too low Shivering generates heat. Vasoconstriction reduces heat loss through skin Sweat loses heat though evaporation. Vasodilation increases heat loss though skin Skin, Muscles and Vessels: senses change in temperature Do a negative feedback loop for blood glucose control (remember insulin, glycogen, glucagon, pancreas, liver
Genes Diploid cells contain 46 chromosomes (2 sets of 23) Haploid cells contain 23 chromosomes(1 set of 23) Many genes can be found on chromosomes Genes code for a particular characteristic A gene which can give a varied outcome is called an allele (these are either dominant or recessive) If you unravel chromosomes, you end up with long double helix strands of DNA
DNA Double helix strands held together by base pairs (a-t and c-g)
What is different from species in the fungi kingdom, compared to those in the plant or animal kingdoms? How do we know that Lamarck's theory of evolution is wrong? What uses (other than for respiration) does a plant have for glucose? Explain the mutualistic relationship of Nitrogen fixing bacteria and leguminous plants In what type of water would you find Mayfly nymphs? Answer these questions:
B2B: Classification Kingdoms (5) Phylum Class (five for animals) Order Family Genus Genus + species = binomial name Species (Carl Linnaeus system)
B2B Organisms in same species can breed to produce fertile offspring Organisms in same genus can breed to produce infertile offspring (Hybrids)
B2C Photosynthesis = plants producing their own food Carbon + water ->Glucose & oxygen dioxide Happens in chlorophyll in chloroplasts in leaves Only during day Plant can store glucose made as starch or use to make oils, proteins, cellulose in cell walls Reaction happens fast depending on limiting factors
Relationships Plants need nitrates to grow healthily. They can get these from the soil, but often there isn’t enough in the soil as other plants are competing for them too. Legumous plants have a bacteria that lives on their roots. The bacteria can change nitrogen in the air into nitrates for the plant to use. Now the plant doesn’t have to compete with other plants. The bacteria feeds on sugars that the plant produces. What type of relationship do the plants and nitrogen fixing bacteria have? (parasitic or mutual?)
Relationships Between species or species with similar niches Competition (for what?) Predator/prey (features of both) Cycle (why more prey? Why out of sync?)
Adaptations How is a polar bear adapted to survive? How is an insect pollinated plant adapted to survive? Is this plant adapted for insect or wind pollination? Why?
A rabbit has all round vision, where as a fox has binocular vision. How do this adaptation help both animals? Dolphins are mammals and shark are fish. Explain why dolphins are classified mammals, but also why they look like most fish? Adaptations
Fossils Remains of marine organisms (or imprints) When decay hasn't happened (oxygen/moisture/pH) Fossil record incomplete (not all species fossilised, not all found, destroyed/distorted) Provide evidence for evolution
Natural selection Darwin's idea for evolution Variation (due to mutation) Some variations better (competition) More likely to be passed on to next generation Over many generations New species formed eventually Speciation
Charles Darwin & evolution
What were the conclusions in his book (The Origin of Species)?
Why did his book cause controversy?
What similar theory did Jean-Baptist Lamarck have before Darwin?
How do we know that Lamarck’s theory is incorrect, where as Darwin’s is still believed today?
Carbon Dioxide: Released when we burn fossil Fuels Taken in by plants, so deforestation increases amount in atmosphere. Increases global temperature because it is a greenhouse gas What is a greenhouse gas? Causing global warming Pollution
Sulphur Dioxide (SO4) Released when we burn fossil fuels/coal Mixes with rain to form sulphuric acid Acid rain Destroys plants, fish, water and buildings Kills lichen on trees (so they can be indicator species for it) Pollution
The ozone layer CFC’s Released from decaying polystyrene, leaky fridges and freezers, and aerosols Breaks down and damages ozone layer (O3) Lets more harmful UV rays in These cause skin cancer (nothing to do with CO2or global warming!!!!!!)
Sustainability Using something at a rate so it will not run out in future Fishing quotas, planting new trees after logging Human population is growing unsustainably exponentially (doubling & doubling)
Protection Endangered species; Conservation, education, zoos, captive breeding, red list