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B1 and b2 revision
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B1 and b2 revision






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    B1 and b2 revision B1 and b2 revision Presentation Transcript

    • B1 revision
      Quick recap, question sheets, worksheets
    • Insulin tells Liver to take glucose out of the blood, turn it into glycogen and store it in Liver cells
    • Respiration and Pulse Rate
      Aerobic respiration:
      Releasing energy from glucose using oxygen.
      Occurs in every cell in the body
      C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6H20 + 6CO2
      Anaerobic respiration:
      Releasing energy from glucose without oxygen
      Produces less energy -> less efficient
      Produces lactic acid -> causes cramp and muscle fatigue -> removed with oxygen (debt)
      Glucose -> Lactic acid
    • Pulse rate and blood pressure
      During exercise you need more energy, so need to respire more, so need more oxygen, so breath faster and deeper
      Blood pressure:
      Systolic -> when heart contracts
      Diastolic -> when pressure in arteries drops
      High BP: Stress, smoking, diet -> heart attack
      Low BP: Low blood sugar -> dizzy and fainting
    • Food and Digestion
      Carb’s: provide energy
      Fats: provide insulation and energy
      Protein: builds cells & growth and repair
      Vit. C: Strengthen skins
      Iron: Making haemoglobin
      Fibre: keeps digestive system moving
      Q: What deficiency diseases do a lack of protein/Vit. C/ iron/ fibre cause?
    • Body Mass Index: BMI
      Mass in kg / (height in m)2
      Should be between 18 and 25
      Q What is the BMI of a person who has a mass of 65kg, and a height on 1.6m?
    • Enzymes and digestion
    • Pathogens & Disease
    • First Response to Disease
      (Thick, strong), (blood clots), (tears)
      Gaseous exchange system:
      (Cilia), (Mucus), (Patrol WBC’S)
      Food and Water:
      (Looks), (Cooking), (HCl in stomach)
    • Infection
      White blood cells destroy pathogens by:
      Engulfing and ingesting them
      Produce Antibodies which recognise & attach to the antigens on pathogen and destroy it
      Produce memory cells which stay in bloodstream on alert for repeat attack (means you are immune)
    • Immunity
      • Once you have an infectious disease, you keep the memory cells & antibodies in you blood meaning you are immune.
      • Vaccinations and breastfeeding are 2 ways that we can become immune and have antibodies to a disease without ever having the disease
      • Drug resistance & drug testing
      • Placebo & Double blind test
    • The Eye
      Optic nerve
      Optic nerve
      Suspensory ligaments
      Suspensory ligaments
      Ciliary muscles
    • Accommodation: Eye’s ability to change focus on near or far objects
      For distant objects the ciliary muscles relax and the suspensory ligaments pull tight making the lens pull thin – the light doesn’t bend as much.
      For close objects the ciliary muscles contract allowing the lens to go fat, thus bending the light more.
    • Remember
      Nearby objects:
      Light rays need lots of refracting,
      So lens needs to be thick
      Ciliary muscles contract, so suspensory ligaments slacken
    • Remember
      Distant objects:
      Light rays parallel, do not need much refracting,
      So lens needs to be thin
      Ciliary muscles relax, so suspensory ligaments tighten
      Ciliary Muscles
      Ciliary Muscles
    • Eye Defects
      Eye ball too long
      Image is focused before the retina
      Blurred images
      Need concave lens
      Lens not thick enough
      Light not refracted enough
      Image is focused behind the retina
      Blurred images
      Need Convex lens
    • Neurones
      Cell Body
      Cell Membrane
      Nerve Endings
      Myelin Sheath
    • Reflex Arc
      Sensory Neurone
      Relay Neurone
      Motor Neurone
    • Synapses
      Neurones do not touch each other
      They have small gaps in between one another called synapses
      When an impulse has travelled down a neurone, it stimulates a transmitter substance into the synapse which diffuses across to the next neurone.
      This trigger an electrical impulse in that neurone
    • Drugs
      Stimulants: Ecstasy, nicotine, cocaine
      Increase brain activity
      Increase level of dopamine in neurones
      Happier, chattier, energetic, higher blood pressure and faster heart beat
      Depressants: Alcohol, solvents
      Decrease brain activity
      Increases GABA (neurone transmitter that slows down impulse)
      Decreases Glutamate (neurone transmitter that speeds up impulses)
    • Cigarettes
      Cigarettes contain:
      Nicotine: Addictive, increases blood pressure
      Tar: Coats lungs and carcinogen
      Carbon Monoxide: Reduces oxygen in blood
      Particulates: Irritate lungs
      Short term: Coughing, bronchitis
      Alcohol: Depressant
      Loss of inhibitions and sense
      Loss of body heat -> hypothermia
      Cirrhosis (long term effect on liver)
    • Homeostasis
      “The maintenance of a constant internal environment”.
      Not just temperature that is controlled
      What else is?
      Blood glucose
      Water levels
      Carbon Dioxide
    • Negative Feedback
      senses change in temperature
      Temperature rises
      too high
      Temperature falls too low
      Shivering generates heat.
      Vasoconstriction reduces heat loss through skin
      Sweat loses heat though evaporation.
      Vasodilation increases heat loss though skin
      Skin, Muscles and Vessels: senses change in temperature
      Do a negative feedback loop for blood glucose control (remember insulin, glycogen, glucagon, pancreas, liver
    • Genes
      Diploid cells contain 46 chromosomes (2 sets of 23)
      Haploid cells contain 23 chromosomes(1 set of 23)
      Many genes can be found on chromosomes
      Genes code for a particular characteristic
      A gene which can give a varied outcome is called an allele (these are either dominant or recessive)
      If you unravel chromosomes, you end up with long double helix strands of DNA
    • DNA
      Double helix strands held together by base pairs (a-t and c-g)
    • What is different from species in the fungi kingdom, compared to those in the plant or animal kingdoms?
      How do we know that Lamarck's theory of evolution is wrong?
      What uses (other than for respiration) does a plant have for glucose?
      Explain the mutualistic relationship of Nitrogen fixing bacteria and leguminous plants
      In what type of water would you find Mayfly nymphs?
      Answer these questions:
    • B2A
      Sampling techniques:
      • must be random
      • must be representative of size of area
      • must use appropriate technique
      kick sampling
      tullgren funnel
      pitfull traps
      Habitat, niche, ecosystem, population, community
    • B2B: Classification
      Kingdoms (5)
      Class (five for animals)
      Genus Genus + species = binomial name
      (Carl Linnaeus system)
    • B2B
      Organisms in same species can breed to produce fertile offspring
      Organisms in same genus can breed to produce infertile offspring (Hybrids)
    • B2C
      Photosynthesis =
      plants producing their own food
      Carbon + water ->Glucose & oxygen
      Happens in chlorophyll in chloroplasts in leaves
      Only during day
      Plant can store glucose made as starch or use to make oils, proteins, cellulose in cell walls
      Reaction happens fast depending on limiting factors
    • Relationships
      Plants need nitrates to grow healthily. They can get these from the soil, but often there isn’t enough in the soil as other plants are competing for them too.
      Legumous plants have a bacteria that lives on their roots. The bacteria can change nitrogen in the air into nitrates for the plant to use. Now the plant doesn’t have to compete with other plants. The bacteria feeds on sugars that the plant produces.
      What type of relationship do the plants and nitrogen fixing bacteria have? (parasitic or mutual?)
    • Relationships
      Between species or species with similar niches
      Competition (for what?)
      Predator/prey (features of both)
      Cycle (why more prey? Why out of sync?)
    • Adaptations
      How is a polar bear adapted to survive?
      How is an insect pollinated plant adapted to survive?
      Is this plant adapted for insect or wind pollination?
    • A rabbit has all round vision, where as a fox has binocular vision. How do this adaptation help both animals?
      Dolphins are mammals and shark are fish. Explain why dolphins are classified mammals, but also why they look like most fish?
    • Fossils
      Remains of marine organisms (or imprints)
      When decay hasn't happened (oxygen/moisture/pH)
      Fossil record incomplete (not all species fossilised, not all found, destroyed/distorted)
      Provide evidence for evolution
    • Natural selection
      Darwin's idea for evolution
      Variation (due to mutation)
      Some variations better (competition)
      More likely to be passed on to next generation
      Over many generations
      New species formed eventually
    • Charles Darwin & evolution
      • What were the conclusions in his book (The Origin of Species)?
      • Why did his book cause controversy?
      • What similar theory did Jean-Baptist Lamarck have before Darwin?
      • How do we know that Lamarck’s theory is incorrect, where as Darwin’s is still believed today?
    • Carbon Dioxide:
      Released when we burn fossil Fuels
      Taken in by plants, so deforestation increases amount in atmosphere.
      Increases global temperature because it is a greenhouse gas
      What is a greenhouse gas?
      Causing global warming
    • Sulphur Dioxide (SO4)
      Released when we burn fossil fuels/coal
      Mixes with rain to form sulphuric acid
      Acid rain
      Destroys plants, fish, water and buildings
      Kills lichen on trees (so they can be indicator species for it)
    • The ozone layer
      Released from decaying polystyrene, leaky fridges and freezers, and aerosols
      Breaks down and damages ozone layer (O3)
      Lets more harmful UV rays in
      These cause skin cancer
      (nothing to do with CO2or global warming!!!!!!)
    • Sustainability
      Using something at a rate so it will not run out in future
      Fishing quotas, planting new trees after logging
      Human population is growing unsustainably
      exponentially (doubling & doubling)
    • Protection
      Endangered species;
      Conservation, education, zoos, captive breeding, red list