4 Signs, Symptoms and Causes4 Signs, Symptoms and Causesof Spina Bifidaof Spina BifidaLearn more about Spina Bifida atLearn more about Spina Bifida athttp://www.spinabifida.nethttp://www.spinabifida.net
Spina Bifida• Spina bifida begins usually before thewoman knows she is pregnant (day 21-28)• The tissues that form the neural tube donot close or stay completely closed.• An opening in the vertebrae that protectthe spinal cord is formed.
Types of Spina BifidaTypes of Spina Bifida1.1. OccultaOcculta ““hiddenhidden””this type is covered by a layer of skin andthis type is covered by a layer of skin andis not visible outside the body, howeveris not visible outside the body, howeverthe vertebrae are malformed.the vertebrae are malformed.2.2. MeningoceleMeningocelethe spinal cord membrane bulges out of anthe spinal cord membrane bulges out of anopening that is caused by damaged oropening that is caused by damaged ormissing vertebrae and is usually seen as amissing vertebrae and is usually seen as acyst or bump covered by skin, the spinalcyst or bump covered by skin, the spinalcord develops normallycord develops normally3.3. MyelomeningoceleMyelomeningocelethe spinal cord, nerves and membranethe spinal cord, nerves and membranesticks out from the opening in the spine,sticks out from the opening in the spine,usually breaking the skin causing spinalusually breaking the skin causing spinalfluid leakage. After surgery, paralysis isfluid leakage. After surgery, paralysis isstill present.still present.
Spina Bifida Cont’d• Degrees of spine exposure at birth cancause:– Paralysis– Need for surgery– Spine problems– More mild problems that require the use ofcrutches, wheelchair, or leg braces.• Can also be accompanied by learningproblems, and difficulties with bowels andurination, as well as fluid on the brain
Potential Causes• Homocysteine concentration in thebloodstream is increased– Homocysteine is a byproduct ofMethionine– It can be reused to recreate Methionine
Potential Causes Cont’d• A family with one child that has spinabifida are 8 times more likely to haveanother with the disease• Genetic factors (heredity)• Environmental factors– Nutrition– Substance exposure– Decreased folic acid intake during pregnancy
Prevention• Folate supplement given every day– H20 Soluble– B vitamin– Essential for amino acid synthesis andrapidly dividing cells– Reduces homocysteine levels byreturning it to methionine
Domestic Animals• Occurs in animals– Dogs and cats– Signs are mostly in pelvic limbs, as well asurinary/fecal incontinence that can beaccompanied by sacrocaudal dysgenesis.• Surgical procedures may help controldifficulties and even correct condition
Treatment• Meningocele can be treated surgically torestore normal spinal cord function• Myelomeningocele spina bifida is operatedon within 48 hours after birth to preventsevere bacterial infection. Surgeons placethe spinal cord back in the canal and coverit with muscle and skin. Paralysis and bowelproblems still persist after surgery.
Benefits• Decrease handicaps• Corrected brainmalformationsRisks• Infection• Blood loss• Premature delivery• Organ immaturity• DeathFetal Surgery Treatment
Questions?• For more educational resources about Spina Bifida please visithttp://www.spinabifida.net