Air Barrier Paper A sheet material used to cover the exterior sheathing and seal the envelope of a building Air Barrier paper blocks moisture and air from penetrating the exterior walls of a building.
Attic VentilationSoffit and Ridge Vent Soffit Vent – intake to allow natural convection to cool attic space. Ridge Vent- Exaust at the highest point to allow heat to escape and permit natural convection. Attic Ventilation is required to allow water vapor and solar heat in attic space to escape
Attic VentilationGable Vent and Roof Turbine Gable Vent- Allows cross draft through attic space when the wind blows Roof Turbine- uses wind to pull hot and humid air out of an attic Attic Ventilation is required to allow water vapor and solar heat in attic space to escape
Backhoe Backhoe- piece of excavation equipment that consists of a bucket and 2 part articulating arm attached to the back end of a front end loader, tractor, or mounted on tracks used for various earth work jobs especially trenches and footings. Bucket Width =17”
Batter Boards Batter Boards: pair of horizontal boards that strings are attached to that are used to lay out the exact corners of a building and the foundation lines.
Brick Arches Gothic Arch Roman Arch
Arch with Keystone Roman Arch with Keystone
Centering Temporary support used to make a brick arch
Bulldozer Large, powerful piece of earth moving equipment equipped with tracks and a large blade used to push soil, rock, or any other kind of debris.
CladdingBrick Clad Brick Clad
CladdingEIFS Clad and Stone Clad Random Ashlar Stone Clad EIFS
CladdingWood Board and Wood Shake Wood Shake Cladding Wood Board Cladding Wood shingles are sawn and wood shakes are split from wood blocks. This house appears to have wood shakes due to the rough texture
Code Requirements Egress Window IBC requirements: Width: 34 ¼” Height: 24” Height AFF: <44” Net opening area 5.7 sq. feet Height: 19 ½” Egress net opening: 4.6 square feet Width: 34” Height AFF: 34 ½” This window does not meet egress requirements due to open height and net open area deficiencies.
Code RequirementsStair Tread and Riser 7 5/8” 9 3/4” IBC stair requirements Tread >= 10” with no more that 3/8” variation Riser <= 7 ¾” with no more than 3/8” variation Studied Stairs Tread: Longest 9 ¾” Shortest 9 ½” Variation ¼” Riser: Highest 7 5/8” Lowest 7 ½” Variation 1/8” This stair does not meet IBC Code
Concrete JointsControl Joint An intentional break in the surface of concrete to create a point of weakness where cracking can occur in order to minimize cracking elsewhere in the concrete.
Concrete JointsIsolation Joint A joint that extends through the slab that completely separates the slab from a wall or column and is filled with a sealant. They are used to compensate for the different rates at which differing materials expand and contract, in this case a concrete sidewalk and a brick wall.
Concrete Masonry Unit 1 CMU= 3 Brick A CMU is a block of hardened concrete laid using mortar. They usually contain hollow cavities that can be filled with rebar and concrete grout to reinforce the wall. They provide a means for building economical retaining, basement and crawlspace walls. They can be painted on both sides and function as interior and exterior wall as seen at Wal-mart. Typical nominal dimensions are either 8”x8”x16” or 8”x12”x16” (HeightxDepthxLength)
Concrete Masonry Units6” and 12” 12” Thick 6” Thick
Decorative CMUSplit block and Ribbed Block Split Face Block
DoorsFlush and Panel Exterior Panel Door Top Rail Stile Panel Lock Rail Bottom Rail Exterior Flush Door
DoorsTransom Transom - Fixed window over a door Sidelight- Fixed window on the side of a door
Electrical ComponentsPower Pole with Transformer and Service Head The service head provides a watertight means for the power lines from the transformer to enter the meter box The transformer steps down the voltage from distribution voltage down to 120 volt that is used in residences.
Electrical ComponentsMeter and Service Panel The electric meter measure the amount of electricity that flows into a house and is the point at which the electric system is no longer the responsibility of the utility but that of the homeowner/contractor. The service panel is the point that distributes the current to all of the branch circuits in a building including lights, appliances, and outlets.
Electrical Components Duplex Receptacle Point at which 120v devices can be connected to a homes electrical system.
Front End Loader Front end loader- Piece of heavy equipment used to load soil, sand, rock, asphalt, debris and many other materials into dump trucks or other pieces of equipment using a large rectangular bucket.
Gypsum Board Interior facing panel consisting of a gypsum core between 2 paper faces that is finished with joint compound and creates a seamless interior wall ready for paint.
Heat Pump Advantage: extremely efficient Disadvantage: Does not operate well at very low temps and may require a backup system Compressor/ Condenser The air handler is located inside the house and conditions the air by heating or cooling via refrigerant and the condenser/ compressor unit outside Transfers the heat from inside the house into the atmosphere by compressing refrigerant.
Insulation Batt/blanket insulation Rigid Board Insulation Loose-fill Insulation Foam Insulation Material of low thermal conductivity used to reduce heat flow in or out of a building
Lintel A piece of angle iron or precast concrete that carries the load of a wall over the opening of a window or door
Mortar #1Raked Tooled joint 5/8” Used on an engineering classroom building Type N- used as a masonry veneer
Mortar #2Concave Tooled Joint 3/8” Apartment complex Type N-used as a masonry veneer
Oriented Strand Board OSB- a nonveneered panel product made by gluing and pressing small strands of wood in alternating directions. OSB is used for roof sheathing, wall sheathing, and subfloors.
PlumbingLavatory and Water Closet Lavatory drain piping- 1 ½” Water closet waste piping- 3”
PlumbingRoof Vent and Sink Drop-in Sink Vent piping allows air to enter the drain and waste piping to break the vacuum that would be created by a sealed pipe and allow the water and waste to flow freely
Plywood Wood panel made up of multiple veneers of wood glued together in alternating directions under high pressure. A veneer is a very thin sheet of wood. Plywood
Steep Roof Drainage Gutter- Metal or plastic channel that collects rainwater or snowmelt at the eave of a roof and channels it to a downspout Downspout- Vertical pipe that carries water from a roof gutter to a lower level, usually a lower level of the roof or the ground. Splash Block Splash block-a small block of precast concrete or plastic used to divert water at the bottom of a downspout away from the foundation of a building
Steep Roof Materials Underlayment and Clay Tile Underlayment Clay Tile Roof A layer of waterproofing (building felt) installed between roof sheathing and the roof. It temporarily protects the OSB sheathing before the roof can be installed and provides another layer of defense against water for the finished roof
Steep Roof MaterialsShingle and Metal Panel Wood Shingle Roof Metal roof typically made from aluminum or galvanized metal painted with a polymer coating Shingle- a small, single, water resistant material nailed in overlapping pattern to make a water tight roof or wall
Steep Roof Shapes Gable Roof Gambrel Roof Hip Roof
Steep Roof Terms Ridge- Intersection of 2 roof planes in a gable roof, the highest point or peak of a gable roof Valley- A trough formed by 2 roof slopes
Steep Roof Terms Rake- sloping edge of a roof Soffit- underside of a roof overhang Eave- horizontal edge at the low side of a roof Fascia- exposed vertical face of an eave
Stone Random Rubble Stone Pattern Random Ashlar Stone Pattern Coursed Ashlar Stone Pattern
VaporRetarder A Vapor Retarder slows the passage of moisture through a wall cavity to prevent condensation in a wall which can lead to mold. It should be placed on the side of the insulation closest to the interior since the hotter more humid air inside contains the moisture that is trying to work its way into the wall.
Waterproofing Waterproofing- material placed to resist the penetration of water in a structure, in this case a foundation. The type pictured is liquid applied spray-on.
Weep Hole A small opening (missing head joint or string laid in mortar) whose purpose is to permit drainage of water that accumulates behind a brick wall
Welded Wire Fabric 6” 6” Welded Wire Fabric
Window #1Casement This is a casement window because it is hinged on one side and swings outward, allowing the entire window area to be open. This is useful in catching breezes.
Window #2Single Hung Single Hung- A window with 2 sashes, only one of which moves. The other is fixed.
Window #3Sliding This is a sliding window because one sash moves along a track at the top and bottom of the frame and the other remains fixed.