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Digital literacy in practise



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  • 1. This document relates to the following Futurelab research themes. See page 59 for the key to themes.Sarah Paytonand Cassie Hague
  • 2. Digital Literacyin PracticeContents Introduction Secondary School Case StudiesIntroduction 03 Introduction to digital literacy 26 The Dangers of Volcanoes Key Stage 03, Geography 05 What is digital literacy and why is it important?Primary School 30 Visualising Plans and ElevationsCase Studies 06 The components of digital literacy Key Stage 03, Maths 07 Developing digital literacy in the classroomSecondary School 34 Our Fractured EarthCase Studies 08 The Becta framework for digital literacy Key Stage 03, Geography 09 About these case studies 38 Rites of PassageConclusions Key Stage 03, Religious Education 10 AcknowledgementsAppendix 42 Newspaper Project Key Stage 03, English Primary School Case Studies 46 Why is DNA the Molecule of Life? 11 Digital Captain’s Log Key Stage 04, Science Key Stage 02, Literacy & Science 15 Animated Stories Conclusions Key Stage 02, Literacy 50  Concluding discussion: 18 Recording, Reviewing and Evaluating Learning teacher and student experiences of the project Key Stage 02, Science 51 Exploring the meaning of digital literacy 22 Digital Prospectus Key Stage 02, Cross Curricular 52 Experiences of fostering digital literacy in the classroom 55 Teacher roles 56 Conclusion Appendix 57 Becta digital literacy planning tool 58 About Becta 59 Key to Futurelab research themes 60 About Futurelab 02 Futurelab
  • 3. Digital Literacy Introductionin Practice to digital literacyContents This document provides a set of digital literacy case studies. Each is an account of a number of activitiesIntroduction developed, planned and undertaken by a teacher asPrimary School their first steps towards integrating the development ofCase Studies students’ digital literacy into their everyday practice.Secondary School The case studies are the result Although there has beenCase Studies of Futurelab’s year-long Digital increasing policy and research Participation project in which attention to issues related toConclusions researchers worked with digital literacy, there is stillAppendix primary and secondary school relatively little information about teachers in order to co-develop how to put this into practice in approaches to fostering digital the classroom. literacy in the classroom. There is even less guidance Schools are increasingly on how teachers might combine encouraged to embed the use a commitment to digital literacy of ICT in all subject areas across with the needs of their own both the Primary and Secondary subject teaching. How can curricula and a focus on digital digital literacy be developed, literacy is an important element for example, in a maths or of current curriculum reforms. science lesson? 03 Futurelab
  • 4. Digital Literacy Introductionin Practice to digital literacyContents This document is aimed at These case studies are published educational practitioners and alongside a Futurelab handbookIntroduction school leaders in both primary for teachers which explores the and secondary schools who importance of digital literacy andPrimary School are interested in creative suggests some pedagogicalCase Studies and critical uses of technology techniques for fostering digital in the classroom. It is hoped literacy at the same time asSecondary School that these case studies, along supporting the development ofCase Studies with the short discussions subject knowledge. Together, of how the activities could these documents are intended toConclusions be further developed, will go some way in addressing theAppendix support teachers by sparking lack of guidance on how digital ideas, giving confidence and literacy might be put into practice stimulating further thinking in school classrooms. around developing classroom approaches that advance Becta have also recently both digital literacy and published teacher guidance on subject knowledge. digital literacy, alongside a framework for digital literacy, How can digital literacy which aims to support teachers in planning a process that can be developed, for cultivate students’ digital literacy example, in a maths from within subject teaching. 1 or science lesson? 1 B  ecta’s digital literacy guidance and framework can be found at: index.php?section=tl&catcode=ss_tl_dl_02 04 Futurelab
  • 5. Digital Literacy What is digital literacyin Practice and why is it important?Contents To be digitally literate is to It means being able to However, it is important Developing digital literacy across have access to a broad range of communicate and represent that all young people develop the curriculum is about moreIntroduction practices and cultural resources knowledge in different contexts the skills, knowledge and than motivating and engaging that you are able to apply to and to different audiences understanding required not learners with digital technology;Primary School digital tools. It is the ability to (and, for example, in visual, only to make discerning use of it is about supporting youngCase Studies make, represent and share audio or textual modes). these opportunities, but also people to make sense of the meaning in different modes and This involves finding and to question them and recognise world and to take a full andSecondary School formats; to create, collaborate selecting relevant information the challenges associated active part in social, cultural,Case Studies and communicate effectively and and critically evaluating and with digital technologies. economic, civic and intellectual to understand how and when re-contextualising knowledge life both now and in the future.Conclusions digital technologies can best be and is underpinned by an Digital literacy is an importantAppendix used to support these processes. understanding of the cultural entitlement for all young people and social contexts in which in an increasingly digital culture. Digital literacy involves critically this takes place. It furnishes children and engaging with technology and young people with the ability developing a social awareness The increased prevalence of to participate in a wide range of of how a number of factors, technologies in contemporary practices that will help them to including commercial agendas society provides many exciting develop knowledge, as well as and cultural understandings, possibilities for young people’s supporting their engagement can shape the ways in which learning, creativity and self- with digital technologies. Indeed, technology is used to convey expression, both inside and if formal education seeks to information and meaning. outside of school. Young people prepare young people to make use technology more than ever sense of the world and to thrive before to communicate, to find socially, intellectually and information on the internet, to economically, then it cannot Digital literacy play games and to share and afford to ignore the social and is an important sometimes create music, cultural practices of digital entitlement for all videos or other digital media. literacy that enable people to In addition, digital technologies make the most of their multiple young people in can expand where, when and interactions with digital an increasingly with whom children learn, as technology and media. digital culture. well as affecting how information and subject knowledge is produced and communicated. 05 Futurelab
  • 6. Digital Literacy The components ofin Practice digital literacyContents Digital literacy is made up of Each case study contained Creativity The ability to find and select information a number of components. The in this document highlights The ability to think creatively and To define what sort of information youIntroduction teachers involved in the Digital where activities were aiming imaginatively, and to use technology need for a task or activity, to know where to create outputs and represent and how to find information, to critically Participation project aimed to to foster particular elementsPrimary School foster these components of of digital literacy. knowledge in different formats and engage with sources to select relevant, modes. Knowing when and how digital valuable and reliable information and toCase Studies digital literacy whilst at the same technology can support creative be aware of intellectual property issues time developing their students’ Digital literacy can be processes, and thinking creatively related to plagiarism and copyright.Secondary School about technology and with technology. subject knowledge. understood as the space Effective communicationCase Studies where all of these components Critical thinking and evaluation Being able to clearly express ideas and overlap. More information Being able to use reasoning skills to feelings so that others can understandConclusions engage with digital media and its content, them. Having an understanding of the about each component is to question, analyse, scrutinise and different modes (visual, audio, textual etc)Appendix offered in the table opposite. evaluate it and to formulate and support in which meaning can be represented arguments about it and the way it is used. and showing an awareness of the needs Critical thinking involves being reflective, of particular audiences. Understanding developing insight about underlying how technology can support this and how assumptions, interpreting meaning and to communicate effectively using different determining significance in order to types of technology. Functional understand and make sense of the world. Creativity E-safety skills Cultural and social understanding The ability to stay safe when using The ability to recognise that there are digital technologies, such as the internet social, cultural and historical influences and mobile phones, and to understand Critical that shape the creation of digital content what constitutes appropriate use and E-safety thinking and and our understanding of it. This involves appropriate content. evaluation Digital understanding how your own and others’ perspectives have been informed by Functional skills cultural heritages and being aware of Knowing how to use a range of Literacy Cultural and the social and cultural contexts in which digital media is created and used. different technologies competently and having the skills and flexibility Effective social to adapt this knowledge to learn how communication understanding Collaboration to use new technologies. The ability to work successfully with others to collaboratively create and share The ability meaning and understanding. To develop to find and the skills of team work, to be able to Collaboration select work together when using technology information and to understand how technology can support collaboration both inside the classroom and in the wider world. 06 Futurelab
  • 7. Digital Literacy Developing digital literacyin Practice in the classroomContents Developing digital literacy in In the following case studies schools involves designing we have highlighted theIntroduction classroom activities that foster components of digital literacy the components of digital and some of the key conceptsPrimary School literacy, as well as supporting and processes that can supportCase Studies curriculum subject knowledge. digital literacy development.Secondary School These activities need not The activities contained in theseCase Studies address all the components of case studies do not represent digital literacy at the same time, the last word on how to developConclusions nor do components need to be digital literacy. Whilst each ofAppendix fostered in any particular order. the activities reported here Creating a digitally literate effectively foster some elements, classroom is about developing the teachers planned to further regular opportunities for digital refine these activities and literacy in curriculum learning supplement them in order to and recognising how digital ensure the development of all literacy can support students aspects of digital literacy. to learn in new ways. 07 Futurelab
  • 8. Digital Literacy The Becta frameworkin Practice for digital literacyContents There were a number of As students move through processes that teachers this process, they will needIntroduction went through to foster these to reflect on what they have been components of digital literacy. doing and what they have beenPrimary School Some teachers made use learning. It may not always beCase Studies of Becta’s framework for a linear process and may involve digital literacy, which is also students returning to each stageSecondary School accompanied by some teacher to refine their task or activity,Case Studies guidance and a learner or to re-evaluate information. checklist on digital literacy. They may be communicatingConclusions or creating at any stage ofAppendix This framework suggests that the process and will need to teachers ask their students to critically engage with their task define a project or task, to find throughout. Teachers can ask information to help them to students to work in small groups complete that task or project. and collaborate to complete this Students need to evaluate process, and some teachers and analyse the information they may prefer to concentrate on have found, synthesise it with particular elements of the their pre-existing knowledge framework or process, or adapt and re-contextualise it in order it to suit their objectives for a to create an argument or come given piece of work. to a new understanding about the subject. Students are asked For a copy of the framework, to create an output, often in see the Appendix. a format or mode of their choice, which will help them communicate what they have learnt. At each stage of the process students need to ascertain when and how they feel it is appropriate to use specific digital technologies and consider how technology can support them. 08 Futurelab
  • 9. Digital Literacy About these case studiesin PracticeContents This document is the result of The teachers involved in the a one year research project in project worked with researchersIntroduction which Futurelab researchers and other teachers to explore worked with eight primary and the concept of digital literacy andPrimary School six secondary school teachers in its relation to subject learningCase Studies order to co-develop approaches and to think about how they to fostering digital literacy in might support their students’Secondary School the classroom. digital literacy from within workCase Studies already planned and scheduled The project was informed both for a particular half term. TheyConclusions by a review of the research 2 designed teaching activitiesAppendix literature in the field and aimed at developing digital meetings with a number of literacy alongside subject academics and researchers knowledge and trialled these known for their work on activities in their own classrooms. media, information and digital literacies. 3 The following case studies provide details of the activities undertaken by the teachers and their students. At the end of the document, a summary draws together teachers’ experiences and discusses some of the implications for teachers and schools wishing to develop their own approach to digital literacy. 2 H  ague, C and Williamson, B (2009). Digital Participation, Digital Literacy and Schools Subjects: A review of the policies, literature and evidence. Bristol: Futurelab. Available online: documents/lit_reviews/DigitalParticipation.pdf 3 T  hanks is therefore due to Guy Merchant, Julia Davies, Andrew Burn, John Potter, David Buckingham, Cary Bazalgette, Josie Fraser, Martin Waller and Tabetha Newman 09 Futurelab
  • 10. Digital Literacy Acknowledgementsin PracticeContents The authors would like to thank the teachers and studentsIntroduction involved in Futurelab’s Digital Participation project.Primary SchoolCase Studies –  ndy Dewey and Year 5 students, A –  yan Lewin and Year 7 R Knowle Park Primary School geography students,Secondary School Brislington Enterprise CollegeCase Studies –  oe Tett and Year 6 students, J Knowle Park Primary School –  ridget Chikonobaya and B Year 7 maths students,Conclusions –  araine Harris and Year 3 students, L Brislington Enterprise College Charborough Road Primary SchoolAppendix –  aul Hill and Year 11 science students, P –  irsty Minter and Steve Pavey, K St Mary Redcliffe and Temple School Charborough Road Primary School We would also like to thank the –  im Browse and Year 3 students, T Headteachers of the schools listed Headley Park Primary School above and all those who informed and contributed to the project. –  lexa Vickery and Year 4 students, A Headley Park Primary School The Digital Participation research project and the production of this –  eil Woodcock and Year 4 students, N publication has been funded and Luckwell Primary School supported by Becta. –  en Cotton and Year 9 B geography students, St Katherine’s School –  mma Teasdale and Year 9 E religious education students, Ashton Park School –  arolyn Twist and Year 9 C English and media studies students, Ashton Park School 10 Futurelab
  • 11. Digital Literacy Key Stage 02in Practice Literacy & ScienceContentsIntroduction Digital Captain’s LogPrimary SchoolCase StudiesSecondary School Your mission: Create aCase Studies video diary to describe toConclusionsAppendix your class the experience of exploring another planet. Use internet research to boost your imagination and creativity. 11 Case Study 01 / 10 Futurelab
  • 12. Digital Literacy Digital Captain’s Log Key Stage 02in Practice Literacy & ScienceContents Laraine Harris, Deputy Head at Charborough Road The project aimed to improve Following a piece of drama, in Primary School was planning a themed cross curricular the children’s internet research which Laraine blacked out theIntroduction skills, particularly their ability classroom and used a film of unit of learning entitled ‘Space: the final frontier’ for to assess the relevance and a rocket launch to support thePrimary School her Year 3 students. She wanted to use this as an reliability of digital sources. children to imagine startingCase Studies opportunity to support students’ digital literacy. In the past, when starting a a journey into space, they were new topic of learning in class, given a mission to produce aSecondary School children would often come in to video diary documenting theirCase Studies school with pages of information travel to another planet. downloaded from the internetConclusions that were difficult to understand To do this, the studentsAppendix and often not relevant. researched information about a particular planet and “There’s no selectivity. They just developed their use of sensory think ‘oh there’s a page about and descriptive language. Romans’. They don’t actually The aim of the project was to read it, they print it out and bring create a Digital Captain’s Log it in, but they think they’ve done to describe for their peers the some research and that’s it. fictional experience of exploring They haven’t actually got any the planet using what they content from it.” had learnt from their internet Year 3 teacher research to inform their imagination and creativity. The project would also explore the use of digital video cameras As a class, they looked at to support the development some websites together and of descriptive language and discussed how to search within effective communication, as well a particular webpage to find as asking students to consider the information they needed. how to represent information in video format. “At first it was hard, we didn’t know where to find the information. Our teacher helped.” Year 3 boy 12 Case Study 01 / 10 Futurelab
  • 13. Digital Literacy Digital Captain’s Log Key Stage 02in Practice Literacy & ScienceContents Laraine then provided them During these sessions with five key questions about the the teacher also supportedIntroduction planet they were investigating, the children to consider the to focus their research. The functional skills needed to usePrimary School children worked in small groups the cameras effectively, suchCase Studies to search for the information as how to hold the camera and from a given set of three how far to be from the personSecondary School websites. they were filming. They alsoCase Studies discussed the limitations of “The internet helped us, the cameras and were askedConclusions we found out more facts.” to evaluate their suitability forAppendix Year 3 girl the purpose. They discovered the cameras picked up a lot of Laraine encouraged her background noise and were students to engage with the encouraged to consider this content of their research by when they moved on to film reminding them that they their Captain’s Log. would need to re-contextualise this information in order to “Instead of having to write it successfully communicate down, you can film yourself their learning to others. saying it then you can just look back and see what you’ve done.” Laraine felt it was important Year 3 boy to let the children have time in which to explore and play with In the final sessions, Laraine the new cameras. The children supported the children to plan used these sessions to rehearse their Captain’s Log, thinking and reflect on their learning about their audience, what and used the cameras to record information to include and how what they had learnt during the to use descriptive language to research process. They practised enhance their communication. sentences using the descriptive The children worked in pairs and sensory language they had to film their Captain’s Logs, explored in a previous lesson which they then showed to to describe the planet they each other in class. had researched. 13 Case Study 01 / 10 Futurelab
  • 14. Digital Literacy Digital Captain’s Log Key Stage 02in Practice Literacy & ScienceContents Successes and next stepsIntroduction The children articulated two In order to for students to As their digital literacy skills clear benefits of using the digital develop their digital literacy they develop, critical thinking aroundPrimary School cameras in this way. They need to be supported to think the reliability and veracity ofCase Studies found them useful as a way of critically about the information websites should to go beyond recording their own learning they are researching on the concepts of truth and usefulness.Secondary School and were excited about the internet. There was some As they continue to create withCase Studies possibilities of distilling the indication that these children digital technology themselves, information they had found out had considered the sources of students can be helped toConclusions into a short film that would their information. question and to understandAppendix support their peers to learn. how the digital media world is They showed an awareness of “Some websites may created by others. Just as they purpose and audience. not tell the truth.” have created a digital film for a Year 3 girl particular audience, so websites “People we’re telling will they visit have been created for get to know more facts.” “Some websites were certain audiences. Year 3 girl better than others.” Year 3 boy Encouraging students to make Providing the children with reasoned choices between research questions and three different sorts of creative outputs websites to choose from helped such as, for example, videos, them to focus their research websites and podcasts, will and not to become overwhelmed also support digital literacy by the amount of information development if children are available to them. As the helped to think critically about children’s independent research the suitability of the technology skills develop Laraine will be for their purpose. able to gradually decrease the amount of support she gives them. 14 Case Study 01 / 10 Futurelab
  • 15. Digital Literacy Key Stage 02in Practice LiteracyContentsIntroduction Animated StoriesPrimary SchoolCase StudiesSecondary School Creative writing brought toCase Studies life for new audiences usingConclusionsAppendix a digital camera, a PC and a lump of Plasticine. 15 Case Study 02 / 10 Futurelab
  • 16. Digital Literacy Animated Stories Key Stage 02in Practice LiteracyContents Tim Browse, Deputy Head and Year 3 teacher and They undertook a piece of work The children were supported to Alexa Vickery, Year 4 teacher at Headley Park Primary that aimed to foster collaboration, think this through by consideringIntroduction which was also a current whole what four key moments of their School, wanted to develop children’s digital literacy school focus, and creativity, by written story they were going toPrimary School through the re-creation of written stories into alternative giving students the task of represent in animation, andCase Studies formats for new audiences. turning one of their own written which characters needed to be stories into an animation for involved. They then consideredSecondary School younger children in the school. how they could represent theseCase Studies moments in a different format “We wrote stories, then and for a different audience.Conclusions turned it into an animation,Appendix like a fairytale.” The children then storyboarded Year 3 boy four scenes on paper, with red arrows to show how the In order to support the children characters were going to move. in situating the task in a cultural and historical context, The children collaboratively the teachers and students spent created their animations by the first sessions looking at using a variety of software animation and exploring its and hardware. Some used the history and the way it has simple drawing application been used to represent and Paint to create their four key communicate stories with scenes and then uploaded them different meanings and for to a set of teacher-prepared different purposes. They watched PowerPoint slides. Other older drawn animations and children worked in groups to more recent animated films with create stop-motion animations, computer generated images making Plasticine models of (CGI) and compared them. their characters, moving them in small, sequential steps and They also discussed how photographing them with a stories need to change in digital camera at each point. order to be represented in The photos were then uploaded an animated form. and ‘stitched’ together using Windows Movie Maker to make an animation. 16 Case Study 02 / 10 Futurelab
  • 17. Digital Literacy Animated Stories Key Stage 02in Practice LiteracyContents Successes and next stepsIntroduction The children enjoyed bringing The children had whole class Students could also have the characters of their stories discussions around what they reflected on and evaluatedPrimary School to life though the animations already knew about animations, the animations they had made,Case Studies and reported feeling a sense and they learnt about how considering why they had chosen of achievement: animation has changed over to present them in such a way,Secondary School time. This provided some context what previous experience theyCase Studies “I made a movie! I didn’t and cultural understanding for had used to make decisions think I could make a movie the children. To extend this, their about how to create theConclusions with models.” own experiences of watching and animation, and whether theyAppendix Year 4 boy creating films and animations felt they had created an output could have been drawn on. Some suitable to the target audience. The children had some children reported having made They could also have considered awareness of audience and their own films and animations which format and which were able to discuss how they at home in the past and were technologies were most had made their stories simpler keen to be able to bring their successful for the purpose. and easier to understand for a experiences, knowledge and younger audience. They also understanding into the acknowledged that they had to classroom context. develop their collaboration skills in order to complete the task. For example, several children had previous experience of using “I actually found it OK working Windows Movie Maker in groups. Well, one person thought it was all about her “At home I got some of my though, we had to calm her dad’s pictures and made a movie down and get on with it and with Windows Movie Maker.” then it was OK.” Year 4 boy Year 4 girl 17 Case Study 02 / 10 Futurelab
  • 18. Digital Literacy Key Stage 02in Practice ScienceContentsIntroduction Recording, ReviewingPrimary School and Evaluating LearningCase StudiesSecondary SchoolCase Studies Christmas decorationsConclusionsAppendix with flashing lights! How a group of Year 4 students produced a multimedia presentation to document their electricity learning. 18 Case Study 03 / 10 Futurelab
  • 19. Digital Literacy Recording, Reviewing Key Stage 02in Practice and Evaluating Learning ScienceContents Neil Woodcock, a Year 4 teacher, ICT coordinator and Children at Luckwell can Neil wanted the children to member of the senior management team at Luckwell participate in designing their communicate their learning toIntroduction curriculum by voting for the topic their peers and their parents via Primary School, was a key player in developing the they’d like to study within each a multimedia presentation. HePrimary School school’s new curriculum which is organised around themed block of learning. As was keen that they should thinkCase Studies themes. Neil was keen to ensure ICT was meaningfully part of their seasonal theme of carefully when choosing what to embedded across the curriculum rather than being Christmas, Neil’s Year 4 children include in the presentation fromSecondary School seen as a separate lesson in which functional skills had chosen to learn about the array of media that would beCase Studies electricity by making Christmas available to them. Importantly, were taught. decorations that lit up, using Neil wanted the children toConclusions circuits that incorporated LEDs. think about what they had learntAppendix and how they should record Neil wanted to incorporate their learning. digital literacy into this work through the collaborative use “This will mean the children of video cameras, stills cameras need to consider the level of and audio recorders to document, detail involved and what they review and reflect on their can assume the audience experimentation with circuits already knows. They will also and their plans for their be selecting the images, video Christmas decoration. and sound files they want to use from a selection of lots. “Children will be able to So they need to be very see what they have done precise about their purpose.” Year 4 teacher [in constructing their circuits] and use the video of it to spot errors. Children can also use the videos to record sets of instructions and creating sound files enables children to speak about their learning and discuss their plans, meaning that the theory that they learn is more embedded.” Year 4 teacher 19 Case Study 03 / 10 Futurelab
  • 20. Digital Literacy Recording, Reviewing Key Stage 02in Practice and Evaluating Learning ScienceContents What they didIntroduction Following some initial lessons The students worked together on electricity and circuits, the in groups of two or three andPrimary School children planned what their made joint decisions aroundCase Studies Christmas decorations would the design of their Christmas look like and began to investigate decoration, including what typesSecondary School suitable circuits. of circuit and colours of LEDCase Studies to use. As they collaboratively Neil gave the children the experimented with circuits, NeilConclusions responsibility of choosing their reminded them to consider howAppendix groups of two or three, stressing to record those ‘that worked’ that they should choose to work so they would remember them. with people they knew would help them to learn. The children then used the software ‘2create’ to produce During all the following sessions a multimedia presentation, a range of digital stills cameras, documenting their learning. digital video cameras and digital Children needed to sort through voice recorders were available their video clips and sound files for the children to use as and and choose to include ones that when they wanted to record their not only best represented their plans and their learning. learning journey but that also would be understood by their “The first week of the project audience, which would be their saw the class using the videos, parents and peers. cameras and microphones when they were experimenting with electricity. Recording their circuits that worked and didn’t work.” Year 4 teacher 20 Case Study 03 / 10 Futurelab
  • 21. Digital Literacy Recording, Reviewing Key Stage 02in Practice and Evaluating Learning ScienceContents Successes and next stepsIntroduction Although the digital technology Making the multimedia was not the focus of the learning presentations gave the childrenPrimary School in this piece of work, the students the chance to reflect on theirCase Studies were clear about the purpose of learning journey and remember using the digital cameras and how they had achieved theSecondary School voice recorders to document creation of their ChristmasCase Studies their learning and their perceived decoration. They also began advantages of doing so: to develop some audienceConclusions awareness by having to chooseAppendix “The cameras are good if which video and audio clips to you forget something, you include in their presentation. can look back. We used it to record what we’re going to In this project students were do, we’ve recorded our plan.” using digital technologies to Year 4 student record their experiences for two very different outputs. One “You can remember it better, was to support their learning, you can see what you’ve done.” to enable them to remember Year 4 student successful circuits they had created. The other was to Students developed their document their learning process group decision-making skills for an audience. In further work by deciding which pieces of students could evaluate the information needed to be technologies they had used, recorded. They were also in terms of whether the same able to comment on their technologies were appropriate collaboration skills, saying: for each task. “We had to make sure we were in a group where everyone would work well together. It’s going well.” Year 4 student 21 Case Study 03 / 10 Futurelab
  • 22. Digital Literacy Key Stage 02in Practice Cross CurricularContentsIntroduction Digital ProspectusPrimary SchoolCase StudiesSecondary School An online school prospectus.Case Studies Written, directed, producedConclusionsAppendix and starring the students of Knowle Park Primary School. 22 Case Study 04 / 10 Futurelab
  • 23. Digital Literacy Digital Prospectus Key Stage 02in Practice Cross CurricularContents Teachers at Knowle Park Primary school aim to make The school’s management They wanted to create a children aware of opportunities beyond what they would team had already decided they project in which children wereIntroduction wanted a digital prospectus for meaningfully participating experience in their everyday lives. Joe and Andy Dewey the school which would be made and taking responsibility forPrimary School (Deputy Head and Year 5 teacher) wanted to apply this available online and in DVD a project that not only had aCase Studies ethos to exploring the opportunities digital technology format for prospective parents real audience but also real present to pupils. They also wished to support students and students of the school. outcomes for the school.Secondary School to develop the digital literacy skills that would enable They decided that it would beCase Studies in keeping with their values Each group of five or six children them to make effective use of those opportunities and around student participation (of mixed age and ability) wasConclusions understand the corresponding challenges. in school life for students to assigned a particular section ofAppendix create the prospectus. the prospectus which became their responsibility. Students from Years 5 and 6 would work across the year Joe and Andy worked with each groups to create the video footage group to carefully to support for the digital prospectus. As ICT them in planning, creating and in the school was traditionally editing a film that contained the only used in the ICT suite, the information they had all agreed teachers were particularly keen would be essential for a to develop this opportunity to prospective student and parent support children working of the school to know. collaboratively and using ICT around the school. 23 Case Study 04 / 10 Futurelab
  • 24. Digital Literacy Digital Prospectus Key Stage 02in Practice Cross CurricularContents As the school only had one video One of the teachers always camera, groups of students had worked closely with the groupIntroduction to take it turns to film. Whilst whose turn it was to film and waiting to film, the children had used carefully phrased questionsPrimary School the task of exploring potential to prompt students to thinkCase Studies places to film around the school about issues such as considering and weighing up the advantages the background for their filmingSecondary School and disadvantages of filming and whether the audience hadCase Studies there. The teachers supported enough prior knowledge to them to think critically about understand the content. TheConclusions their audience by considering students were also supported toAppendix what content would be relevant collaborate and to develop the and appropriate for a film that functional skills required to use was going to be made publicly the camera. available. They also decided what kind of film they were going to At the end of the each session, make; some children chose to the students who had been act out scenes for which they filming shared what they had wrote scripts, others chose a learnt about the process with documentary style. the others. 24 Case Study 04 / 10 Futurelab
  • 25. Digital Literacy Digital Prospectus Key Stage 02in Practice Cross CurricularContents Successes and next stepsIntroduction The students were delighted Students learnt the functional Through this, teachers to be given the opportunity to skills of operating the camera can build on the children’sPrimary School promote their school. They as well as some film-making developing understanding andCase Studies worked hard to come up with skills such as how to minimise critical thinking around the a very clear view of how they background noise and how to needs of an audience. DuringSecondary School wanted their prospectus to communicate the filming this continuation of work,Case Studies be and were clear about its process to each other. students will need to develop purpose. They wanted it to be different skills of collaborationConclusions entertaining and informative, In one incident, in order to such as supporting each otherAppendix and they wanted to make people communicate part of the filming to learn the functional skills come to their school by showing process to their peers, students required, as well as making them their positive experiences. spontaneously used hand signals group decisions about how to countdown to the start of to edit the film. Most children showed a critical filming, and called “action!” as awareness of their audience: filming began. As a result of In future classroom teaching, this, their teacher started an this work could be built on to “We’re not just saying random interesting conversation with continue developing children’s things like blah blah blah, we’re them about where those ideas digital literacy skills using thinking hard about which had come from, where they had different technologies and places to film, what people seen people doing that before. perhaps allowing the young should see, we’re planning it.” Through discussion, he supported people a choice of digital media Year 6 student them to realise that they were with which to create outputs. drawing on their existing They also indicated they knowledge of film culture. were developing their collaboration skills: Filming for the prospectus is still ongoing. Once the filming “Working as a team can is complete, the teachers plan be hard, we try to listen to to support students in editing each others’ ideas and, their video footage using free, then like, combine them.” downloadable video editing Year 5 student software. 25 Case Study 04 / 10 Futurelab
  • 26. Digital Literacy Key Stage 03in Practice GeographyContentsIntroduction The Dangers ofPrimary School VolcanoesCase StudiesSecondary SchoolCase Studies What would it be like to beConclusionsAppendix near an erupting volcano? How a group of Year 7 students used digital media to discover and present new geographical knowledge. 26 Case Study 05 / 10 Futurelab
  • 27. Digital Literacy The Dangers of Key Stage 03in Practice Volcanoes GeographyContents Ryan Lewin, a geography teacher at Brislington He aimed to develop his Year Following some ‘scene setting’ Enterprise College, an 11–18 school in south Bristol, 7s’ digital literacy skills through activities in which Ryan usedIntroduction a week-long themed enquiry YouTube to show volcanoes felt it was important to ensure that he was beginning topic with a digital output to erupting, students were askedPrimary School to use the new-build school’s extensive ICT provision communicate learning. With a to write or draw a representationCase Studies to go beyond motivating and engaging pupils. number of digital technologies of what it would be like to be available to his students, Ryan near an erupting volcano.Secondary School wanted to support his studentsCase Studies to make discerning choices Ryan then asked students to about their communication get into groups of three or fourConclusions platform, to think about the others with whom they wouldAppendix context and audience, and work well. He then asked them discuss the possibilities offered to plan their project, which he by particular technologies as supported by providing the well as their limitations. following prompt questions: – What is your task? The Year 7s were set a task – What do you need to find out? of working collaboratively to – What is your audience? research and communicate, – How do they like to learn? through a digital media of their –  hat resources do you want W choice, information that would to use? Why? help their peers to understand the dangers of volcanoes and why people continue to live near them. 27 Case Study 05 / 10 Futurelab
  • 28. Digital Literacy The Dangers of Key Stage 03in Practice Volcanoes GeographyContents Before the students began They had a series of lessons their collaborative internet over a week to collaborativelyIntroduction research, Ryan initiated a class research their topic and produce discussion about how to find and their outputs which they wouldPrimary School evaluate relevant information show to each other. Each groupCase Studies on the web by using a spoof of students was given one school blog as a talking point. If the laptop and one mini laptop, bothSecondary School students came across such a with internet access. They alsoCase Studies blog on the internet how would had use of digital stills and they know the information was video cameras.Conclusions reliable? They discussed verifyingAppendix information by visiting other Students’ choices of output were more well known sites and wide and varied; some groups comparing information from created blogs, some made different sources. PowerPoint presentations, some created models of erupting Ryan also gave the students volcanoes which they then filmed a number of websites he and one group created a spoof recommended and supported documentary-style video. them to plan their research by considering the following In the final lesson, after questions: students had presented their –  hat are you going W work to the rest of the class, to look for? Ryan encouraged them, through –  here are you going W class discussion and written to find it out? tasks, to reflect on the quality of –  hy do you think this is W their research, the effectiveness the best place to look? of their communication and what –  ow are you going to use H they had learnt about volcanoes. the information that you find? –  ow will you know you H can trust it? 28 Case Study 05 / 10 Futurelab
  • 29. Digital Literacy The Dangers of Key Stage 03in Practice Volcanoes GeographyContents Successes and next stepsIntroduction The students enjoyed the As students are supported to Evaluating and reflecting on creative aspect of the activities, further develop their digital audience needs, reliabilityPrimary School reporting that “it was probably literacy they need to consider of information, and suitabilityCase Studies the best project we’ve done.” modes of presentation and the of digital technology for the needs of the audiences they task in hand can be an ongoingSecondary School They also worked well together are trying to reach eg a blog process throughout a piece ofCase Studies and reflected on the process of is designed to reach a very work. Evaluation that happens collaboration students reporting different audience than that at the end of a lesson is usefulConclusions that in some respects, this of a PowerPoint presentation. to support the next piece ofAppendix success was due to assigning work, but students can also roles to each person in the group. Audience awareness is also be supported to discuss, debate key to supporting students to and critically reflect on their “We all had different jobs to do develop effective research skills. work throughout. and so we all had to get our job Although students in this project done to get it all sorted.” were supported to think carefully Year 7 boy about their use of PowerPoint, It was challenging to find a way there were still some incidences for students who had not chosen of information being copied and to use PowerPoint to represent pasted from the internet onto the their work to the rest of the presentation slides. Providing class. Students attempted to give a real context and audience for presentations even when they their work can support students had created blogs. This reflects to re-contextualise information a common issue in classrooms, so that their audience can access where the focus is often on it. Considering their own needs students standing at the front of as an audience for a piece of the classroom presenting their work can also support them learning, rather than on whether in thinking about the needs information was communicated of others. effectively in the chosen media. 29 Case Study 05 / 10 Futurelab
  • 30. Digital Literacy Key Stage 03in Practice MathsContentsIntroduction Visualising PlansPrimary School and ElevationsCase StudiesSecondary SchoolCase Studies Representing objectsConclusionsAppendix in multiple formats and taking maths lessons to another dimension with online 3D modelling. 30 Case Study 06 / 10 Futurelab
  • 31. Digital Literacy Visualising Plans Key Stage 03in Practice and Elevations MathsContents Bridget Chickonobaya, a maths teacher at Brislington She planned to help students The teacher introduced the Enterprise College, wanted to support her Year 7 understand this topic by relating topic by demonstrating a modelIntroduction it to their own context of being of a house on the interactive students to visualise plans and elevations whilst also located in a new-build school whiteboard and asking studentsPrimary School developing their digital literacy. and asking them to consider why to complete a related task onCase Studies both printed plans or elevations Students and 3D computer models would then used a specific websiteSecondary School have been useful when the which allowed them to use blocksCase Studies school was being designed. to create any 3D object they wanted. ( At the beginning of the scheme isdeee/applets/Blookkendos.Appendix of work students were asked htm). The students were given to carry out independent time to play around with the research for homework in order website and become familiar to find out what ‘plans’ and with it before being asked to use ‘elevations’ were, and to locate their 3D onscreen creations to some examples. The teacher help them visualise what the did not specify where students object would look like in both should look for this information plan and elevation form on as she wanted students to think isometric paper. about what the best sources of information might be for “You can build anything you this particular purpose. Most want and then just draw it... students chose to use the I did a Mickey Mouse.” internet and the teacher initiated Year 7 boy some discussion about how they had found the information and “It’s really good for them to how they knew it was reliable visualise and for them to explore and relevant. building their own things, not the things I want them to make.” Year 7 teacher 31 Case Study 06 / 10 Futurelab
  • 32. Digital Literacy Visualising Plans Key Stage 03in Practice and Elevations MathsContents Students were encouraged The teacher planned to move to work together to help each on to relate this work to theIntroduction other when they encountered printed plans of the school problems, but they also which had been used when thePrimary School undertook a personal online school was being built, and toCase Studies assessment to evaluate how ask students to use Google much they had learnt at the SketchUp to re-create parts ofSecondary School end of the lesson. the school. This would allow herCase Studies to further discuss the contribution “Can we draw it like this? that both technology andConclusions Shall we draw it together?” mathematical understandingAppendix Year 7 boy can make in enabling people to visualise objects in different The teacher moved around modes, see objects from the class reminding students different perspectives and relate of the purpose of what they this to real-life experiences were creating. The students and professions. were supported to realise that the technology afforded them Finally, she planned to ask the ability to create complex students to collaborate to objects and whilst this could create a presentation to be very useful, they may need communicate what 3D solids to simplify these objects when look like in plan and elevation drawing 2D representations; form and how this is used in technology could help them real-life for building houses with their task but it also and schools. Presentations will presented some challenges. be aimed at an audience of people who know nothing about the subject, and there will be some classroom discussion about what good communication looks like in the context of this particular audience. 32 Case Study 06 / 10 Futurelab
  • 33. Digital Literacy Visualising Plans Key Stage 03in Practice and Elevations MathsContents Successes and next stepsIntroduction The internet was used to Students reported enjoying As the teacher further develops stimulate learning about maths. the work and felt that using these types of activities, shePrimary School The website helped students computers and the internet could support students to useCase Studies to create, manipulate and helped them to learn. and analyse a wider range of visualise 3D objects and solids. technologies and to think aboutSecondary School The teacher felt that it was “In here it helps you learn communicating their work inCase Studies “the best tool we’re using... it’s because it’s just better on the different formats. The way the really exciting.” As the children’s computers than having to, room was arranged (computersConclusions digital literacy develops, they like, write it all down and copy on individual tables) made itAppendix could be supported to find other it from the board, you can do it difficult for effective group web-based tools which could for yourself... you learn more working and if the teacher support these processes and because you’re enjoying it.” repeated the activity she would to compare and contrast the Year 7 student plan to put more emphasis on benefits of different tools. the skills of collaboration, The students encountered including discussion of how Students used technology to some problems whilst using the plans and elevations themselves explore and communicate the technology and were supported support team work, for example, application of subject knowledge to overcome these problems, in the building profession. to real life. This was linked to the as well as being allowed to help children’s own context in terms each other with them (eg not of the re-design of their school being able to find the website, and provided an opportunity to the computer freezing, learning think about communication how to use the website and how and representation in different to manipulate the objects on modes. Students needed to the screen). step back from their immediate assumption that a 3D model would always be the most useful and think critically about different forms of representation and how technology could support this. 33 Case Study 06 / 10 Futurelab
  • 34. Digital Literacy Key Stage 03in Practice GeographyContentsIntroduction Our Fractured EarthPrimary SchoolCase StudiesSecondary School Students’ creative useCase Studies of technology to expressConclusionsAppendix their interpretation of the beauty and the terror of our fractured Earth. 34 Case Study 07 / 10 Futurelab
  • 35. Digital Literacy Our Fractured Earth Key Stage 03in Practice GeographyContents Ben Cotton, a geography teacher from St Katherine’s The brief was deliberately Each lesson ended with a School, an 11–19 school in North Somerset, undertook a very open in order to encourage 20 minute session in whichIntroduction creativity in the use of the students made video learning project with his Year 9 students in which they created an digital resources. diaries by asking each otherPrimary School artefact to reflect and communicate the ‘beauty and the questions such as ‘What hasCase Studies terror of our fractured Earth.’ He sought to encourage The project objectives were: worked well today?’ ‘What independent learning and develop digital literacy by – To work collaboratively could we do differently nextSecondary School giving students responsibility for managing the process –  o explore, analyse and T time?’ The teacher supportedCase Studies evaluate digital technology this process by asking the class and choosing from a range of technologies in order to – To reflect on learning additional questions such as:Conclusions effectively support their work. – To communicate effectivelyAppendix “If you’ve used the internet at The project began with some all you need to start thinking class discussion about the about how you’ve used the word ‘fractured’ during which internet and how you could students began to connect use it better in the future. this with the work they had Which websites have you used previously been doing around and why did you use them? natural disasters, including Year 9 teacher earthquakes and volcanoes. Students were provided with a Students worked in groups PC, digital cameras and a video and assigned roles to each camera as well as arts materials member of the team. They and were allowed to bring in were asked to come up with a technology from home if they plan for their project, including got a permission slip from defining what information they their parents. They were also needed to research and what encouraged to use any digital digital tools they were going to technology they might have in use throughout the project. their pocket (mobile phones etc) to support them in creating their They completed internet final piece, to communicate and book research to gather what they had learnt about ‘our the resources they needed to beautiful and fractured Earth.’ create their final piece. 35 Case Study 07 / 10 Futurelab
  • 36. Digital Literacy Our Fractured Earth Key Stage 03in Practice GeographyContents One group, who called Students were supported to themselves ‘World Creative engage in critical thinkingIntroduction Association’ or WCA, chose both about the relevance of to apply their existing out-of- particular information andPrimary School school interests to a classroom how to convey their subjectCase Studies situation by creating a Lego knowledge, as well as stop-motion animation around the advantages andSecondary School representing what it might disadvantages of particularCase Studies be like to be in an earthquake. technologies and how they Some groups made models had used them. The teacherConclusions of volcanoes erupting which supported students to reflectAppendix they then filmed, and others critically on their own learning produced short films to music processes by discussing the using superimposed text to way in which the footballer provide key information David Beckham improved about earthquakes. as a footballer. When one group was “Practice... And then what? asked why they had chosen Do you know what he used to a particular medium over do? Did he just do a few free others, they responded: kicks and just go ‘right that’s it?’... He used to, you know, “We thought that it’s an use stats, figures, how many easier way to get a message good kicks, how many bad ones, across because if you have look at his technique, analyse lots of writing then you’re it, try and evaluate himself and gonna be like ‘oh look it’s try to improve for next time. writing I don’t really care.’ I think that’s what you need But if it’s on a video, you’re to start doing.” probably gonna remember Geography teacher it... So you’ve got something that sticks in your head.” Year 9 student 36 Case Study 07 / 10 Futurelab
  • 37. Digital Literacy Our Fractured Earth Key Stage 03in Practice GeographyContents Successes and next stepsIntroduction The project involved a strong The teacher was disappointed emphasis on collaboration and that there was not more of aPrimary School creativity. Students reported wide variety of technologies used.Case Studies enjoying the project as well as being able to make connections “There’s a lot of ‘oh they’re doingSecondary School between different aspects of that so we’re gonna do that asCase Studies what they had learnt. well.’ So that’s probably one of my disappointments. I wantedConclusions “It’s been good learning how them to do blogs and stuff. ButAppendix to use new technology you they didn’t choose to do that.” might not have used before Geography teacher and all sorts of stuff. It’s been really good... I really enjoyed The teacher could perhaps the geography thing as well... address this by giving the so learning about volcanoes students a more defined and then it’s just like putting it structure in follow-up activities all together. And just getting to and asking them to use specific do this project. We basically just technologies to communicate get to do, kind of, anything as their subject knowledge to long as it’s to do with fractured defined audiences. They could Earth which is really good.” then consider the advantages Year 9 girl. and disadvantages of different technologies for this purpose. 37 Case Study 07 / 10 Futurelab
  • 38. Digital Literacy Key Stage 03in Practice Religious EducationContentsIntroduction Rites of PassagePrimary SchoolCase StudiesSecondary School Bar Mitzvas, weddings andCase Studies funerals: How a group of YearConclusionsAppendix 9 students used digital media to create a teaching and learning resource about the stages of life. 38 Case Study 08 / 10 Futurelab
  • 39. Digital Literacy Rites of Passage Key Stage 03in Practice Religious EducationContents Emma Teasdale, a religious education teacher at “The subject we’re looking at This unit of work took place Ashton Park School in Bristol, was working with a and the reason why people go during nine lessons over theIntroduction through these rites of passage course of a half term. It began Year 9 RE class on a unit on rites of passage. She is quite alien to them.” with a lesson in which studentsPrimary School has found that students traditionally find it difficult RE teacher were introduced to a number ofCase Studies to access this material. different media (eg blogs, videos, She therefore wanted to use Wikis and podcasts). StudentsSecondary School technology to help students were then given the opportunityCase Studies engage with the topic by asking to work in groups to play around them to choose between with different types of hardwareConclusions different media to create a and software, and use them toAppendix number of communication create a short output of their pieces about different rites of choice about a subject that passage. She then planned interested them. One group of to use these as teaching girls decided to create a blog resources for future classes. discussing their thoughts on whether society stereotypes “So I’ll be saying ‘through your children. Another group planned learning, you’re going to be to make a short documentary helping other students with about homelessness. their learning’... So what I’d be looking for is for them to actually create resources... And I need them to be useable. And that means it’s purposeful, it gives them a goal, it’s for real people.” RE teacher 39 Case Study 08 / 10 Futurelab
  • 40. Digital Literacy Rites of Passage Key Stage 03in Practice Religious EducationContents This provided students with “Maybe search two different “It’s been fun and we’ve “last time we did a blog... But the opportunity to bring their websites and see if they say the learnt stuff because, like, the problem is you haven’t got asIntroduction existing interests into the same thing... But you have to be we filled out all those sheets much, like, choice about how it classroom and gave them careful because some websites and we could fill them in looks and it’s all set formats...”Primary School time to think about the might be getting information from the stuff we’d done.” Year 9 girlCase Studies advantages and disadvantages from the first website you found Year 9 girl of different media. This served – so both might be wrong.” Throughout the projectSecondary School as preparation for deciding Year 9 girl The final part of the project students were asked to writeCase Studies how to use technology to involved students choosing a short notes to update their communicate with their peers The purpose of the research rite of passage and selecting teacher and the rest of theConclusions about a particular topic from was to find material for a any suitable form of digital class about what they had beenAppendix within the RE curriculum. PowerPoint presentation to media to create an output in a doing. They also uploaded all teach the rest of the class about format of their choice that could their work onto a shared online Students then worked in particular rites of passage, be used as a communication space for the class, which was groups to research an assigned including the cultural reasons and teaching resource for the created using This rite of passage. They used both for people’s engagement in next cohort of students. meant that all work was visible internet and book research and them. This meant that students and could be commented on by used email to pass information needed to critically engage with Some students created videos peers. The teacher reminded to each other within their groups. the information they were finding about marriage or Bar and Bat them that everything they put At the beginning of this lesson, in order to re-contextualise it Mitzva while others created on this space could be seen by students were given tips on and make it relevant for a PowerPoint presentations, but her and that they needed to internet research and there particular defined audience. students were supported to think use it appropriately. was some class discussion During these presentations, the critically about their choice. One about how to find reliable and audience of classmates were student defended her group’s relevant information. asked to fill in a worksheet with choice of making a PowerPoint a series of questions about the presentation by criticising the topic they were hearing about. affordances provided by a blog. 40 Case Study 08 / 10 Futurelab
  • 41. Digital Literacy Rites of Passage Key Stage 03in Practice Religious EducationContents Successes and next stepsIntroduction The teacher felt that giving The teacher needed to students the opportunity to intervene several times toPrimary School create something in order to help students to repurposeCase Studies communicate subject knowledge information rather than copying to a defined audience gave and pasting material they hadSecondary School the project ”real meaning” found on the internet. Whilst theCase Studies because it made it relevant teacher was pleased with the and purposeful. She was also variety of technology used, sheConclusions able to allow students to engage would also have liked to seeAppendix in independent learning whilst more students experiment with also engaging in more formal other formats but time and direction when required. resources prevented this. Students enjoyed the unit of work and reported learning Some students found it hard new content related to their to work in groups when they subject and the project created were using laptops. Students a bank of resources for future who weren’t using laptops students to learn from. As a tended to be sitting doing result of being involved in the nothing and needed support project, the teacher is now to realise that they could still advising on how digital literacy contribute to the task even if might be taught across the they didn’t have control of the curriculum at her school. mouse or keyboard. Although they had assigned themselves There was a perception roles, they didn’t always stick amongst the students that they to these roles. As they develop already knew how to make a their digital literacy skills, they PowerPoint presentation and could be supported to learn sometimes students therefore more about how to collaborate chose this as an easy option. successfully using a range of digital technologies. 41 Case Study 08 / 10 Futurelab
  • 42. Digital Literacy Key Stage 03in Practice EnglishContentsIntroduction Newspaper ProjectPrimary SchoolCase StudiesSecondary School Delivering the news:Case Studies Considering the differencesConclusionsAppendix between delivering the news in print, on film and online and collaborating to create a newspaper. 42 Case Study 09 / 10 Futurelab
  • 43. Digital Literacy Newspaper Project Key Stage 03in Practice EnglishContents Carolyn Twist, an English and media teacher at Ashton The students worked in groups Students followed their own Park School in Bristol, was working with a group of Year of approximately three to five of interests in terms of the contentIntroduction their own choosing to produce of their articles and were asked 9 students on a newspaper project which aimed to a newspaper. Students were to find supporting informationPrimary School develop students’ writing for different purposes and expected to allocate tasks within and illustrations on the internet.Case Studies give them an understanding of the journalism profession, their groups and were supported One group created a games whilst at the same time fostering their digital literacy. to think about how to collaborate page and a ‘funnies’ page inSecondary School effectively and to communicate addition to the articles that theCase Studies as a group in order to deliver a teacher had asked for. Groups final product. collated all of their informationConclusions electronically on a shared spaceAppendix “In your groups you need to on the school’s network. decide who is going to write the problem page, who is The teacher aimed to support going to write the sports students to evaluate both the page, who is going to write material they found on the the letters to the editor.” internet and their own written Year 9 teacher work as they drafted and redrafted their articles. She The first three weeks of the moved around the groups giving scheme of work focused on them suggestions for ways they developing knowledge and could improve their work and understanding of newspaper checking that they had planned writing and involved activities on their next steps. how newspapers communicate information. This included consideration of audience, different kinds of newspapers and how, for example, text, photos and cartoons can be used differently to represent meaning. Students then worked on creating their own newspapers using PCs and software of their choice (this was usually Microsoft Word or Microsoft Publisher). 43 Case Study 09 / 10 Futurelab
  • 44. Digital Literacy Newspaper Project Key Stage 03in Practice EnglishContents Students also researched They were also encouraged online newspapers and were to reflect on the appropriatenessIntroduction asked to think critically about of alternative media for the how they differ from their news stories they themselvesPrimary School print equivalent. They were were creating.Case Studies given a range of examples of newspaper websites to Students then selected anSecondary School compare with each other and appropriate article that couldCase Studies with print newspapers. They be used for a filmed bulletin. worked in pairs to answer a They chose a story, scriptedConclusions number of questions evaluating a broadcast and filmed eachAppendix which aspects they preferred, other. Students were given what worked best for different strict instructions and deadlines purposes, and why that was to try to recreate the conditions the case. This meant that that would exist in a newsroom they needed to think about as the teacher felt that this reading and writing in different would make the topic more real. formats and the affordances Some of the sources for this that different types of section of the scheme of work technology, including the came from BBC News Schools printing press, offered for Report ( communicating meaning. school_report/default.stm). 44 Case Study 09 / 10 Futurelab
  • 45. Digital Literacy Newspaper Project Key Stage 03in Practice EnglishContents Successes and next stepsIntroduction Students were able to define Students used computers, the As the teacher develops these the content of their stories and internet and video cameras to kinds of activities, she couldPrimary School articles and use their existing create their own media and were further emphasise the cultural,Case Studies interests to learn about writing asked to think about where they social and historical aspect of for a newspaper as well as filmed their broadcast and what what students were doing.Secondary School creating filmed broadcasts. They they wanted to have in shot. Students needed to make useCase Studies created detailed and extensive of their social awareness and newspapers and reported There were some occasions cultural understanding in orderConclusions enjoying the task. when the teacher filmed the to successfully create articles,Appendix broadcasts rather than allowing although this wasn’t made Students were supported to the students to use the camera. explicit during the activities. The think about communication This was due to the need to teacher could support students’ and representation in different ensure that filming was engagement with critical modes and formats (visual, completed efficiently as the time concepts in thinking about, for textual, video etc) and how for the unit of work was running example, the history and politics technology could support this. out. As the students continue to of the press, the globalisation If there had been time, this develop their digital literacy of news corporations or citizen could have been extended to skills, they can be supported to journalism in relation to online a consideration of how audio learn how to effectively manage and printed media. formats, such as radio and their time when working in podcasts, may or may not groups to use technology. change the way in which meaning is communicated as well as to a consideration of how the growth in blogging and micro-blogging, for example, has affected the media landscape. 45 Case Study 09 / 10 Futurelab
  • 46. Digital Literacy Key Stage 04in Practice ScienceContentsIntroduction Why is DNA thePrimary School Molecule of Life?Case StudiesSecondary SchoolCase Studies How a group of YearConclusionsAppendix 11 students used digital media to communicate the complexities of DNA to their peers and evaluated the effectiveness of different modes of presentation. 46 Case Study 10 / 10 Futurelab
  • 47. Digital Literacy Why is DNA the Key Stage 04in Practice Molecule of Life? ScienceContents Paul Hill is a science teacher and Head of E-learning “Schools have always tried “I don’t buy the digital natives at St. Mary Redcliffe and Temple School, an inner city, to develop communication argument, a lot of them areIntroduction skills, but today that’s not just quite perplexed by the amount 11–18 mixed comprehensive, Church of England about speaking confidently, of stuff on the web, actuallyPrimary School Voluntary Aided Secondary School in Bristol. The having a good public speaking they have a pretty poorCase Studies curriculum at the school is underpinned by the school’s voice, now people use digital understanding of the reliability own set of 15 competencies and values. Paul wanted to media as visual aids. The first of sources, how to assess itSecondary School integrate digital literacy into his Year 11 science subject generation of that was a and how to reference it.”Case Studies PowerPoint with bullet points, teaching and saw this as an excellent opportunity to Year 11 teacher but now decent communicationConclusions support the whole school focus on developing good skills include using visual He was keen to support communication skills. images and multimedia his students to use digitalAppendix effectively. Who’s going to teach technologies in an effective them to do that if we don’t?” way and to make considered Year 11 teacher and valuable choices when using it. Specifically he was aiming to He also expressed concern develop their critical thinking over students being ‘spoon fed’ around the right digital tool for subject content. He was keen to the task and the affordances free them up from seeing the and challenges offered by teacher as the ‘fountain of all different technologies. knowledge’, but at the same time wanted to ensure their Paul gave his Year 11 students active involvement with digital the task of working collaboratively media for learning. This included to answer the question ‘Why is supporting them in understanding DNA the molecule of life?’ by how to access information and researching DNA and then critically evaluate its relevance re-contextualising the information and veracity. they found in order to create a presentation to their peers. Their presentation would then potentially be put online and used as revision materials for other students. 47 Case Study 10 / 10 Futurelab
  • 48. Digital Literacy Why is DNA the Key Stage 04in Practice Molecule of Life? ScienceContents The students were told that Students were set a challenge. skills of good communication They could choose to useIntroduction were a key focus so they would PowerPoint as a communication be evaluating each others’ work tool only if they avoided usingPrimary School based on their presentation bullet points, kept text to aCase Studies skills, the relevance of the minimum, chose images that content of their presentation, clearly supported what they wereSecondary School and the suitability of the going to say in their presentationCase Studies digital tool they had chosen and included one animation/ for the task. moving image. The studentsConclusions agreed this was “not the usualAppendix Paul had taught some of his sort of PowerPoint” and were previous lessons modelling the encouraged to think about their digital technologies students communication skills and how could choose from: podcasts, to deliver more interesting PowerPoint presentations and presentations. videos. Paul and his students discussed and critically “We’re deciding what we evaluated which digital want to say and then choosing technology tool they thought the images that go best with had been used most effectively what we’re saying.” to communicate the information, Year 11 student and which supported their learning the best. 48 Case Study 10 / 10 Futurelab
  • 49. Digital Literacy Why is DNA the Key Stage 04in Practice Molecule of Life? ScienceContents Successes and next stepsIntroduction The students enjoyed the “We’re only putting the “With a podcast you could In order to further develop their experience of being able to important stuff into the video, listen to it over and over again digital literacy skills studentsPrimary School bring their creativity into their we’ve got to learn it more so to help you revise.” could be supported to examineCase Studies science lessons. we know what to put in.” Year 11 student the social and cultural contexts Year 11 student in which they are operating.Secondary School “It’s good, it’s different. “It’s hard to put a picture into Students who created videos andCase Studies This is more creative than “We’re finding out things words in a podcast. Looking podcasts were using conventions our usual science lessons.” we didn’t know before, making at a picture is easier for some and ideas that they had learntConclusions Year 11 student the presentation helps you to parts of this learning.” through their engagement withAppendix remember it.” Year 11 student those media in their lives both Throughout the piece of work Year 11 student inside and outside school. At the they developed their awareness “A video isn’t boring, it keeps same time they were creating of how their work would be The students also showed you engaged, you listen more.” science content, and the subject perceived by their audience. evidence of having critically Year 11 student discipline itself is imbued with evaluated the different types of social and cultural references. “We’re thinking about others digital technology on offer to “Looking at a picture and being Future activities could aim to whilst we’re making it, we them. They had clear reasons talked to about it makes it easy make this more explicit. want to make it understandable for why they chose to work with to take stuff in.” for everyone.” a certain technology and why Year 11 student Year 11 student they liked others’ use of those technologies. Their reasons were In doing this, they were focused on communication of having to consider which information in order to support key facts to include and them and others to learn. were re-contextualising the information they had found through research into new formats and more accessible language. Several students commented that this was helping them learn. 49 Case Study 10 / 10 Futurelab
  • 50. Digital Literacy Concluding discussion:in Practice teacher and student experiences of the projectContents These case studies represent teachers’ first steps in developing students’ digital literacy in their classroom.Introduction Although each individual teacher experienced thePrimary School project in their own way, there were some universalCase Studies challenges and successes which may be helpful for teachers to consider when seeking to design theirSecondary School own approaches to developing digital literacy inCase Studies subject teaching.ConclusionsAppendix On a general level, all teachers In this concluding section of reported enjoying being part the document the experiences of the project, which they of teachers and students on the saw as an important step in project are brought together and developing their own and others’ discussed in relation to exploring understanding of digital literacy. the meaning of digital literacy, All teachers also reported high fostering digital literacy in the levels of motivation in their classroom, and teacher roles. students who enjoyed the activities and opportunities to explore new ways of learning. 50 Futurelab
  • 51. Digital Literacy Exploring the meaningin Practice of digital literacyContents Despite having heard the term In addition, teachers found it digital literacy before, most of helpful to link digital literacyIntroduction the teachers were unsure at concepts to their existing the start of the project what the responsibilities, which helpedPrimary School concept meant for them, their them consider where and howCase Studies students and their teaching. digital literacy would fit in their The teachers attended two day-to-day reality of classroomSecondary School participatory workshops in teaching. Often, links were madeCase Studies which they worked alongside between their school’s values researchers to explore the and/or other whole schoolConclusions concept and to come up with initiatives and curriculumAppendix a mutual understanding of requirements such as, in digital literacy. secondary schools, Personal Learning and Thinking Skills. All the practitioners instinctively found ways to relate digital literacy to their own professional values and their aspirations for their pupils: “As a teaching professional, I have a responsibility to ensure my students are not just digitally confident but digitally competent and literate.” Secondary geography and AST teacher. 51 Futurelab
  • 52. Digital Literacy Experiences of fosteringin Practice digital literacy in the classroomContents There were some similarities In some cases students were All the teachers undertook in the ways in which all the given permission to use their activities which saw studentsIntroduction teachers, both primary and own mobile phones, in others working together in groups. secondary, approached digital teachers and students simply Where this was most successful,Primary School literacy in their classroom made creative use of the the skills of effective collaborationCase Studies teaching. There were also resources available in the were made explicit and discussed similarities in the challenges school. There were few problems in the classroom. In some caseSecondary School they faced and the successful with unreliable technology and studies, the students wereCase Studies strategies they used to support where there were any issues either given group roles by their students. these were used as learning their teacher or asked to assignConclusions experiences for the students. themselves roles. This workedAppendix At the start of the Digital well and supported students Participation project, many of When technologies that were to talk about how well they the teachers had some concerns more familiar to students than were collaborating. that their own confidence in their teachers were used, this using technology, the reliability did not significantly impact Prior to planning the activities, of technology and the lack of on teachers’ confidence. The many of the teachers expressed resources in their school might activities had been designed in concern over their students’ be potential barriers to the such a way that teachers needed internet research skills. success of their activities. to use their existing expertise to The ability to find and select support students to apply their information was therefore a As the project progressed, it subject knowledge, critical component of digital literacy that became clear that these initial thinking and creativity to the many of them chose to include concerns around resources use of technology. in their activities. In classrooms were not going to negatively where this was done particularly impact upon the project. well, teachers supported students Several teachers made use of in their research by coming up web-based tools which are freely with specific questions they available on the internet and wanted students to answer. This which they were able to arrange helped students to narrow down to have unblocked on the their research and they were school computers or laptops. consequently less overwhelmed and more focused. 52 Futurelab
  • 53. Digital Literacy Experiences of fosteringin Practice digital literacy in the classroomContents Some teachers had conversations Teachers who built in regular Critical thinking and ongoing with students about how to opportunities for reflection and evaluation were most apparentIntroduction question the reliability of critical discussion in class had in classes in which teachers information they found on the more success in supporting worked hard to create and makePrimary School internet, although this was an students to evaluate their work. time for an atmosphere ofCase Studies area in which teachers seemed In classrooms where evaluation debate and discussion. For less confident. This suggests happened only at the end of teachers and students whoSecondary School that more support may be the activity, students found it have become accustomed toCase Studies needed for teachers in this area. harder to be reflective and learning in classrooms where think critically. Ensuring that the imperative to complete anConclusions Prior to the activities, evaluation happens all the way output in a given time has beenAppendix many of the teachers through a project supports paramount, slowing the pace expressed concern over students to regularly reflect and allowing time for critical on their work as it progresses. thought can be difficult at first. their students’ internet For example, students can Some teachers managed this research skills. consider whether they are using by designating time for reflection the most appropriate technology in each lesson. Creating an output which for communicating their ideas, required communicating content whether they are still considering to a real audience played a their audience, how well they significant role in a number of are collaborating and if any the projects. Considering their changes need to be made. audience’s needs helped to focus students throughout their activities. When students were researching for information and deciding the content of their output, focusing on what the audience needed to know helped them to engage with the subject related information they were researching and re-contextualise it to suit that audience. 53 Futurelab
  • 54. Digital Literacy Experiences of fosteringin Practice digital literacy in the classroomContents Most teachers developed Yet, in fact, components activities that aimed to foster such as cultural and socialIntroduction just three or four components understanding and critical of digital literacy, with the thinking underpinned manyPrimary School understanding that in future of the activities that took placeCase Studies teaching they would foster some in schools. Whenever students of the other elements, as well create a digital artefact orSecondary School as continuing to work with their effectively communicate with anCase Studies students on developing digital audience, for example, they will literacy as a whole. be implicitly making use of andConclusions developing their critical thinkingAppendix Across the board, some and cultural understandings. components of digital literacy The task of digital literacy were more commonly focused teaching is to make this more on than others. This was explicit so that students begin partly due to some components to recognise the importance of being seen as a more obvious these elements and further starting point and as more develop their understanding overtly recognisable and tangible of them and the complexity and Whenever students create a and therefore teachers feeling sophistication of their thinking digital artefact they will be that it was easier to plan in these areas. implicitly making use of and activities to foster them. This points to a need for support developing their critical thinking Creativity, collaboration and for teachers to plan for all and cultural understandings. communication, for example, are components of digital literacy to more easily directly translated be fostered across their teaching, by teachers into classroom although not necessarily all activities than cultural and social through the same piece of work. understanding. Teachers can It is hoped that the accompanying more easily picture what students handbook to these case studies might be doing or making when will provide some guidance for considering creativity, collaboration this purpose. and communication than they can when considering fostering cultural and social understanding. 54 Futurelab
  • 55. Digital Literacy Teacher rolesin PracticeContents Teachers involved in the project Often the teachers set out the The teachers spoke of a need Teachers found that this found that in developing digital amount of time available for a for building good relationships was a new role for themIntroduction literacy within classroom task and supported students in the classroom for providing and one in which, as well as teaching students became more to work within that time frame, enough structure and guidance directly teaching students,Primary School independent in their learning. with different groups of student to support students to work they were also guiding andCase Studies progressing at different paces. independently. facilitating them in their Although there was direct In some activities, students learning. Far from this beingSecondary School teaching involved in the activities, were given a choice of what “It’s a different relationship, a passive role, teachersCase Studies there were also aspects of the technology to use so different you need to build trust with found they needed to be students’ learning that were groups of students were them and give them more responsive to the students,Conclusions less directed and controlled. engaged in different sorts of freedom. But it is through asking them questions andAppendix tasks with different outputs. that new relationship that prompting them to go beyond Students were allowed more Students were also often you begin to realise what the boundaries of their freedom during the process of collaborating and so the they’re really capable of.” current understandings. creating the outputs of their organisation of classroom Primary school teacher learning and in the ways in which space was changed in order to they chose to communicate their allow students to work in groups. learning. Teachers found they In addition, in many of the needed to be more flexible and activities students were allowed less in direct control of the time to move about the spaces and space in the classroom. available, this often included space outside the classroom. 55 Futurelab
  • 56. Digital Literacy Conclusionin PracticeContents The main aim of the Digital In these case studies teachers Participation project was for have shown that it is possibleIntroduction researchers to work alongside for any teacher to begin to teachers to begin to gain a better develop students’ digital literacyPrimary School understanding of how digital alongside subject knowledgeCase Studies literacy might be fostered within in classroom teaching. curriculum teaching, and toSecondary School provide examples of emerging At a time when the NationalCase Studies practice that would support Curriculum has become other teachers. less prescriptive and aimsConclusions to give schools more flexibility,Appendix The practitioners involved in practitioners potentially have the project had varying levels more opportunities to explore of skills and confidence around new ways of learning in the digital technologies and some classroom that respond to the had access to more resources needs of their students. Digital in their schools than others. literacy can both support and It was important for the project be supported by these aims that teachers worked with and opportunities. both the opportunities and the constraints found in their everyday classroom settings. 56 Futurelab
  • 57. Digital Literacy Becta digital literacy planning toolin PracticeContentsIntroductionPrimary SchoolCase StudiesSecondary SchoolCase StudiesConclusionsAppendix 57 Futurelab
  • 58. Digital Literacy About Bectain PracticeContents Becta is the government We do this in many ways. We agency leading the national make sure the right technologyIntroduction drive to ensure the effective and is available, we influence the innovative use of technology development of policy, andPrimary School throughout learning. we set standards and provideCase Studies tools that help establish and It is our ambition to utilise promote best practice.Secondary School the benefits of technologyCase Studies to create a more exciting, We know that technology has rewarding and successful the potential to transformConclusions experience for learners of all learning. We are committed toAppendix ages and abilities, enabling inspiring education providers them to achieve their potential. to realise that potential, and equip learners for Britain’s future success. 58 Futurelab
  • 59. Digital Literacy Key to Futurelab research themesin PracticeContents Futurelab understands that you may have Digital Inclusion – How the design specific areas of interest and so, in order to help and use of digital technologies canIntroduction you to determine the relevance of each project or promote educational equality publication to you, we have developed a series ofPrimary School themes (illustrated by icons). These themes are  nnovative Teaching – Innovative ICase Studies not intended to cover every aspect of innovation practices and resources that and education and, as such, you should not base enhance learning and teachingSecondary School your decision on whether or not to read thisCase Studies publication on the themes alone. The themes  earning Spaces – Creating L that relate to this publication appear on the front transformed physical and virtualConclusions cover, overleaf, but a key to all of the current environmentsAppendix themes that we are using can be found below:  obile Learning – Learning on the M For more information on our themes please go to move, with or without handheld technology  earner Voice – Listening and acting L upon the voices of learners G  ames and Learning – Using games for learning, with or without gaming technology  nformal Learning – Learning that occurs I when, how and where the learner chooses, supported by digital technologies  earning in Families – Children, L parents and the extended family learning with and from one another 59 Futurelab
  • 60. Digital Literacy About Futurelabin PracticeContents Futurelab is an independent Also from Futurelab: © Futurelab 2010. All rights not-for-profit organisation that reserved; Futurelab has an openIntroduction is dedicated to transforming Literature Reviews access policy which encourages teaching and learning, making and Research Reports circulation of our work, includingPrimary School it more relevant and engaging Written by leading academics, this guide, under certainCase Studies to 21st century learners through these publications provide copyright conditions – however, the use of innovative practice comprehensive surveys of please ensure that Futurelab isSecondary School research and practice in a and technology. acknowledged. For full details ofCase Studies range of different fields. our open access licence, go to We have a long track record of researching and demonstrating HandbooksAppendix innovative uses of technology Drawing on Futurelab’s in-house and aim to support systemic R&D programme as well as change in education – and we projects from around the world, are uniquely placed to bring these handbooks offer practical together those with an interest advice and guidance to support in improving education from the the design and development of policy, industry, research and new approaches to education. practice communities to do this. Opening Education Series Futurelab cannot do this work Focusing on emergent ideas on its own. We rely on funding in education and technology, and partners from across the this series of publications education community – policy, opens up new areas for debate Futurelab practice, local government, and discussion. 1 Canons Road research and industry – to Harbourside realise the full potential of our Bristol BS1 5UH ideas, and so continue to create United Kingdom systemic change in education to benefit all learners. tel: +44 (0)117 915 8200 fax: +44 (0)117 915 8201 email: blog: Registered charity 1113051 60 Futurelab