It is Possible! - Positive Communication and Literacy Outcomes for All Children
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It is Possible! - Positive Communication and Literacy Outcomes for All Children

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Plenary from the Special Education Principal's Association of New Zealand (SEPANZ) conference 2011....

Plenary from the Special Education Principal's Association of New Zealand (SEPANZ) conference 2011.

This presentation will outline the rationale and principles underlying the balanced literacy approach. This approach ensures that schools provide children with daily opportunities to engage in four key areas of literacy learning: guided reading for vocabulary and language comprehension skills, word instruction for phonics and sight word skills, self-directed reading for learning to choose books and read for pleasure, and writing instruction for targeting written language skills. All of these are critical for children with disabilities to develop conventional reading and writing skills. Specific strategies and adaptations will be outlined. Multi-level activities, which can be implemented with all students in a classroom, will be highlighted, as will ideas for older students who are beginning readers. The authors will discuss their recent experiences with school-wide model literacy programs. All students, regardless of their abilities, have the right to an opportunity to learn to read and write. This presentation will demonstrate how you and your school can make that happen.

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  • Jane - Reflects fact that word ID has been the focus of literacy instruction for most students – flash cards and whole words. Very little exposure to sentences or paragraphs or reading texts for real reasons.
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It is Possible! - Positive Communication and Literacy Outcomes for All Children It is Possible! - Positive Communication and Literacy Outcomes for All Children Presentation Transcript

  • It Is Possible!Positive Communication and Literacy Outcomes for ALL Children
  • Sally Clendon, PhD Senior LecturerSpeech and Language Therapy Programme Massey University Jane Farrall, MSpEd, MSPAA Speech Language Therapist Spectronics
  • A Traditional/Readiness View of Literacy• Literacy is learned in a predetermined sequential manner that is linear, additive, and unitary.• Literacy learning is school-based.• Literacy learning requires mastery of certain prerequisite skills.• Some children will never learn to read.
  • ing Wr Read iting Readiness Skills Speaking ListeningTraditional Model of Literacy Learning (Erickson, 1999)
  • A Current/Emergent View of Literacy• Literacy is constructive, interactive, recursive, and emergent.• Literacy is a process that begins at birth and perhaps before.• Emergent literacy is “…the reading and writing behaviors that precede and develop into conventional literacy”.• Emergent literacy is appropriate for all children.
  • Augmentative Communication/ SpeakingReading Writing Listening Oral and Written Language Development ( Koppenhaver, Coleman, Kalman & Yoder, 1991. Adapted from Teale & Sulzby, 1989)
  • Emergent Literacy• Emergent literacy behaviours are fleeting and variable depending on text, task, and environment.• The functions of print are as integral to literacy as the forms.
  • Means of Communication and Interaction Communication at any level, intentional or not, must be encouraged.
  • Silent Reading Comprehension Word Language Identification Comprehension Print Processing Beyond Word Identification (Slide from Erickson and Koppenhaver, 2010)
  • The Four Blocks• Guided Reading• Self Selected Reading• Writing• Working with Words• Created by Patricia Cunningham and Dorothy Hall• http://www.four-blocks.com/
  • Guided Reading
  • Guided Reading• Primary purposes are to assist students to: – Understand that reading involves thinking and meaning-making. – Become more strategic in their own reading.• Must use a wide variety of books and other print materials.• Listening comprehension is not a replacement for the reading done in this block.
  • Purposes for Reading• Developing readers have not learned to set their own purposes for reading.• If a purpose is not set, the implied purposes are “read this to remember everything and read this to guess what I am going to ask you”• Purposes should be broad enough to motivate processing of entire text.
  • Guided Reading• A book for guided reading is usually read and re- read through the week.• Different purposes for reading it are set each day.• Students can participate in the reading and in setting these purposes as they become more skilled.• Build confidence.• Help students become independent.
  • Three Part Guided Reading• Before – background knowledge, personal connection making and purpose setting.• During – reading / listening for bulk of allocated time.• After – follow-up and feedback related to pre- reading discussion. Also, related writing, drama, singing, etc. Connecting new to known.
  • Three Part Guided Reading• Before – background knowledge, personal connection making and purpose setting.• During – reading / listening for bulk of allocated time.• After – follow-up and feedback related to pre- reading discussion. Also, related writing, drama, singing, etc. Connecting new to known.
  • Guided Reading Books• Those you already have• Information from the www• Created books on topics of interest in PowerPoint, Clicker 5, Boardmaker Plus, Boardmaker Studio• Tar Heel Reader• Start-to-Finish Books
  • Mr Potato Heads Big Adventure! by Hgiunta
  • This is Mr Potato Head.
  • He used to have a girlfriend. Until he got dumped.
  • He was so upset, he didnt know what to do.
  • He tried online dating, but that was unsuccessful.
  • Then he decided to let off some steam by going dancing.
  • He had too much fun and lost his nose, ears and moustache!
  • He went shopping and all he could find was a Transformers costume.
  • But a talent scout found him and decided to put him in the new Transformers movie!
  • He starred in the movie, went to the premiere and met lots of fabulous people!
  • He had become a movie-star and neverthought about his old girlfriend again!
  • Repetition with Variety To learn a skill and generalise it across contexts,instruction must provide repetition of the skill in a variety of ways
  • Self-selected reading
  • Self-selected reading• Primary purposes are to assist students to: – Understand why they might want to learn. – Become automatic in skill application. – Choose to read after they learn how.• It isn’t self-directed if you don’t choose it yourself.• You can’t get good at it if it is too difficult.
  • Self-selected reading for students with disabilities• Need to make books accessible to ALL students• Many children with disabilities have fewer opportunities to practice than their peers and when they do are often passive participants (Koppenhaver and Yoder, 1992).
  • Creating custom books• Books with familiar photos can be more meaningful and motivating for many children• You can make older content with simple text• Students can get involved in book creation
  • Tar Heel Reader• http://tarheelreader.org/• Lots of simple books on a wide variety of topics suitable for older students (and students of all ages)
  • Created bookshelf in iBooks
  • Writing
  • Writing• Students who write become better readers, writers and thinkers.• Writing without standards.• Learn in classroom writing communities: – Write for real reasons – See others do so – Interact with peers and teachers about written content, use and form.
  • Writing and Reading• Without a pencil writing doesn’t improve• Without writing, reading development will be limited• If a student doesn’t have a pencil, you need to find one!
  • Writing With Alternative Pencils CD••••
  • Developmental Spelling Stages• Print has meaning (emergent writing) – scribble, numbers, letter-like strings, letters• Visual Cue – read/spell in environmental context, tuned to distinctive visual features• Phonetic Cue – sound it out, “glue to print” (initial sound, initial + final, initial, medial + final)• Transitional – rule based e.g. putting past tense on every verb• Conventional
  • Personal ConnectionThe power of starting from the things children love the most!
  • Working with words
  • Working with Words• Primary purpose is to help students become strategic in reading words.• Make words instruction: – Words based – Experience based – Age-appropriate• Should result in students who read and write – More – More successfully and independently – With greater enjoyment
  • Successful early reading instruction• Decoding (phonics) and sight word instruction• Frequent opportunities to read and re-read easy, interesting and motivating books.• Frequent opportunities to write for personally meaningful reasons using invented spelling and no standards• Frequent experiences reading a book with an adult for enjoyment and understanding.
  • Word Wall• Used to teach words that you don’t want students to have to work to decode or spell• Learning not exposure – about learning 5 words not being exposed to 20• Need/want/use vs. curriculum driven direct- instruction
  • Word Wall Content Basics• High frequency words• Generative patterns e.g. at, can• High utility e.g. name, TV favourites• Spelling demons I.e. words which are often misspelt
  • Word Wall Use Basics• 5 words a week – Issue is deep, thorough knowledge• Cumulative list – On the wall until every kid consistently spells word correctly without looking• Introduce homophones in separate weeks, not all at once• Daily 10-minute activities
  • Daily Activities• Mind Reader – It’s on your word wall – It’s a one beat word – It begins with w – It’s an action word – It rhymes with bent
  • Making Words• Cunningham and Cunningham (1992)• Scaffolded program to encourage people to become confident about making individual words.• Teaches students to look for spelling patterns in words and recognise the differences that result when a single letter is changed.
  • QRI3 Results
  • Willans Hill Four Blocks