• What are the student’s current abilities?• What are the student’s special needs?• What are the functional areas of concern?• What are the other students doing that this student needs to be able to do?• What does the student need to be able to do that is difficult or impossible to accomplish independently at this time?
• What activities take place in the environment?• Where will the student participate?• What is the physical arrangement?• What activities do other students do that this student cannot currently participate in?• What assistive technology does the student currently use?
•What specific tasks occur inthe environments?•What activities is the studentexpected to do?•What does success look like?
•Tools - no/low to high-tech.•Tools must be studentcentered and task orientedand reflect the student’scurrent needs.•Describe tool features thatare needed rather than brandnames.•Consider the cognitive loadrequired• What are the trainingrequirements for students andstaff?
Inclusive Technologies Continuum Low/No Mid High Least restrictive Most restrictive
Getting Organised• What do we need to do to make the school day successful?• Clear workspaces• Schedule ready to go• Batteries checked
What are Visual Supports? Things that we SEE to enhance the communication process.
Why Visual Supports?• Some people find the world to be chaotic.• Expectations and demands they cannot understand may confuse them.• Verbal instructions and explanations are often not adequate to provide the information needed in order to comprehend.• These people (and others) often need the support of having information presented in visual form.• Some people learn best through what they see, and using visual strategies builds on this strength. From “Visual Strategies” Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2000
Why Visual Supports?•Many people are not easily able to understandspoken directions.•It is not always obvious that a person is havingdifficulty because they may be quite adept atfollowing environmental cues.
I hear and I forgetI see and I rememberI do and I understand
Types of Visual Supports• Body Movement: such as body language, natural gesture, key-word sign• Environmental cues: such as objects and signs e.g. logos, labels• Traditional tools for organisation of information: such as calendars, shopping lists, recipes, instruction manuals• Specialised communication aids and materials: such as picture stories, behaviour scripts, activity schedules
Visual Support ContinuumColoured photos Real objects Black & white photosSign Language Written words Object symbols Line drawings
Communication is... Use of speech with.. gesture sign object symbols photos pictures… selected according to the person’scomprehension skills and communication needs
Visual supports are helpful inmany ways…. • They may improve a student’s behaviour by clearly showing expectations and visually depicting what will happen next. • They allow people to function more independently and gain confidence. • They improve the student’s ability to understand!
Timetables, Activity Schedules,Calendar Boxes• Backs up verbal with visual information• Provides consistent cues about daily routine• Teaches that symbols (3D or 2D) can represent daily activities• Encourages participation in planning & choice-making• Ongoing strategy (we all rely on visual supports)
Social Stories• Are a tool for helping people to control or redirect behaviour• Identifies the consequence of the behaviour• Acts as a visual reminder - content is important• Use consistent language across changing communication partners• Remind, Rehearse, Review
Social Stories• The situation is described in detail and focus is given to a few key points: the important social cues, the events and reactions the individual might expect to occur in the situation, the actions and reactions that might be expected of him, and why.• The goal of the story is to increase the individual’s understanding of, make him more comfortable in, and possibly suggest some appropriate responses for the situation in question.
Input Before Expecting Output Others need to use the visual support to communicate with the person before expecting the person to use it.
What do you need for a visual support to work?An opportunity to learn and to use the visual support at many times, with many partners, in many situations!
Introduction to the iPad/iPod in the classroom
The iPad• Engagement• Portable• Mainstream device• Price• Supports universal design• Wide range of apps
“Every new literacy changes theway we think about the world. Thealphabet did this to oral cultures.Cheap books did it afterGutenberg. Mobile, interactivemultimedia technologies are doingit in our time. As educators are weup to the challenge?”Pat Clifford, Galileo Educational Network
iPad basics• Physical• Home Screen• The Dock• Included Apps• Rearrange and delete Apps• Create and use folders• Multitasking and closing apps• Screenshot
What is AAC?• Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC): An area of specialised clinical and educational practice that provides communication options and interventions for people with complex communication needs. The term augmentative in this context means supplemental or additional to speech. Augmentative techniques (e.g. gestures, and facial expressions) are commonly used when communicating and interacting with others.• The use of the term alternative acknowledges that there are some individuals whose speech is sufficiently impaired that they must rely completely on standard and special augmentative techniques, which do not augment speech but are alternatives to speech (Vanderheiden & Yoder, 1996).(Speech Pathology Australia AAC Position Paper 2004)
AAC System• AAC system: An integrated group of components, including the symbols, aids, strategies and techniques used by individuals to enhance communication. The system serves to supplement any gestural, spoken, and/or written communication abilities(American Speech and Hearing Association, 1991).
Unaided and Aided AAC• Unaided AAC: All techniques that do not require any physical aids (e.g. gesture, sign, facial expression).• Aided AAC: Techniques where some type of physical object or device is used (e.g. object symbols, communication boards, books, wallets). Aided AAC is often divided into high technology or low/light technology systems.(Speech Pathology Australia AAC Position Paper 2004)
AAC Myths and Legends• Introducing AAC will stop someone from developing speech• Low tech before High tech• Has a little speech so doesn’t need AAC• Too cognitively impaired for AAC• AAC will fix all communication difficulties• Too young for AAC• Doesn’t need AAC as they can express basic needs
Communicative Competence• Light (1989) • Linguistic Competence (mastery of the linguistic code) • Operational Competence (access methods, on/off) • Social Competence • Strategic Competence (make the most of the vocab they have)
Aided Language Displays• Prospective users must be provided with frequent examples of interactive, generative use to acquire any semblance of proficiency.• No one would dispute the fact that it would be very difficult to become a fluent speaker of French, if your instructor seldom used French in your presence.Goossens’, Crain and Elder (1988); Goossens’ (1989)
Aided Language Displays• Aided Language Displays are NOT choice making boards.• Choice making boards supplement ALDs.• E.g. in music time a choice board of songs is followed by boards for singing the songs.
It is critical for an individual to not only have symbols, but also to have experience with those symbols in a symbol rich environment / print rich environment. The typically developing child will have been exposed to oral language for approximately 4,380 waking hours by the time he begins speaking at about 18 months of age.
If someone is using a different symbol set and only has exposure to it two times a week, for 20-30 minutes each, it will take the alternate symbol user 84 years to have the same experience with his symbols that the typically developing child has with the spoken word in 18 months!!! Jane Korsten (2011) QIAT Listserv 4th April
Aided Language Displays• If children are to gain proficiency in using their aided AAC systems, others must begin to use the childrens AAC system to communicate with them.
From “Being a Model Communicator,” ComTEC, 2010
Aided Language Displays• By modelling how to use a display to initiate and maintain communication, you show a student how to initiate and maintain – not just respond!
Aided Language Display Design• If you (as a person proficient in language) cannot use a communication system or display throughout an interaction then how can you provide Aided Language Stimulation?• If you cannot use it, is it designed well?
Exercise• In pairs: Design an Aided Language Display for making things from pipecleaners.• Remember to include vocabulary such as names, actions, positions, requests, commands....
Boardmaker Software Family• Boardmaker• Boardmaker Plus• Boardmaker with SD Pro• Boardmaker Studio
Storing displays• Must be stored in close proximity to where they are needed• Must be stored in a way that helps with quick access and set-up• E.g. in dress-up box, on back of bookshelf, on walls, in plastic bucket, inside game box, with props, in eye gaze arrangement
CHAT-Now• Developed by Gayle Porter (Cerebral Palsy Education Centre) and Marnie Cameron (Communication Resource Centre)• Children’s Aided Language Tools Children s• Consists of aided language displays for early childhood settings and general interactive board(s)
CHAT-Now• A series of ALDs for different activities.• Designed for early childhood but suits many special education settings• Also includes a general interactive board for use throughout the whole day
Pragmatics• Pragmatics – social use of language• Using language for different purposes, such as greeting, informing, demanding, promising, requesting• Changing language according to the needs of the listener• Following conversational rules www.asha.org
Pragmatics• Need to ensure AAC users have access to and know how to use a range of pragmatic skills• Dewart and Summers “Pragmatics Profile” Pragmatics Profile (1998)• http://wwwedit.wmin.ac.uk/psychology/pp/
PODD• PODD is a way of organising whole word and symbol vocabulary in a communication book or speech generating device to provide immersion and modelling for learning.
PODD• The aim of a PODD is to provide vocabulary: • for continuous communication all the time • for a range of messages • across a range of topics • in multiple environments.
PODD• PODDs can have different formats, depending on the individual physical, sensory and communication needs of the person who will use it.
PODD• PODDs have been developed over the past 15 years by Gayle Porter, a speech pathologist with the Cerebral Palsy Education Centre (CPEC) in Victoria. Each PODD format has been shaped by the experiences of both children with Complex Communication Needs (CCN), and their communication partners.
Core Vocabulary• Using common English words on an AAC display to enable a user to construct their own sentences.• Approach used in lots of high tech systems but not used as much in low tech due to difficulty of arranging vocabulary for access.
Core Vocabulary• CORE VOCAB • FRINGE VOCAB• High frequency • Low frequency words words• Can be combined • Only useful in one or to get your two situations message across in • Often related to a lots of different specific topic situations
High Tech and Light Tech• Both are just tools• Both need good vocabulary design and good modelling to ensure success• High Tech can be less forgiving but can offer more access options• Some students more motivated by high tech and some don’t like it!!• Most people need both – for different situations
Morning News• A great chance for peers to interact• Highly predictable and easily scripted – great place to use new skills e.g. learning to use your switch in conversation• Can be made very errorless!
Talking Books• Used as part of a balanced literacy approach• Using a simple talking book with common sight words• Students have the opportunity to read and re-read independently outside of this session
Self-selected Reading• Help our students to understand why they might want to learn.• Become automatic in skill application.• Choose to read after they learn how.• Remember: • It isn’t self-directed if you don’t choose it yourself. • You can’t get good at it if it is too difficult.
Numeracy Opportunities for access to mathematical ideas through high quality child centred activitiesVaried, interesting, appropriately targeted formaximum results, engaging and presented in a fun, success oriented manner
NumeracyBarrier Games & MathsBarrier games are activities based on givingand receiving instructions, require interaction,and use language to complete a task.Maths barrier games support thedevelopment, understanding and practice ofmathematical language.