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Low-priced work is yet another good feature.Paper’s genuineness and uniqueness GUARANTEED!Our work is unique and customized no second hand paper will be provided. We stand out from thecrowd. An Investigation into the Relationship between Employee Retention Policies and Employee Loyalty; a Case Study from the Pharmaceutical Sector (GSK)
Table of Contents CHAPTER – ONE INTRODUCTION1.0 Introduction
Employees are very important asset of an organization (Armstrong, 2004). These are the resources ofan organization that play a very important role in the success of the organization. The retention ofemployees within the organization is considered important for the progress of the organization. Thisstudy focuses on the retention of employees with in the pharmaceutical industry of the UnitedKingdom. This chapter presents the background to the whole research paper.1.1 Background of TopicIn the field human resource management retention is an important area being studied because of manyreasons. There is good number of research studies that discuss the topic of retention. Retention meansretaining an existing employee within the organization for a longer period of time. One of the mostimportant reasons to retain employees is to minimize the turnover cost. Owning to high cost oftermination, there is shift in the bargaining power of the employer. As they incur considerable cost onemployee training so bargaining power of employee has been increased, as they never want to losetheir trained employees. Turnover, not only increases the organizational cost but also effects manyinter organizational networking relationships of the employees. Like revising reporting relations withemployees may be chaotic for the cultural norms of the organization. Thus, employee termination isone of the critical issues to be addressed and employee retention programs, is addressing this issue inan effective manner. In order to take retaining initiatives within the organization, employer must have adeep and systematic review of the personalities and cultural norms of his organization. A systematicreview is required to find out the individual interests that enable the employers to keep their employeespsychologically committed and retained for a longer period of time. Employee retention depends uponmany factors. If employees are not paid satisfactory compensation, they can leave the organization(Coff, 1997).In order to keep the employees retained within the organization, employee satisfaction is the key. If anemployee is satisfied with his work and organizational policies, procedures and working condition thenthere is a high probability that he will never want to quit his existing organization. He will feel the highlevel of organizational commitment and loyalty. As human resource (HR) is the most important assetof any organization so investment in this asset of the organizations, always resulted in a high returnratio (Armstrong, 2004). Thus, this is the reason that organizations are investing a considerably goodamount of money in order to make their employees satisfied. They have taken the title of internalcustomer, in order to represent the importance of their role within the organization. Decrease inemployee satisfaction causes the productivity loss and in terms, it decreases the customer satisfaction.
It also increases the organizational cost due to increase in the employee turnover ratio (Heskett, Sasserand Schlesinger 1997). As the area gain importance, many academicians explored different attribute ofretention program. One of these research contributions is the study of Cappelli, (2000). This study hasidentified many factors which need to be prioritized in order to retain the employee within theorganization. These attributes include the career advancement options, good working conditions, worklife balancing incentives. Cole (2000) stated that the organizations where employees have some senseof self -actualization and self-accomplishment, they are highly motivated to explore their potentials totheir maximum. The factors enforcing employees to retain within the organization are growth or careeropportunities, incentives and benefits and training and development (Cole, 2000). Similarly, loyalemployees are also very desirable by the employers, for last few years. But there is a downward trendin the number of loyal employees because of many reasons. In today’s competitive businessenvironment, there is an enormous competition for the greater market share, an upward trend of goingglobal, and a fight for more and more profit increments. In order to decrease their overall costs ofoperations, organizations usually made unrealistic decisions. These decisions may include the loss ofloyal and experienced employees, as the advent of technology calls for downsizing in order tomaximize their profits in a rational way (Bob, 2008). Loyalty is required to maximize the employeeeffort for an organization to make it efficient and effective. Superior performance can be achieved bydeveloping the employees towards their career achievements (Christopher, 2007). Developing andorienting employees will make the employees loyal and committed (Sussman 2006).Organizational and individual goals are not contrasting in nature, management need to align theindividual career goals with organizational progress goals and objectives. In this way organizationalcareer advancement will ultimately be linked with organizational performance improvement (Donald,1980). But expectations go in vain when such trained and developed employees are not retained withinthe organization. So in order to compensate organizational loss of skilled workers, organizations needthe high level of loyalty with in their internal customers. Retention of employees has become keyfactor in the success of the organization. It instills loyalty in the employees of organization. It takesmore cost and effort to hire new employees and to train them. It is better for the organizations to retaintheir present employees in order to gain competitive advantage in the market by utilizing their skills(Mcshane, 2008). High level of uncertainty and change is observed within the pharmaceutical industryof UK. Growing health concerns regarding the safety of drugs, created by the high level of inspectionand growing research interests have placed the pharmaceutical organizations at the edge of uncertainty.And it has resulted to decreasing the overall profit of such firms. One of the problems with these firms
is regarding talent management. Currently they are not focusing on attracting the new talent within theindustry (Cogent, 2010). This study is focused on hiring and retaining new talent at a relatively lessercost. This particular research will investigate employee retention policies and their affect on loyalty ofemployees within pharmaceutical industry of United Kingdom. This research is focused on employeeretention and employee loyalty in GSK, a renowned pharmaceutical company operating in UnitedKingdom.1.2 Research Aims and ObjectivesRetention of employees is considered to be critical factor in the progress of an organization.Pharmaceutical industry has many opportunities to explore. This particular research is focused onHuman Resource Management field. The aim of this research is to explore employee retention policiesand their impact on the loyalty of employees in pharmaceutical industry of United Kingdom. Theobjectives of this research are as follows: • To investigate the polices of organizations from literature review for retaining employees and their impact on employee loyalty • To find out the relationship between employee retention and employee loyalty within the pharmaceutical industry. • To identify the factors affecting employee loyalty or employee commitment within GSK. • To propose some recommendations to the management of GSK for retaining employees and making them loyal to the organization1.3 Research QuestionThe whole research is based on the research questions so it is very important to design appropriateresearch questions. Inappropriate research questions can produce wrong invalid research. For thisparticular research, researcher has developed following research question. • What is the relationship between employee retention policies and employee loyalty in pharmaceutical industry?1.4 Significance and Scope of Research
The research is significant for the researcher in order to complete his academic course. It will bebeneficial for the researcher to transform his theoretical knowledge into practical knowledge. Theresearch is conducted to find the relationship between employee retention policies and employeeloyalty in the pharmaceutical industry in United Kingdom. The research will explore the importantpractices of organizations in order to keep the employees with the organization. The research scope islimited to the pharmaceutical industry only. Pharmaceutical industry is becoming very competitive andorganizations need to retain their key employees with them in order to enhance their output. Theresearch is significant for the pharmaceutical sector for improving policies of employee retention. Theorganizations can improve the level of employee loyalty by considering the recommendations of thisresearch. Overall the research is significant for researcher as well as for organization selected for study.1.5 Overview of OrganizationThe research is focused on GlaxoSmithKline plc. It is based in United Kingdom and operating acrossthe world in pharmaceutical business. Headquarter of the company is in London. GSK stands atnumber three in the world in pharmaceutical companies in terms of revenues. The first pharmaceuticalcompany in terms of revenues is Johnson & Johnson and the second largest pharmaceutical company isPfizer. Company produces a number of products for controlling a number of diseases like cancer,diabetes, and mental health. GSK has a healthcare division that manufactures and markets a number ofproducts in healthcare division. GSK is listed in London Stock Exchange. It stands at number five inLondon Stock Exchange.1.6 Structure of ResearchThe research is composed of five chapters. All the chapters are focused on a specific agenda. Thechapters are linked to each other so that a coherent piece of work can be produced.The first chapter of the research is “Introduction”. This chapter presents the overview of the wholeresearch. What researcher wants to explore is described in this chapter of research. This chapterpresents the background of the research topic. Aim of research, its objectives and research questionsare also explained in the introduction of research. The overview of the organization on which researchis being conducted is also presented in this chapter. The introduction elaborates the scope and
significance of the research. The whole structure of the research is also presented in this chapter.(Summary of next chapters will be presented after completion of research.)1.7 Summary of ChapterThe research is focused on employee retention and employee loyalty in pharmaceutical industry ofUnited Kingdom. The chapter presents the introductory overview of the research. The background ofthe research along with research aims, objectives and research question is elaborated in this chapter.Significance and scope of the organization is also highlighted in this chapter. The chapter presents anoverview of all the chapters of research paper. This chapter also elaborates the overview of the GSK. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 Introduction
In today’s competitive market environment, there is an increasing demand of the talented workforcemanagement. Talent management is one of the most important goals to be pursued by the organizationsin terms of their HR objectives. Bargaining power of employees is increased due to organizations needto attract an innovative and creative pool of employees. After attracting the desired workforce the taskof retaining is still very important to handle properly. This could be achieved with a systematicanalysis of individual need, wants and demands. Organizations need to identify the personality types oftheir employees in order to motivate them in a best possible manner. It is also required to keep theindividual satisfied and committed. As such a culture will promote the potentials of its employees andthey will increase their productivity to its maximum. This sense of accomplishment will lead them tostay within the organization for a longer period of time. Thus there is a need to implement proper plansand strategies to embed retention within the culture of the organization (Earle, 2003). The chapter isdevised to entail the previously published work on the topic. And ultimately, the purpose is to find outthe strategies for creating employee commitment and retaining them within the organization.2.2 Retention of Employees2.2.1 Defining Employee RetentionRetention of employees has become a very important factor for the overall progress of theorganizations. Retention is the commitment of an employee to remain attached with a particularorganization in order to do business for an unending period of time (Zineldin, 2000). Definition ofRetention stated as “the ability to hold onto those employees you want to keep, for longer than yourcompetitors” (Johnson, 2000). Retention of employees can also be defined as the customers liking,identification of employees, trust of employees and customers on organization, commitment, and somebehavioral intentions of employees (Stauss et al., 2001). This suggests that employees’ retention is thebehavior of employees to be attached with a particular organization. Employers need talentedemployees in order to enhance the productivity of the organization.2.2.2 Importance of Employee RetentionThe importance of employee retention has increased due to the heavy expanses attached with the hiringof new staff. It is becoming very hard to hire talented employees because of competitive marketconditions, so retention of employees has become very critical for the organizations (Eskildesen,2000). Different types of benefits are associated with the retention of employees in organizations.
Researchers have identified a range of benefits. The success of business depends upon the retention ofable employees in organizations Eskildsen and Nussler (2000).There is a relationship between satisfaction of customers and satisfaction of employees. If employeesof the organization are satisfied, they will provide quality services to the customers and ultimatelycustomers will also get satisfied. This will lead to the retention of both in the organization. It has beenproved in various researches that employees who are satisfied with their jobs work with morededication and they contribute towards satisfaction of customers as well (Denton, 20000).As talent pool is squeezed due to different factors, retention of skilled employees has moved to theforefront. It is also desirable because of high cost of turnover of trained employees. Analyzing thepossibilities to retain employees requires a deep rooted analysis and implementation of retention plansat several levels. It has multi-level effect and implications (Klein and Kozlowski, 2000; Raudenbushand Bryk, 2002; Yammarino and Dansereau, 2004).Retention is one of the HR challenges, need serious attention. Retention lacks a standard set ofapproaches so every organization try to retain employees in its own way of looking this dimension(American Management Association, 2001). Retention is not concerned with one specific dimension ofthe HR. Rather, it starts applying different strategies at the time of recruitment for hiring the rightperson for the right job, then during training and developing activities, retention program align theindividual interests with organizational interests to keep them engaged and committed to theorganization (Freyermuth, 2004).2.3 Employee Loyalty2.3.1 Defining of Employee LoyaltyIn today’s business world organizations rely on their employees’ performance to a great extent. It isproved that in organizations that operate in technological, financial, and biological companies dependmore on their employees. In these segments of market the contribution of employees towards thesuccess of organization does not depend only on their time spent at the organization (Aityan, andGupta, 2011).The loyalty of employees has relation to the dedication of employees towards interests of theorganization. The loyalty of employees with the organizations has not been defined in an appropriateway in the literature (Hart and Thompson, 2007). The loyalty of employees is about the agreementbetween employers and employees (Power, 2000). Loyalty of employees cannot be achieved untilemployers are not loyal to their employees. It requires a mutual effort of employers and employees.
The fear of losing jobs without informing the employees is a big contributor towards damaging theloyalty of employees in today’s market (Aityan, and Gupta, 2011).2.3.2 Importance of Employee LoyaltyThe companies that have loyal employees are found to survive in today’s competitive market moreeffectively than the companies that lack loyal employees. Keiningham (2009) says that the success oforganizations is a function of the performance and loyalty of its workforce. Loyal employees arecontributor towards the success of organizations. They are considered as the assets of organization.Loyal employees of organization attract the attention of customers and inculcate loyalty in them aswell. In order to capture these benefits of loyal employees, it is important for organizations to retainthem. It is important for organizations to identify the loyalty in its employees. The retention of anemployee in an organization for a longer time period does not mean that the employee is loyal to thatorganization. The employee might have not found a better job in another organization so he / shestayed. The loyalty in employees can be enhanced by providing them job security. The engagement ofemployees in organization has found one of the factors of winning employee loyalty. It contributestowards decreasing employee turnover organizations (Buhler, 2006). In today’s market it has becomevery important for organizations to retain talented employees as they provide long-lasting benefits tothe organizations.2.4 Employee Retention StrategiesResearch studies have reported no of strategies, being employed in order to retain employees liketraining and development rewards and incentives, managing employee and line manager relationships,balancing work and life, autonomy at work, motivation programs and many others. This study has setits scope on the following factors.2.4.1 Training And DevelopmentTraining is an integral part of employee job commitment. Job is the subject matter between theorganization and the individual. No doubt, how great a person feel about his organization, till the timehe is not satisfied in his job with his job activities he will not be satisfied and committed. So in order to
regulate and assist the employee in his job, training is an ultimate need. Training consists of variety ofinstructional techniques extracted from behavioral theories so training impact the employee jobrelationship in a positive way that results into employee job satisfaction in the long run into employeeretention (Goldstein, 1989). In order to make the training investment effective, training initiativesshould be well planned and designed properly and they also be supported by financial funds.Development is another strategy being used for retaining an employee. Development is very mustsimilar to training but training is provided to deal with daily business activities while development isthe preparation for an upcoming businesses activities. Employee development initiatives increase theemployee job commitment as employee valued the growth opportunities (Sussman 2006). Thus,training and development of employees is an essential component of the employee job retention. Thereis need to prioritize these activities in order to pursue the organizational retention goals.A company that wants to strengthen its bond with its employees must invest in the development oftheir employees (Hsu, Jiang, Klein & Tang, 2003; Steel et al., 2002). It entails in creating opportunitiesfor promotion within the company and also providing opportunities for training and skill developmentthat let employees to improve their employability on the internal and/or external labour market (Butler& Waldrop, 2001). Growth opportunities which were offered by the employers, impact the employeesturnover intention negatively. As the research studies reported that the lack of training and promotionalopportunities, were the main causes for the high-performers, to leave the company (Allen, Shore &Griffeth, 2003; Steel et al., 2002).Career development is important for both the organization and individual (Hall, 2002). It’s a mutualbenefit process because career development provides the important outcomes for both parties(Kyriakidou and Ozbilgin, 2004). Organizations need talented employees for maintaining thesustainable competitive advantage and individuals require career opportunities to develop and growtheir competencies (Prince, 2005). Continuous training and development programs not only help tobolster employee satisfaction, but also produce tangent benefits for the organization.2.4.2 Improved Worker And Supervisor RelationshipSupervisors are the “human face” of an organization. According to Eisenberger and associates (1990),a worker’s view of the organization is strongly influenced by their relationship with their supervisor.
By having support, workers are less likely to leave an organization and become more engaged byhaving good relationship and open communication with the supervisor. Supervisors are the linkbetween management and the employees. They are the communicators of the organizational goals andobjectives. By harmonizing the competing demands, they support both external and internal workclimate. They regulate the peer and other networking relationships within the organization. Thus this isa very important relation for assisting employee in his job activities, as well as to keep him satisfiedand committed within the job. If the relationship is positive then employee will most probably retainedwithin the company. If an employee- supervisor relationship is adverse then, employee willcontinuously look for the other opportunities and will switch to other organization when he would haveoption. Organizations need to address this relationship properly, as it is being said that the employeeleave people not the job (Ontario, 2004).As in today’s organization, diverse workforce is being utilized which arises the importance ofsupervisor and employee relationship for retention. Borstorff & Marker (2007) found that employeeswant trustful supervisors who know them, understand them and treat them fairly. Abusive supervisorscreate conflicts in worker’s attitude for job, life and organization.Employees who feel esteemed will actively take part in organization’s goals, exhibit prolific workplacebehaviors such as increased in job involvement, reduced absenteeism and have less turnover rates. Themeans by which support from a supervisor can be revealed is by formal and informal recognition. Inorganization workforce responds to praise, encouragement and support, no matter the environment ispersonal or professional (Silbert, 2005). Supervisor discusses employee’s progress, often outside theformal evaluation process. They help employees to find the right position in the organization, notsimply the next rung on the ladder (Freyermuth, 2007).As in today’s organization, diverse workforce is being mixed up within the premises of one building somanaging the line and HR relation has become very complicated and the retention demands it badly.Borstorff & Marker (2007) found that employees expect their supervisors to be trustworthy, who knowthem, understand them and treat them fairly. Such terms of understanding and truth and fair viewscreate healthy workforce environment and culture which lead towards retention. Employees who feelesteemed will actively take part in organization’s goals, exhibit prolific workplace behaviors such asincreased in job involvement, reduced absenteeism and have less turnover rates. The means by whichsupport from a supervisor can be revealed is by formal and informal recognition. In organizations,workforce responds to praise, encouragement and support, no matter the environment is personal orprofessional (Silbert, 2005). Supervisor discusses employee’s progress, often outside the formalevaluation process. They help employees to find the right position in the organization, not simply the
next rung on the ladder (Freyermuth, 2007). Quite often, people are not even aware of many of theelements that make up a work environment. It stands to reason that everything around employees hassome impact on them and how they do what they do.On the other hand, abusive supervisors create conflicts between worker and the line manger that impactthe employee satisfaction and commitment on job negatively. In the context of diversity, favoritismand biased behavior make this relation worse. Employees become de motivated and it also impacts theorganizational profits due to decrease in productivity so this issue needs proper attention to treatappropriately, in order to retain the employees (Fuimano 2006).2.4.3 RewardsThe term ‘reward’ is discussed frequently in the literature of human resource management. Rewardsand incentives are given to the employees in response of their contributions and better performanceoutcomes as per the organizational policy and the employee interests.Rewards impact the employee satisfaction at work because it fulfills the basic need to be within theorganization and motivate to attain the higher performance goals. Earnings is the way by which workerget to know that how much they are gaining by dedicating their time, effort and skills in a job .Attractive remuneration packages are one of the very important factors of retention because it fulfillsthe financial and material desires.Reward may be financial and non-financial, extrinsic or intrinsic. Financial or intrinsic rewards,includes the cash payments or bounces which extrinsic reward includes recognition. Recognizing anout performer as employee of the month is the extrinsic or intangible reward. As rewards are theappraisal of an individual effort so rewards increases the employee motivation level. Rewards arefound to have a direct link with individual performance improvement. Sit means that motivatedemployees perform better than the de motivated employees. Reward are given so much importance inthe context of HRM that they are managed under the separate head named performance management asreward management. Rewards are important not for the current job performance improvement but alsofor the employee satisfaction at workplace that will lead to employee commitment within theorganization. As in the era of high competition organizations follow one another in most of theiractivities so almost all the organizations manage the reward to stay competitive. Now the purpose is tomake employee loyal with the organization with the help of these rewards. Now rewards are alsomanaged according to the employee needs and preferences. Some people valued the non-financialrewards more like recognition, admiration, pride, respect, titles, awards and honor than the financial
rewards like cash bounces, allowance sand rental accommodations. Many researchers demonstrate thatthere is a great deal of inter-individual difference in understanding the significance of financial rewardsfor employee retention (Pfeffer, 1998; Woodruffe, 1999). So rewards need proper attention to becomethe order winning criteria otherwise every organization is providing rewards there is no point ofdistinction. This is the ability of the management to align the rewards with the individual requirementsthat make it a competitive tool. It is also very important that the rewards may have a lasting impressionon the perception of employee about the organizational policies. A positive perception about theorganizational behavior, will leads towards the retention (Silbert, 2005). As, an organization’s rewardsystem can affect the performance of the employee and their desire to remain within the organization(Bamberger & Meshoulam, 2000)2.4.4 Creating Employee Work Life BalancePrevious studies indicate that employee’s endowed with value and importance for work-life initiatives.Locality is achieved by flexible work schedules, family friendliness, leave and immediacy to theirhomes (Dubie, 2000). Many researchers tested the impact of work and family benefits onorganizational commitment. Work and family life benefits include flexible schedules, childcareassistance, parental leave, childcare information and parental leave. Research showed that there isgreater organizational commitment if employees had access to work life policies. Results evidencedthat such employees articulated considerably high with their work and less intended to renounce theirprofession.Workplace flexibility is really demanding in today’s world as money alone is not enough; employeesare willing to trade a certain amount of money for reduced work hours in their schedules. It is arguedby the researchers that reduced work hour options should have the potential of win-win situation forboth individuals and organizations, there should be a fit between the schedule the person needs and theactual number of working hours. Distress and fatigue from excessive time on job can lead to decline inperformances of the employee and also it affects the safety level. A large amount of time at work is nota good predictor of productivity and it is observed that periods of time away from work can beextremely beneficial to the quality and productivity of a person’s work. The employee willingness toopt for reduced –hours schedules is not simply a matter of scheduling it involves redesigning workarrangements which leads to change in organization culture and careers, viable reduced-hours careeroptions require simultaneous changes in the areas of compensation, assignments and promotions. So it
is more cost-effective and productive for management to design the work arrangements to fit thehuman than it is force the human to fit the system (Barnet & Hall, 2001).2.4.5 Removing Job StressorsJob stressors or burnouts are also decreases the employee motivation level and its commitment at job.There is a considerably a good number of studies that cited this negative impact of job stressors. Jobstressor may be personal or job related. Job related stressors are usually embedded within thecharacteristics of the job. Most probably work related stressors lead towards employee turnover butpersonal stressors are also important for the organizations, work-family clashes may also force theemployee to switch the organization.The level of support employees receive, the personal attributes they bring to the job and the industrynorms all are important to consider. And the way all these components are managed in the workplacemay impact the echelon of work-family conflict that may ultimately impact the employee jobcontentment as well as the organizational commitment. Thus, employee turnover would be the mostexpected but inevitable end result (Mulvaney et al., 2006). In the context of employee retention theseare some suggested and tested measures in different industries. This study sets its scope to seek theimplementation and effectiveness of these strategies in the pharmaceutical sector in UK. Employee jobretention which is dependent on the employee job satisfaction and the employee job commitment ishighly, in need to be addressed.Having satisfied employees is not only an ethical consideration for the organizations, but it is alsorequired for productivity increase, customer service delivery, and the ability of the organization to existas an economic entity (Kaplan and Norton 1996). If employees understand that they will be given theopportunity for input in a non-judgmental forum, without fear of retribution, they will be more willingto do so. Their satisfaction and confidence in management will be enhanced if they are able to see themanagerial actions or feedback provided during the survey process. Employee satisfaction surveysshould be taken very seriously and management should act on the results, as employee satisfaction is adirect indicator of employee retention and employee productivity. A well-designed survey maygenerate actionable information about employee morale, and/or the efficiency and effectiveness ofwork and organizational processes. Employee surveys can play an important part in improvingelements related to enhancing the abilities of an organization to function more effectively in everyrespect (GuideStar 2006).
2.5 Summary of the ChapterThe employees are considered as important assets of the organizations. They are the key players ofdetermining the success of organization in market. It has become important for organizations to retainemployees in the organizations for getting better output from them. Retention of employees means tokeep the employees within the organization for a continuing period of time. Literature review hasproved that employee retention bring a number of benefits for the organization. One of the benefitsassociated with employee retention is employee loyalty. Loyal employees bring number of benefits forthe organizations. They crate satisfaction in the customers to a higher level. It can be said that loyalemployees create loyalty in the customers. Retention of employees with in the organization lowers thecost of hiring new employees. Employers can retain their employees by providing chances of furtherdevelopment. Training and development of employees is found to be one of the strategies adopted bythe organizations for retaining employees. It has been found that training of employees not only bringsbenefits for employees but for employers as well. The good relationship of workers and supervisors isone of the factors of retention of employees in organizations. Rewards to the employees produceloyalty in the employees. If flexible working conditions are provided to the employees they prefer tostay in the organization. On the whole the literature review describes the critical analysis of thestrategies of employee retention in organizations. Benefits associated with the employee retention arealso highlighted in literature review. The relationship of employee retention and employee loyalty isalso established. Important points discussed in the literature review are as follows: • Employee retention: The commitment of employees to remain attached with a particular organization is called employee retention. In this particular study it is basically dependent variable. • Employee Loyalty: Success of organizations is function of employee performance and employee loyalty. • Training and Development: Training and development programs create employee satisfaction and also produce benefits for organizations. • Supervisor and Worker Relationship: If supervisors trust employees and treat them fairly, it can lead to employee satisfaction. • Rewards: Rewards systems of organinsations affect employee performance and employee retention. • Employee work life balance: Employee commitment to organizations increases when there is work life balance.
• Job Stressor: Most of the times work related stressors lead towards employee turnover.CHAPTER–THREEMETHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction The research is conducted to enhance the current boundary of knowledge. Research can be conducted to answer an unanswered question, resolve problems, theorizing a new concept or to extend a current theory. Research is basically of two types. One is scientific research and the other is called social research. Social research is conducted in order to evaluate the social behaviors and social attitudes. The attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs of people in the society are examined through social research (Pan, 2011). This particular research is based on polices of retention of employees which is a social issue, so the research is a social research. Research is conducted by adopting a particular methodology. This chapter covers methods and approaches of research. Data collection tools are also justified in this chapter. 3.1 Research approach There are two types of research approaches used in the research. One is called inductive research approach and the other one is called deductive research approach. Deductive research approach explains a phenomenon through already existing theories of literature. Data collected through various tools is tested and results are extracted by using deductive research approach. This approach involves testing of hypothesis. The other research approach i.e. inductive research approach involves formation of new theories. Observation and experimentations are done in this approach of research (Saunders et al., 2009). This research is conducted by using both approaches. Deductive approach of research is used to construct the literature review of research paper. Already existing research work regarding employee retention and employee loyalty is investigated by using deductive approach. Inductive research approach is used to find the relationship between employee retention and employee loyalty in GSK. The two approaches support each other and validate the research findings. 3.2 Research Methods Research methods are of two types. These are qualitative research methods and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research methods make use of words while explaining a phenomenon while
quantitative research methods make use of numeric figures in order to explain a problem. Qualitative research methods are mostly used in order to evaluate the human behaviors and attitudes (Anselm L.Strauss, 1998). Quantitative research methods take data from different sources and operate statistical operations on the data in order to extract results (Trouchim , 2006). This research is conducted by using both methods i.e. qualitative methods and quantitative methods. This type of research methodology is called triangulation research methodology. Both methods are adopted for research because they form the base of research strong. The data of both methods support the findings of each other. The literature review of the research is developed by using qualitative research methodology whereas the data collected for determining relationship between employee retention and employee loyalty of GSK is tested by quantitative research methodology. This research methodology supports the aims and objectives of research. To achieve the objectives of this research triangulation methodology is necessary.3.3 Data Collection Tools The research mainly involves two types of data i.e. primary data and secondary data. Primary data is the first hand data. It is collected by the researcher for the first time and does not exist in the earlier records (Saunders et al, 2009). Primary data takes more efforts and time for collection and it is quite handle to collect it. On the other hand secondary data is the processed form of data. It exists in the books, articles, journals, government databases and on internet. Some statistical operations have been performed on secondary data. In this way the reliability of the secondary data becomes less as compared to primary data because of the possible manipulation of previous researchers. Primary data can be collected by various tools. These include surveys, interviews, focus group discussions, observations and experiments. Surveys collect data by using a questionnaire. Questionnaire questions can be open ended or closed. The involvement of researcher in the questionnaire survey is low, so the chances of biasness are less. It takes less cost and effort to collect data by questionnaire survey. Interviews are also used as instrument to collect primary data. Interviewer asks questions form the interviewee. Interviews can be structured or unstructured. The interaction of interviewer with the interviewee can create biasness in the data. Interviews are costly as compared to surveys. Focus group discussions are also used to collect data from respondent. To conduct focus group discussions a mediator is appointed who asks questions forma group of six to twelve people without pressuring them. Focus group discussions charge higher cost. In order to collect data from large population in short time, questionnaire survey is best tool (Struwig and Stead, 2007).
This particular research is conducted with the help of questionnaire survey. The other tools of data collection are avoided in this research because they charge high cost and take more time. By leveraging the benefits of all data collection tools, questionnaire survey tool is adopted. In this research secondary data is collected from books, journals, articles and websites. Most recent data is used from journals in order to make the research reliable and valid in current scenario. 3.3.1 Structure of Questionnaire A questionnaire consisting of 22 questions is developed. All the questions aimed at finding the answer of the research questions. Questionnaire has been adapted from two studies conducted by Brown (2003) and Work health organization (2004). Main dimensions included in the questionnaire are Employee satisfaction, employee loyalty, Training and development, Rewards, Supervisor- employee relationship, Work life balance, and Work overload. All these dimensions have been discussed in detail in the literature review. All the questions relate to these dimensions. First four questions are related to employee satisfaction. Next three questions are aimed at employee loyalty. Training and development in an organization affects employee commitment to the organization (Sussman 2006). Next three questions are aimed at finding impact of training and development on employee retention. The next four questions are aimed at finding the relationship of rewards and employee retention. It is found by Bamberger & Meshoulam (2000) that employee retention in an organization is affected by reward systems of the organization. Eisenberger (1990) suggests that perception of employee about the organization is affected by his or her relationship with the supervisor. Next four questions are proposed to investigate the effect of supervisor worker relationship on employee retention. Work life balance also affects employee retention in organizations. Remaining questions are aimed at work life balance.3.4 Sample Size/Sampling Population of a research comprises of all the individuals on whom research is focused. The population of this research comprises of all employees of GSK London. Usually it is not possible to collect data from all employees of GSK London, so representative part of population is selected. How many employees of GSK London? The representative part of population is called sample. The technique by which sample is selected is called sampling techniques (Struwig and Stead, 2007). There are two types of sampling techniques. One is called probability sampling and the other one is called non probability sampling. Every member of population gets equal chance of being selected in the sample in probability
sampling technique. In non probability sampling equal chance is not given to all the members to be selected in the sample. Cluster sampling is example of probability sampling. Non probability sampling has further types i.e. quota sampling and convenience sampling (Struwig and Stead, 2007). In this particular research a sample of 50 employees is selected by using convenience sampling technique. It is assumed that 50 employees are representative of the whole population. The other two sampling techniques are avoided because of their complexity.3.5 Time Horizon There are two time horizons for conducting research. One is longitudinal and the other one is cross sectional time horizon. In longitudinal research data is collected at more than one time. The example of collecting data through longitudinal time horizon is recording temperature at different times in an experiment. Cross sectional research involves data collection only at one time. This research is cross sectional research as the data is collected only at one time. Longitudinal time horizon is avoided because it odes not match to the research aims and objectives.3.6 Reliability And Validity This particular research is reliable and valid. This is in relation to questionnaire design. Researcher has taken all measures to produce a reliable and valid piece of work. Consistence of results of research measures its reliability (Charles, 1995). The researcher has adopted a research methodology which is aligned with the research aims and objectives which makes it a reliable and valid piece of work. If research instrument produces similar results again and aging in similar conditions, it is said to be reliable. Researcher has checked reliability of instrument at two different times. The validity of research means that research measures what it intends to measure. The questionnaire is developed consistent with the research aims and objectives which makes it a valid research. The data is not manipulated at all, so the research is reliable and valid piece of work. The reliable resources of data like journals are selected. On the whole research has taken all the measures to produce a valid and reliable research.3.7 Ethics Of Research It is very important to follow ethics in research. Researcher has not compromised on ethical issues during the whole phase of completion of research. During the process of conducting research any kind
of physical, emotional or environmental harm should not be caused to any one (Kimmel, 2007).Researcher has taken care of these issues while conducting research. All the participants are given freewill to participate in the research. Nobody is pressurized during data collection. It was totally thedecision of participants to become participant in the research. It is unethical to collect data fromrespondents without informing them about objectives of research. In this particular research, researcherhas explained objectives and aims of research to the participants. All the participants are explainedabout the use of their data. It is included in ethics of research to keep the data of participantsconfidential (Tony and Martin, 2007). Responses of all the employees are kept confidential. Duringdata collection, individuals were not allowed to see the filled questionnaire of others. In this way theconfidentiality of data is assured. It is unethical to copy the work of others in research paper. Copyingthe work of others is called plagiarism. Researcher has taken much care of issue of plagiarism. In theliterature review employee retention and employee loyalty are discussed in the light of work ofprevious researchers. To make the work valid and original, researcher has provided Harvard referencesin text as well as in bibliography. Overall all ethical issues are considered by the researcher in thisresearch.3.8 Summary of ChapterThis chapter covers the whole methodology of the research. Research methods and approaches arediscussed and justified in the chapter. The research is conducted by taking deductive and inductiveapproaches. Qualitative and quantitative research methods are adopted for this research. Both kinds ofresearch approaches and research methods support findings of each other. Data collection tools are alsodescribed in the chapter. Research is conducted with the help of questionnaire survey. A questionnaireconsisting of 22 questions is developed in order to collect data. A sample consisting of 50 employeesof GSK is selected with the help of convenience sampling technique. Data is collected only at one timewhich makes it a cross sectional study. The issues of reliability and validity of research are discussed inthis chapter. Researcher has also discussed some ethical issues considered in this research. Theresearch methodology is aligned with the research objectives and aims.Questionnaire:Gender Male FemaleAge Under 25 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 55 56 or moreJob Tenure Less than 1 2-3 3-6 7-10 10 and more
(Years) Education level Associates Bachelors Masters Professional Doctorate degree degree degree degree degreePlease indicate how much you agree or Strongly Disagree Slightly Agree Stronglydisagree with the following statements by Disagre Slightly Neutral agree Agreeplacing a check mark in the appropriate e Disagreebox.1 My job Instills pride in me for being associated with it2 One of the few negative consequences of leaving this department would be the scarcity of available alternatives.3 I owe a great deal to my organization.4 I do not feel any obligation to remain with my current employer.5 Would not leave my organization right now because I have a sense of obligation to the people in it.6 This organization deserves my loyalty7 I do not feel a strong sense of "belonging" to my department8 My current occupational position adequately reflects my education and training.9 Considering all my efforts and achievements, my work prospects are adequate.10 Considering all my efforts and achievements, my salary / income is adequate.11 Considering all my efforts and achievements, I receive the respect and prestige I deserve at work.12 I am treated unfairly at work
13 My job promotion prospects are poor.14 My supervisor Provides me with assistance in exchange for my efforts15 I have experienced or I expect to experience an undesirable change in my work situation.16 I receive the respect I deserve from my superiors17 I experience adequate support in difficult situations18 My family or private life comes first, than work.19 People close to me say I sacrifice too much for my job.20 I am often pressurized to work overtime.21 I have many interruptions and disturbances in my job.22 I have constant time pressure due to a heavy work load. ================================================= ========================= high quality assignment writing,Academic Assignments,academic task writing,academic writing professionals,write assignments,edit your Thesis,Course-work, prepare your Project work,prepare Dissertation,Course-work, prepare your Project work,make academic presentations,complete the
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Easy transition from student to scholarWriting a complex paper with research proposal, literature review and methodology is a completelynew kind of academic project, unlike anything else youve previously done. Its an extensive self-directed process which might seem scary at times.Remember that after completing your Masters, Undergraduate or Doctoral dissertation, your life willnot only change dramatically - you will be more valued in the job market and you may even embark ona career as an independent researcher or scholar. SO if you need to excel in your thesis then shake handwith us for writing help. Best RegardsJahanzeb KhanOperations ManagerSparkles Softsparklessoft@gmail.comwww.sparklessoft.comMobile: 00923004604250 00923124604250============================References:Allen, D. G., Shore, L. M., & Griffeth, R. W. (2003). The role of perceived organizational support andsupportive human resource practices in the turnover process. Journal of management, 29(1), 99-118.
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