KEEP ITS PROMISE?
Monthly Newsletter of
Chief Editor : Sachin Bahmba
Editors : Amit Verma & Divya Kanchanbaras
From The News Desk
Latest Updates On
UNIVERSE IN THE
Astronomy At Home
ALL INDIA ASTEROID
Comet ISON – How to
observe it visually and
WHY SHOULD WE
UNIVERSE IN THE SCHOOL NEWS
ARTICLE BY SPACE EDUCATOR: Comet ISON – How to observe
it visually and photographically
SPOTLIGHT EVENT : All India Asteroid Search Campaign 2013
SCHOOL IN FOCUS : Bal Bharti Public School, Rohini
SKY THIS MONTH
COVER STORY : Will Comet Ison Keep Its Promise?
By guest writer - Biman Basu
ASTROINQUISITES: Why Should We Observe Comet Ison?
ASTRONOMY AT HOME : Comet Making
SPACE India is Hiring!
UNIVERSE IN THE SCHOOL NEWS
CENTER FOR STUDENT EXCELLENCE - CSE
G.D GOENKA PUBLIC SCHOOL GURGAON
INDRAPRASTHA INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL DWARKA
On 5th Oct students from Astronomy Club of G.D. Goenka
Public School, Gurgaon conducted fun science activities
like Safe Solar Observation, Work Display and Astronomy
Quiz on the day of Parents Teacher Meeting in the school.
Parents thoroughly enjoyed along with children.
On 5th Oct students from Astronomy Club of
Indraprashtha International School, Dwarka conducted
activities like Safe Solar Observation, Observe the
Universe in 3D, Stomp Rocket and Catch the Meteors on
the day of Parents Teacher Meeting in school.
Students & Parents are observing Sun through Solar Goggles
(above) & Telescope using solar filter (below)
A parent observing Sun through telescope using Solar Filter
(above) and a student launching Stomp Rocket (below)
INDRAPRASHTHA WORLD SCHOOL, PASCHIM VIHAR
On 19th Oct students from Astronomy Club of
Indraprashtha World School, Paschim Vihar conducted
activities like Craters making and Weigh yourself on other
planets on the day of Parents Teacher Meeting in school.
Students displaying Lunar Settlement (above) &
Jantar Mantar Model (below)
A parent weighing herself on other planet (l) & student
performing Crater making activity (r)
BAL BHARATI PUBLIC SCHOOL, PITAMPURA
On 20th Oct students from Astronomy Club of Bal Bharti
Public School, Pitampura conducted activities on the
theme of Innovation like Evolution of Telescope, Model of
Jantar Mantar, Model of Lunar Settlement, and Hydro
Rocketry during an Annual Exhibition in the school.
To Have Fun With Astronomy
& For UITS Updates
SPACE ASTRONOMY CLUB
AMITY INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL, NOIDA
SPACE organized the Astronomy Day at Amity International
School, Noida on 17th Oct, 2013. Students of SPACE clubs
showcased their learning & interest towards astronomy on
this day. They performed different activities like comet
kitchen, hydrorocketry, time & direction using Sun, etc. Ms
Rashmi Grover, Headmistress of the school was particularly
impressed by the way students organized the event. Ms.
Nivedita Verma Academic Coordinator said “The children
really enjoyed the activities, very thoughtfully chosen and
executed program.” Students put up stalls of different
activities like, Hydro rocketry, Quiz, Solar System
Walk, Movie, Photo Exhibition of club sessions and Comet
Kitchen, etc on this day. Their active participation made this
event a grand success.
A teacher observes the sun through a pin hole
Students taking part in Body Painting activity
Students showcasing comet making activity
Students projecting Sun image with the help of
SPACE conducted series of age-specific fun hands on astronomy workshops for various schools in Delhi & NCR during
I. Destination Moon & Planet Watch at Cambridge
Primary School, NFC for class 3rd – 5th on 9th Oct
Student targeting lunar missions (l) & observing Moon through
telescope during the workshop (r)
III. Astronauts can you be one of them? at Delhi Public
School, Sushant Lok, Gurgaon for Class 3rd-5th on 19th
Students taking part in Lung Capacity Test (l) & Muscle
Endurance Test activity (r)
II. Hydro Rocketry workshop at St. Mary’s School,
Ghaziabad for class 9th-10th on 12th Oct
Students making (l) & launching (r) Hydro Rocket during the workshop
IV. Solar Walk & Safe Solar Observation at The Air
Force School, Subroto Park for Class 6th – 12th on 21st
Student observing Sun though Pinhole Projector (l) &
Telescope using Solar Filter (r)
Article : Comet ISON – How to observe it visually & photographically
By Rishabh Jain I Sr Educator SPACE
The buzz is everywhere. The comet of our lifetime is visiting us. Is it going to put up a spectacular show or is it going to go
bust? Only time will tell.
This is a very small comet which was accidently discovered by two astronomers but it will go very close to the sun, so it is
expected that it will show a long tail.
Here’s how you can observe it again and again over the small period of time its visible in the winter skies this year.
First of all you need some basic instruments to observe it (arranged in accordance to ease of use)
Unaided Eyes ( The best tool to observe objects in the sky, while they are bright )
Magnetic Compass ( or a smartphone application that does that )
Binoculars ( 8 x 50 at least )
Small Telescope ( 76mm mirror/lens diameter or higher )
Now that you have any/all of these, you need to know where the comet is going to be in the sky.
A wise man says, just follow the given maps and start observing from the third week of November. The comet will take a
round about the sun and will return back. (There are different maps for pre and post Perihelion – the closest approach to the
To photograph it you will need the following (arranged in accordance to ease of use and cost)
Tripod ( must have, comes in handy for binoculars also )
Point and Shoot Camera ( Normal Digital Camera/Phone Camera )
DSLR Camera with a wide angle lens
Sky Tracker ( Astrotrac or similar )
It is expected that the comet will get very bright. For the novice users, its best to wait it out till you start seeing the tail
of the comet. For the advanced users with a good camera ( DSLR ) you can go full capacity with manually setting your
camera. As the earth rotates, the stars in the images will tend to show a drag, which looks cool but if you want
clockwork precision – sky trackers are available in the market. A few names are Polarie, Astrotrac, Orion.
It is essential to find dark sky to go for such shoots but the comet is expected to get very bright. Some estimates say
that It is going to be visible during day time also. Woahhh!!
So get ready to hunt this comet down and capture it in your memories (Brain and Camera) forever
SALLY RIDE EARTHKAM
SPACE organized and conducted the Autumn Mission of Sally Ride ISS EarthKAM with Center for Students Excellence
schools - Bal Bharti Public School - Pitampura, G.D Goenka Public School - Rohini, G.D Goenka Public School - Gurgaon,
Indraprashtha World School - Paschim Vihar, Indraprashtha International School - Dwarka & Step by Step School - Noida
as well as with several schools in Chandigarh from 22nd - 25th October, 2013. Workshops were conducted by SPACE
experts at the above mentioned schools. Students targeted the images of USA, Canada, parts of Australia including Great
Barrier Reef and Great Australian Bight, Mt Fuji in Japan, Egypt, various locations in India including - Gujarat, Nepal,
Uttarakhand, Orissa & regions of geographical interest such as Sahara Desert and Mt. Fuji in Japan which will be taken by
EarthKAM camera aboard ISS.
Image of Turkey taken by Chandigarh students, photographed by
Islands in Indian Ocean taken by Step by Step, Noida,
photographed by ISS EarthKAM
WORLD SPACE WEEK (WSW)-EXPLORING MARS, DISCOVERING EARTH
WSW the “largest annual public space event on Earth” is an exciting International astronomical event organized by the
United Nations General Assembly from October 4-10 every year. During the week SPACE conducted inter-schools
painting competition for primary and middle level students in Delhi & NCR and for the 1st time with Chandigarh
students. SPACE is the national coordinator of this “largest annual public space event on Earth”. The winners of the
painting competition for Primary level are 1st Ananya Bansal- Amity International School, Saket; 2nd Rasmeet Singh
Kohli- Lancers Convent & 3rd Chirag Sehgal- Sanskriti School. The winners for the Middle level are 1st Gaurav PatiAmity International School, Pushp Vihar, 2nd Prasun Chaowdhary-Bal Bharati Public School, Gangaram Hospital Marg &
3rd Anuva Bajpai- Amity International School, Saket.
SPACE is now the 1st ever organization in India, who
have organised International project “Internet
Telescope” independently with more than 100
schools & other organizations/institutes of India
using Itelescope Facility as well as the one at
Ironwood Observatory North in the US. This
prestigious project of SPACE is a unique & rare
experience for students to remotely control
telescopes & click deep sky pictures. Started on 22nd
Oct and this project will continue on 23rd Oct, 25th
Oct, 29th Oct, 30th Oct, 01st Nov, 12th Nov, and will
end on 13th Nov’13. This year a total of 40 sessions
are going to be held at SPACE office, New Delhi.
SPACE will conduct Project PARIDHI on 21st December’13, on Winter Solstice. It is the time at which the sun appears
at noon at its lowest altitude above the horizon.
ST. THOMAS DWARKA TEACHERS GO ON A ASTRO WEEKEND GATEWAY AT ASTROPORT SARISKA!
73 teachers from St. Thomas School Dwarka along with SPACE Team Members went for a astro weekend gateway from
Oct 18 – 20, 2013 at Sariska, Alwar. ASTROPORT is SPACE's new Sky Observation Facility Cum Research Centre at Sariska.
The teachers accompanied by school principal Mrs. Sudha Kuruki were all excited for their pilot night sky training
during the trip. The trip was conducted by Tour Director and SPACE Founding Chairman and Managing Director – Mr.
Sachin Bahmba. Teachers were trained on basic telescope handling during the day. Later at night all the staff
undertook night observation at Astroport. The sky was so clear, all the teachers were thrilled to view the
constellations and planets so clearly! The teachers engaged in fun activities like fashion show, balloon games, bonfire
etc. “It was a wonderful experience, need one more trip!” quoted one of the teachers.
Group during the Safari
Teacher looking through the telescope
during Planet Watch
To stay updated about latest
The group enjoying the Bonfire
SPOTLIGHT EVENT – ALL INDIA ASTEROID SEARCH CAMPAIGN 2013
SPACE felicitated all the asteroid discoverers of
All India Asteroid Search Campaign’13 during
the AIASC'13 felicitation ceremony organised by
SPACE at Radisson Blu Hotel Paschim
Vihar, New Delhi. The ceremony was attended
by 85 schools, principals, teachers, parents etc.
More than 85 schools and around 170 students
were present during the ceremony.
The felicitation ceremony was inaugurated by Chief guest Dr N. Rathnasree, Director Nehru Planetarium, followed by a
presentation on AIASC by Mr. C B Devgun, President SPACE, where he explained about the AIASC program, how to identify
asteroids in the sky, etc. After the presentation, the asteroid discoverers had an interactive session via Skype with Dr.
Patrick Miller, Director International Astronomical Union (Paris)” , during the session asteroid discoverers asked many
questions to Dr. Miller which he answered graciously. Dr. Miller congratulated all the asteroid discoverers and SPACE for
such remarkable achievement and effort.
Later on Mr. Amit Verma, CEO SPACE Technology & Education Pvt Ltd, along with Ms. Shalini Bahmba, Head Education
Department - SPACE Technology & Education Pvt Ltd., Mr. Pankaj Bahmba, Director -Gnomon Astrotech Pvt. Ltd. and Mr. C
B Devgun, President - SPACE Foundation gave away the awards and certificates to 60 Near-Earth Objects (NEO) observers.
After that the preliminary asteroid discoverers received awards and certificates from Mr. Amit Verma and Mr. C B Devgun.
Post prize distribution a thanks note was delivered by Mr. Sachin Bahmba- Founding Chairman & Managing Director SPACE Group, in which he congratulated schools, asteroid discoverers, principals and teachers for their remarkable
achievement. Adding to this, Mr. Bahmba spoke about SPACE's Aryabhata project for MCD schools. He also invited all the
schools to join in for "Million Twinkling eyes" project, to be a part of Mars, Planets observations on earth.
Chief Guest Dr. N. Rathnasree, Director Nehru
Planetarium and Mr. Sachin Bahmba presented awards
and certificates to the Provisional asteroid discoverers.
Dr. N. Rathnasree congratulated the asteroid
discoverers and mentioned that how difficult it is to
maintain uniformity in school/daily routine despite
spending sleepless night for searching the asteroids.
Mr. Amit Verma closed the ceremony by a vote of
thanks to all the participated schools, asteroid
discoverers, principals and SPACE team. He announced
the launch of a programme by SPACE for 2014-15
academic sessions, during which the students will be
able to do digital learning celestial objects. He also
introduced world 1st ever ASTROPORT in India by
SPACE at Sariska, Rajasthan. At present globally there
is no non- government site available. The Astroport
will provide different astronomy activities like sky
observation, astrophotography, meteorite observation,
telescope making, Internet controlled observatory etc.
Provisional discoverers of AIASC'13 with Chief Guest Dr. N.
Rathnasree, Director Nehru Planetarium, SPACE Group CMD
Mr. Sachin Bahmba, Principal & teachers from Amity
International School, Pushp Vihar, and Ryan International
School, Sohna Road
For the photographs of the event CLICK HERE
SCHOOL IN FOCUS – BAL BHARTI PUBLIC SCHOOL, ROHINI
With a view to fulfill the persistent demand of residence of the vast residential complex of
Rohini, The Child Education Society - the apex body of Bal Bharati Public Schools started the
Rohini School in August‘1989. Meanwhile, the school has grown into a full fledged four section
based composite Senior Secondary School affiliated to Central Board Of Secondary Education
and the first batch of Class XII passed out of the School in 2002.
Since its inception in the year 1989 Bal Bharti Public School, Rohini has
scaled several heights of success. Under the able guidance of Principal Ms.
Rekha Sharma and Vice Principal Mrs. Bandhana Sharma the school’s
academic and co- curricular progress has always been progressive. The
school has several accolades to its name and accepts all new challenges in
its stride. One such endeavor is the induction of Astronomy club in the
School in association with SPACE since 2004. The astronomy club is an
effort to satisfy the quest to explore. Its primary objective is to give wings
to the dreams of our learners and inculcate in them the spirit of scientific
inquiry. It also encourages the learning of a multitude of disciplines such as
Astronomical Science, History, Geography etc.. Apart from theoretical
training the students are given practical sessions wherein they apply the
concepts of Space science to acquire new facts.
Ms. Rekha Sharma, Principal BBPS Rohini
The Astronomy Cub activities involve Night Sky observations, learning how to use equipments like Sun Dial, Planisphere,
latitude finder, telescope etc.. Interaction with renowned scientists is also a part of this programme. The significant findings
and explorations by the students are generously rewarded. Students were felicitated for preliminary Asteroid Hunt.
“The Astronomy Club in our School is becoming increasingly popular among the learners an the credit of this overwhelming
response is attributed to SPACE (Science Popularisation Association of Communicators and Educators) with whom we’ve been
collaborated since the beginning.” - Sandhya Sachdev, TGT Science BBPS Rohini (Astronomy Cub Coordinator)
“With the Space, going Global, the Children are actively participating in the various activities offered and the visit to NASA is
being looked up as another feather in their cap” - Bandhana Sharma, Vice Principal BBPS Rohini.
SCHOOL IN FOCUS – BBPS, ROHINI
Students of Astronomy Club BBPS Rohini in Action!!
SKY THIS MONTH - Stay updated about the astronomical events
of the sky for the month of November!
Evening ( Dusk )
North - Cassiopeia, Cepheus, Ursa Minor
East - Pisces, Andromeda, Pegasus, Aries
West - Hercules, Lyra, Corona Borealis
South - Capricornus, Saggitarius
Zenith - Cygnus, Pegasus
Morning ( Dawn )
North - Cassiopeia, Ursa Minor, Ursa Major,
East - Gemini, Leo, Cancer, Crater
West - Taurus, Orion, Aries, Perseus, Auriga
South - Orion, Canis Major, Canis Minor
Zenith - Cancer, Gemini
North - Cassiopeia, Cepheus, Ursa Minor
East - Taurus, Auriga, Orion, Cancer, Gemini
West - Pisces Pegasus
South - Cetus, Lepus
Zenith -Perseus, Aries
Moon Phases, November 2013
New Moon – November 3, 12:50
First Quarter – November 10, 5:57
Full Moon – November 17, 15:16
Last Quarter – November 25, 19:28
Follow our page to stay
updated about Sky This Month
COVER STORY - WILL COMET ISON KEEP ITS PROMISE?
By Biman Basu I Author, Science Communicator and Consultant
Within weeks after a new comet was discovered in September last year by Russian astronomers VitaliNevski and
ArtyomNovichonok on CCD images made with a 0.4-m telescope of the International Scientific Optical Network (ISON) near
Kislovodsk, Russia, astronomers declared that it was going to become the ‘comet of the century’. The comet, named Comet
ISON (C/2012 S1), is now racing towards the Sun for its perihelion on 28 November and all eyes are now turned towards it
in anticipation of a spectacular show during November end or early December. But will it really live up to our expectations?
Many astronomers are not convinced that it will. To find out why this uncertainty, it is necessary to know about comets in
A comet is an icy body made up of dust, ice, carbon dioxide, ammonia, methane and other constituents and are often
described as ‘dirty snowballs’. Some researchers think comets might have originally brought some of the water and organic
molecules to Earth that led to the appearance of life on our planet.
Most comets come from far reaches of the solar system – a region known as the Oortcloud, far beyond the orbit of Pluto.
Some comets originate in a region known as the ‘Kuiper Belt’ that lies beyond the orbit of the gas giant Neptune.
Occasionally a comet streaks through the inner solar system; some do so regularly, some only once every few centuries.
Some comets, known as periodic comets, appear regularly after certain intervals, while others known as non-periodic
comets appear only once, never to return again.
As a comet gets closer to the Sun, it warms up and the ice on the surface of the nucleus begins turning into gas, forming a
cloud known as the ‘coma’. Radiation pressure from the Sun pushes dust particles away from the coma, forming the
characteristic ‘tail’ of a comet. Some comets also sport an ion tail formed by ions created by the action of charged particles
from the Sun on the comet’s gases. Since comet tails are shaped by the solar wind, they always point away from the Sun
irrespective of whether the comet is moving towards or away from the Sun.
Comets become visible when they pass close to the Sun when their comas and tails reflect sunlight or even glow because
of energy they absorb from the Sun. They brighten up as they move closer to the Sun and fade away as they move
further away from the Sun. However, most comets are too small or too faint to be seen without a telescope.
Comet Halley (1P/Halley) is a famous periodic comet that has been seen several times in recorded history, the last being
during 1985-86. In the past century, a score of comets brighter than Comet Halley have been discovered. Yet, most
comets appear without warning and are not seen again. Many are periodic comets like Comet Halley, which returns
every 76 years or so. But the cycle of most periodic comets are extremely long (thousands or even scores or hundreds of
thousand years). For example, the bright Comet Bennett (C/1969 Y1) that lit up the morning skies in 1970 will return in
17 centuries, and the spectacular Comet West (C/1975 V1) will reappear in about 500,000 years. Among the comets that
can easily be seen with the unaided eye, Comet Halley is the only one that returns in a single lifetime. More than 200
comets whose periods are between 3 and 200 years are known, but they are or have become too faint to be readily seen
without the aid of telescopes.
APPEARANCE AND BEHAVIOUR
The physical appearances and behaviors of comets are as varied as the appearances and behaviors of people; no two are
alike. The brightness and visibility of a comet depend upon the amount of material it contains, which often determines
the extent of the tail it sports, and the closeness of its approach to both the Sun and Earth. In some comets the tail may
be almost non-existent while others may sprout extensive tails.
How bright a comet becomes depends on several factors. Among them is the size and composition its nucleus. This part
of a comet, usually only a few kilometers across, is gradually warmed by the Sun’s heat as the comet approaches the Sun
and expels gas and dust into space, often in distinct jets. A comet’s activity increases rapidly as it draws closer to the
Sun; the brightness typically varies (roughly) as the inverse fourth power of its solar distance.
The brightness and apparent size also depend the comet’s distance from Earth. A comet of average size can appear
stupendously large and bright if it passes very close to Earth. A case in point is Comet Hyakutake (C/1995 Y1) that
appeared in 1996. Coming to within 15 million kilometers of Earth, it reached zero magnitude and was accompanied by
a tail stretching out nearly 100° as seen from Earth.
But if Hyakutake had approached no closer than Comet Hale-Bopp
(C/1995 O1), which was 196 million kilometers from Earth, it would
have appeared no brighter than magnitude +6; that is, as bright as
the faintest star visible to the naked eye. Conversely, if Hale-Bopp
had passed Earth as closely as Hyakutake, it would have blazed at
magnitude –6 (3 times brighter than Venus) with a tail stretching
across the entire sky!
NASA's Hubble Space Telescope took this photo of
Comet ISON on 9 October 2013, when the comet
was inside Mars’ orbit and about 285 million
kilometres from Earth. The nucleus of ISON appears
to be intact. [Credit: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble
Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)]
Comet ISON is classified as a Sun-grazing comet, which means it will
pass very close to the Sun. As it gets nearer the Sun it is speeding up
and will make its closest approach to the Sun, or perihelion, on 28
November 2013 at a distance of only 0.01244 AU (1.2 million km)
from the surface of the Sun. In fact, at that distance it will actually
pass through the Sun’s outer atmosphere and its surface temperature
may exceed that of molten iron (1,538°C). The doubts about the
comet’s future arise from this close encounter. If ISON manages to
stay in one piece after perihelion, it could put on a memorable sky
show around that time. It may emerge as an easy-to-spot, bright
early morning object in the eastern sky. Alternatively the comet’s
nucleus may disintegrate into a cloud of rubble and ice. In this worst
possible case, the comet will rapidly become a dim and fuzzy blob to
observers – far from becoming the comet of the century.
One of the most legendary letdowns in the history of astronomy happened exactly 40 years ago, in 1973, when the
world awaited the arrival of comet Kohoutek (C/1973 E1), discovered by Czech amateur astronomer Luboš Kohoutek
early that year. Once the orbit was plotted, astronomers knew that the comet was a first time visitor to the inner solar
system and expected it to brighten up sharply after perihelion. But Kohoutek was a dud, never rising to the expected
brightness, though it became a modest naked-eye object. Some astronomers feel Comet ISON may also behave in a
similar manner. What is more, ISON will pass much closer to the Sun than Kohoutek did and so astronomers may even
be able to see its layers come apart like peeling open an onion, using powerful and diverse collection of space and
ground based telescopes available today.
COMET ISON VISIBILITY
Currently, Comet ISON is brightening up as it nears
its late November perihelion and is expected to
reach unaided eye visibility about three weeks
before the 28 November perihelion date. During the
month, ISON will pass very close to the bright star
Spica (mag. +1.4) and the planet Saturn (mag. +0.7),
both in the constellation Virgo and will be visible
just before sunrise in the eastern sky. These two
bright objects might help in finding the comet.
There has been some mention that Comet ISON
could become a daylight object, briefly. However, at
perihelion Comet ISON will appear too close to the
Sun in the sky (only 4.4° north of the Sun on 28
November). Although the comet will be bright, it is
likely that only experts, who know how to look near
the Sun while blocking the Sun’s glare, may be able
to it. Amateurs should take care to avoid looking
directly at the Sun while looking for the comet.
December is likely to be the best month to see
Comet ISON, assuming it survives its close pass near
the Sun intact. The comet will be visible both in the
evening sky after sunset and in the morning sky
before sunrise. The best views could be between 10
and 14 December, when the comet will be best seen
just before dawn after the Moon sets.
Comet ISON 16 -26 Nov
But at that time it may be that little or perhaps nothing of
the head will remain and only the huge tail will loom in the
eastern sky. During December, the comet will also be
visible in the evening. After sunset, just look to the west, or
the north-west, and the comet can be seen shining above
the horizon in that direction. As ISON’s distance from the
Sun increases, it will grow dimmer.
If it survives perihelion, Comet ISON may still be visible in
January 2014, and if visible, it will be only 2° from Polaris
on 8 January. Interestingly, on the night of 14-15 January
2014, after the comet itself has passed, its debris might
produce a meteor shower, or at least some beautiful nightshining or noctilucent clouds as Earth sweeps through the
comet’s orbit. But it is still too early to predict how Comet
ISON will behave after perihelion. We can only keep our
fingers crossed and be prepared to see the comet during
late November and early December.
Comet ISON 1-17 Dec
Q. Why should we observe comet ISON?
ANSWER: This year, amateur and professional astronomers worldwide are eagerly anticipating comet
ISON. Everyone is getting ready with their binoculars and telescopes to observe it. But, have you ever
thought why everyone is so excited about it?
So, let’s find out what’s the magic behind comet ISON.
I. ONE OF THE BRIGHTEST COMETS: From the
recent studies done on comet ISON, it is hoped
that it will be one of the brightest comet of the
century. Comet ISON certainly has the potential
to reach significant brightness similar to that of
the "Great Comet of 1680", which was visible
even in daytime and developed a spectacularly
long tail. But, astronomers always had a tough
time when it comes to predicting comet
behavior. Many "Comet of the century"
candidates eventually turned out to be great
II. ONE TIME COMET: It is estimated that Comet ISON will be seen for the first and the last time this
year. It will cross the solar system in 2014 and will never come back as it doesn’t revolve around
the Sun periodically (in scientific terms, it is a long period comet). So, this is our first and the last
chance to observe it and we are lucky to get such opportunity.
III. OBSERVED BY SPACE MISSIONS ON MARS:
ISON was the first comet in human history to
be observed from more than one planet, on 1
October 2013, the comet passed about
0.072 AU (10.8 million km) from Mars.
The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter made some
images with its HiRISE instrument starting on
29 September 2013.
IV. It is going very near to the Sun: Like every
other comet ever observed, Comet ISON is
speeding up as it gets nearer the Sun. Comet
ISON will make its closest approach to the Sun,
or perihelion, on 28 November 2013 at a
distance of only 1.2 million km (about 750 000
miles) from the surface of the Sun. This orbit
will actually take the comet through the Sun’s
outer atmosphere and its surface temperature
may exceed that of molten iron (1538 °C). If the
comet survives this very close encounter, it
may emerge as an easily spotted early morning
So, Get Ready To Observe The “Comet Of The Century”!
ASTRONOMY AT HOME
This time we are going to make a Comet. But before that we must know what a Comet is?
A Comet is an icy small Solar system body that, when passing close to the Sun, heats up and
begins to outgas, displaying a visible atmosphere or coma, and sometimes also a tail. A Comet is
also known as a “Dirty Snowball” or in Hindi we call it a “Keechad ka lodoo”.
The solid, core structure of a comet is known as the nucleus. Cometary nuclei are composed of an
amalgamation of rock, dust, water ice, and frozen gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon
monoxide, methane and ammonia. It also consist a very important nutrient for a body to develop
Now, let’s start with our Comet. First
of all arrange the following material
2 cups Mud
3 cups water
2 bottle caps Soya Sauce
1 bottle cap Ammonia/Colin
3 cups Dry Ice
Before you start making the
comet, you need to wear the
as it will be required while handling
the dry ice.
STEP 1 - Add 2 cups of Mud to a Zip
lock bag and add 3 cups of Water to
make thick slurry. Mud is added to
stimulate dust component in the
STEP 2 - Add 1 bottle cap of Ammonia to the
slurry. Liquid ammonia is added for simulating
the Ammonia Ice in the comet. You can also
use Colin or any other surface cleaning liquid as
they contain ammonia
STEP 3 - Proceed further by adding two
bottle caps of Soya Sauce and mix the
slurry to make it homogenous. The Soya
Sauce is a good source of Proteins hence
STEP 4 - Make a neck by holding the bag at the
point where slurry occupies volume leaving no
space for air.
STEP 5 - Put 2 cups of powdered Dry
Ice in the cone formed above. It is
added to simulate carbon-dioxide ice
in the comet.
STEP 6 - Release the neck and while holding
the bag from the base make a cup shape to
give structure to the comet
STEP 7 - Add more dry ice or water if
needed. Also, empty the bag of its
Constituents and let the comet mature
•MAKE SURE TO WEAR THE GLOVES AT ALL TIMES WHILE HANDLING THE MATERIAL BEFORE AND AFTER THE
COMET IS MADE AS DRY ICE CAN CAUSE SEVERE BURNS
•POWDER THE DRY ICE JUST BEFORE THE COMET HAS TO BE MADE
•DRY ICE IS AT A TEMPERATURE OF ABOUT -60 DEGREES AND INSTANTLY FREEZES THE SLURRY THAT IS WHY IT
SHOULD BE PUT IN THE END
•DRY ICE & AMMONIA HANDLING SHOULD BE STRICTLY UNDER ADULT SUPERVISION
SPACE INDIA IS HIRING!!
We have been expanding very rapidly, and offer scope for rapid growth. We value
entrepreneurial attitude and a result oriented approach. Above all, we are passionate and
sincere about improving the science education scenario in India and the world. If you are
interested in a satisfying career helping define what learning can be, then do apply to us.
CURRENT CAREER OPPORTUNITIES
Operations Manager - Travel : 1 Position
Department : Astrotourism
Location : New Delhi
Educator : 3 Position
Department : Education
Location : Chandigarh
Educator : 3 Position
Department : Education
Location : West Delhi
Executive/ Sr. Executive - Client Relationship : 4
Department : Sales & Marketing
Location : Gurgaon & South Delhi
PR Executive : 1 Position
Department : Marketing
Location : New Delhi
Web Designer : 1 Position
Department : IT
Location : New Delhi
Assistant Manager - BDM : 2 Position
Department : Marketing
Location : PAN India
IF YOU ARE INTERESTED PLEASE FOLLOW THE LINK OF COMPANY WEBSITE TO SEE THE JOB DETAILS:
www.space-india.com www.space-india.org www.universeintheschool.com
www.spacearcade.in www.leoplanetaria.com www.eclipsechasers.in
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LinkedIn Id: SPACE India
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