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SPACE Newsletter May 2014
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SPACE Newsletter May 2014

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The official newsletter of the SPACE group of companies

The official newsletter of the SPACE group of companies

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  • 1. SPACE NEWSLETTER Issue 34, May 2014 This issue includes :  Cover Story on Aurora: The celestial light curtains - Part II  Guest Article on An ancient galactic spectacle By Dr. D. Bhattacharya, Prof, University of California at Riverside  SPACE Outreach Programme highlights  Blog post on First Flight : Yuri Gagarin’s maiden voyage to space  An interesting segment on Astrophotography  A segment on Astronomy at home presents “Gliding Rings”  Astroinquisites segment focuses on “Why is Venus so hot ?” Chief Editor : Sachin Bahmba Editors : Amit Verma & Komal Singhania
  • 2. S. NO. TOPIC PAGE NO. 1 UNIVERSE IN THE SCHOOL NEWS 3 2 BLOG : FIRST FLIGHT : YURI GAGARIN’S MAIDEN VOYAGE TO SPACE 6 3 OUTREACH PROGRAMMES 10 4 SCHOOL IN FOCUS : KHAITAN PUBLIC SCHOOL, NOIDA 14 5 ASTROPHOTOGRAPHY 18 6 SKY THIS MONTH 22 7 ASTROTOURISM : TOUR-DE NEW YORK, ORLANDO & NIAGARA FALL 25 8 ASTROPORT : A REJUVENATING DESTINATION : “SARISKA” 26 9 COVER STORY : AURORA: THE CELESTIAL LIGHT CURTAINS - PART II 27 10 ASTROINQUISITES 31 11 GUEST ARTICLE : AN ANCIENT GALACTIC SPECTACLE 33 12 ASTRONOMY AT HOME : SPECTROSCOPE 37 13 SPACE INDIA IS HIRING !! 40
  • 3. UNIVERSE IN THE SCHOOL NEWS CENTRE FOR STUDENT EXCELLENCE PROGRAMME Astronomy Club students of Bal Bharti Public School, Pitampura celebrated the Global Astronomy Month (April ) : Astronomy Club students showing Moon to the Parents during Evening Watch Students enjoying movie on Yuri's First Flight at BBPS Pitampura auditorium Astronomy Club students of Bal Bharti Public School, Pitampura celebrated the Global Astronomy Month (April). This included conduction of an evening observation for the students of the school and their parents. They also celebrated the anniversary of the space flight of Yuri Gagarin, the first person in space by showing them a documentary and having a discussion about his life. Celestial objects like Moon and Mars were shown to parents and students and a photography session was also organized where students clicked photos of the moon.
  • 4. UNIVERSE IN THE SCHOOL NEWS Students also observed an asteroid using a remote telescope. They were able to access the images of a telescope placed in Italy using a simple internet connection and were able to observe the movement of the asteroid. Students observing Asteroid during Evening Watch SPACE EXPLORER WORKSHOPS Students of Bluebells international school, Kailash, Delhi got their hands on rocket science in a workshop called –“ Air Rocketry” : They were then given a demo on simple rocket making techniques and then constructed a simple paper rocket on their own launched it with help of a compressed air. Prizes were given later according to the distance attained by student’s rockets. They were introduced to the basic science behind the movement of objects on the earth and were made aware of the three laws of motion of motion as stated by Sir Isaac Newton. Students learning about the launch and launch mechanism Students making their own rockets
  • 5. UNIVERSE IN THE SCHOOL NEWS Astronomy Day was celebrated at Amity International Schools, Pushp Vihar , Saket and at Presidium School, Indirapuram. All year round students took part in various activities like comet making, telescope handling, studying the night sky with the help of star charts , finding directions with the help of shadow and other methods, finding time with the help of a sundial and several others. These activities were then showcased in front of the school students and parents and they enjoyed the overall experience. Students are seen here taking part in various activities during the astronomy day. Students and parents observing the activities with great interest Students waiting for the rocket to launch Students showcasing people, how a comet is made Students observing Sun using solar projection
  • 6. FIRST FLIGHT : YURI GAGARIN’S MAIDEN VOYAGE TO SPACE “Circling the Earth in my orbital spaceship I marveled at the beauty of our planet. People of the world, let us safeguard and enhance this beauty—not destroy it!” —Yuri Gagarin, first man in space 53 years ago, on April 12, 1961 USSR took a giant step for mankind. On this day, USSR launched Vostak 1 space craft but this mission was a lot different from sputnik 1 as it was going to be the first human flight to space. Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin was the lucky one who went to space in Vostak 1 and helped mankind to take a giant leap.
  • 7. FIRST FLIGHT : YURI GAGARIN’S MAIDEN VOYAGE TO SPACE Yuri A. Gagarin belonged to a poor family. He was born on March 9, 1934 in Klushino. Due to world war II, Gagarin had to change his residence from Klushino to Gzhatsk. There at, Gzhatsk Gagarin began his secondary education. After completing his graduation in 1955, Gagarin got drafted into the Soviet Army. In the Soviet Army, Gagarin was sent to the First Chkalov Air Force Pilot's School in Orenburg. After a few years, He became a Lieutenant in the Soviet Air Forces on 5 November 1957; on 6 November 1959 he received the rank of Senior Lieutenant. In 1960, when USSR was preparing for the first human flight Yuri A. Gagarin was chosen with 19 other pilots for this mission. All the candidates chosen for the mission went through a series of physical and psychological tests. Out of the 20 candidates, two pilots were shortlisted for the mission – Yuri A. Gagarin and Gherman Titov. When the 20 candidates were asked to anonymously vote for which other candidate they would like to see as the first to fly, most of the candidates were in the favour of Yuri A. Gagarin. 12th April was decided to be the launch day and one week before the launch, the soviet state commission confirmed that Yuri Gagarin would be the prime pilot, with Gherman Titov as his backup.
  • 8. FIRST FLIGHT : YURI GAGARIN’S MAIDEN VOYAGE TO SPACE By 10:15 a.m., Gagarin was looking down on Africa, announcing that "the flight is normal" and "I withstand well the state of weightlessness." The landing sequence began soon after. Seventy-nine minutes into the historic flight the vehicle's retrorockets burned for forty seconds, slowing it sufficiently to re-enter the Earth's atmosphere. At this time, according to plan, the eight-foot diameter descent module should have separated explosively from the accompanying equipment module, but a cable holding the two components together did not detach. The tethered spacecraft began to spin and tumble erratically, exposing less protected areas of the descent module to the intense heat of re-entry. As the temperature inside his spacecraft began to rise dramatically, Gagarin could only watch helplessly as crimson flames raged around the spacecraft. "I was in a cloud of fire rushing toward Earth," he would later recall. Ten minutes later the cable holding the two segments together finally burned through and sheared off with an audible bang. As the descent module continued to fall through an increasingly thicker atmosphere the wild rotation and swinging was gradually dampened, and Gagarin, who had come perilously close to losing consciousness, regained his full senses. 23,000 feet above the Saratov region of the Soviet Union the spacecraft's hatch blew off on schedule, and moments later Gagarin was automatically ejected, finally touching down near the village of Smelovka. His spacecraft thudded down under its own parachute two miles away.
  • 9. FIRST FLIGHT : YURI GAGARIN’S MAIDEN VOYAGE TO SPACE The landing site is now a monument park. The central feature in the park is a 25 meter tall monument that consists of a silver metallic rocket ship rising on a curved metallic column of flame, from a wedge shaped, white stone base. In front of this is a 3 meter tall, white stone statue of Yuri Gagarin, wearing a spacesuit, with one arm raised in greeting and the other holding a space helmet. The Vostok 1 re-entry capsule is now on display at the RKK Energiya museum in Korolyov, near Moscow. Gagarin's descent module and key features of its interior, minus the ejection seat, as seen via the ejection hatch. The Soviet press later reported that minutes before boarding the spacecraft Gagarin made a speech: "Dear friends, you who are close to me, and you whom I do not know, fellow Russians, and people of all countries and all continents: in a few minutes a powerful space vehicle will carry me into the distant realm of space. What can I tell you in these last minutes before the launch? My whole life appears to me as one beautiful moment, all that I previously lived through and did, was lived through and done for the sake of this moment.“
  • 10. OUTREACH PROGRAMMES Solar Observation 25th April Mars Observation 11th April Vesta Watch 10th April International Earth and Sky Photo Contest 10th March to 24th April Globe at Night 20th to 29th April Astropoetry Contest 1st April to 1st May PAST PROGRAMME  Global Astronomy Month 2014 Global Astronomy Month 2014 (GAM) organized in April every year by Astronomers Without Borders (AWB) is the world's largest global celebration of astronomy. GAM 2014 brings new ideas and new opportunities, and again brings enthusiasts together worldwide, celebrating AWB’s motto, One People, One Sky. Around 40 client schools of SPACE participated in the six activities suggested by us. The suggested activities were as follows: Astropoetry Contest
  • 11. OUTREACH PROGRAMMES The activity reports by the schools along with their contest entries – photographs and astropoems – were submitted to AWB. As part of GAM2014, SPACE also celebrated the 30th anniversary of the first flight of an Indian into space. On 2nd April, 1984, Rakesh Sharma became the first Indian cosmonaut to venture into space, as part of a joint programme between Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and the Soviet Intercosmos Space programme. To commemorate this achievement, SPACE invited messages from its associated teachers and students for Rakesh Sharma, ISRO, Sonia Gandhi and the Russian Ambassador to India. We were glad to see the overwhelming response by the students. A student of Bal Bharti Public School, Pitampura wrote “I am always mesmerized to see a person going to space. I aspire to become an astronaut. I salute you and you are my role model. Congratulations. When I see you I feel proud as an Indian.” The best messages would be selected by us and presented along with the name of the sender to the intended audience. For more details, visit http://space-india.com/gam.html BBPS Pitampura celebrated Sun Day with children from NGO Seva Bharti Matrichhaya and Physically Handicapped Rehabilitation Association on 28th April. The event saw participation of 21 children from this two NGOs along with 21 students of Montessori I of BBPS Pitampura. The students performed two activities followed by observation of Sun with solar goggles and telescopic observation. The event was concluded with Mont I students gifting their new friends with books and colours.
  • 12. OUTREACH PROGRAMMES Ongoing Campaign  All India Asteroid Search Campaign 2014 All India Asteroid Search Campaign has been organized again by SPACE for its associated students in April. It is proud to be able to bring this campaign to the Indian students for the fifth time consecutively. The campaign will be conducted in three phases, beginning on 29th April, 2014 and ending on 13th August, 2014. The campaign is conducted in collaboration with International Astronomical Search Collaboration (IASC, Hardin-Simmons University, Texas, USA). SPACE is the coordinator for this highly recognized programme in India. As part of the campaign, SPACE conducted day-long workshop for phase I and II students at Indraprastha World School, Paschim Vihar, on 29th April, during which the students were explained the functioning of the specialized software, Astrometrica and data submission. Under this project, the University offers the participants exclusive access to images taken by 24” telescope and 32” telescope positioned in Astronomical Research Institute (ARI) Observatory, USA. Participants then download these images and analyze the data with specialized software provided during training to search for asteroids. Objects reported by students could be potential discoveries. All observations contribute to the Near Earth Object (NEO) data compiled by NASA and Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL). Students get the exciting opportunity to work with professional astronomers and get access to real astronomy data. We wish all the participants success with their discoveries! The 2014 Asteroid Hunters
  • 13. SCHOOL IN FOCUS KHAITAN PUBLIC SCHOOL, NOIDA In April 1995, Khaitan Public School, Noida was founded as a distinctive centre of learning and is run under the aegis of the “KHAITAN EDUCATION FOUNDATION SOCIETY”. The school is totally committed to the cause of education and offers a broad curriculum stressing equally on academics, creative aspirations, individualistic and experimental approaches, co-curricular activities and sports. Our quest for excellence has transcended beyond the boundaries of routine academics. SPACE has been associated with Khaitan Public School since 2004 and has had a very good astronomical relationship. The students have always shown a lot of interest and enthusiasm.
  • 14. SCHOOL IN FOCUS KHAITAN PUBLIC SCHOOL, NOIDA MESSAGE FROM PRINCIPAL, KHAITAN PUBLIC SCHOOL, NOIDA Mr. S. K. Mishra – Principal Khaitan Public School, Noida
  • 15. SCHOOL IN FOCUS KHAITAN PUBLIC SCHOOL, NOIDA Ms.Nirmilesh Gupta Space Co-ordinator Khaitan Public School, Noida MESSAGE FROM THE SPACE CO-ORDINATOR, KHAITAN PUBLIC SCHOOL, NOIDA
  • 16. SCHOOL IN FOCUS KHAITAN PUBLIC SCHOOL, NOIDA Students having fun with Astronomy
  • 17. Astrophotography PHOTO I : ZODIACAL LIGHTS AT THE MESSIER MARATHON By Rishabh Jain, Sr. Educator, SPACE Description At SPACE’s site Astroport, Sariska, an educator is watching the Zodiacal Lights and the winter Milky way intersect as the messier marathon begins. Zodiacal light is a faint, roughly triangular, diffuse white glow seen in the night sky that appears to extend up from the vicinity of the Sun along the ecliptic or zodiac. It is best seen just after sunset and before sunrise in spring and autumn when the zodiac is at a steep angle to the horizon. Caused by sunlight scattered by space dust in the zodiacal cloud, it is so faint that either moonlight or light pollution renders it invisible. The zodiacal light decreases in intensity with distance from the Sun, but on very dark nights it has been observed in a band completely around the ecliptic. Equipments Used (Issued from SPACE repository) Camera: Canon 6D Lens: Tokina 11-16/2.8
  • 18. Astrophotography PHOTO II : A DYING STAR By Rishabh Jain, Sr. Educator, SPACE Description During one of the night observations at Astroport , Space educators captured the mesmerizing beauty of the brightest star in that area, which is also a dying star ( in red giant stage ). It is in the constellation Scorpio and is named Antares. Light takes about 550 years to reach us from that star. This means if the star dies now, we will get to know about it after 550 years or so. Equipments Used (Issued from SPACE repository) Camera: Canon 6D Lens: Tokina 11-16/2.8
  • 19. Astrophotography PHOTO III : A MAGNIFICENT VIEW OF THE MILKY WAY By Udbhav Acharya, Student, SPACE Description A magnificent view of our Galaxy, the Milky Way taken from Astroport. Sariska; The Galactic Center is clearly visible, along with “The Great Rift”. Equipments Used (Issued from SPACE repository) Camera: Canon 600D Lens: EFS 18-55
  • 20. Astrophotography PHOTO IV : ORION CONSTELLATION By Udbhav Acharya, Student, SPACE Description The Great Orion Constellation taken from Astroport, Sariska. The Orion Nebula is clearly visible right below the Orion’s belt. Equipments Used (Issued from SPACE repository) Camera: Canon 600D Lens: EFS 18-55
  • 21. SKY THIS MONTH Updates about the Astronomical events of the sky for the month of May : Constellation Morning (Dawn) North - Ursa Minor, Cepheus East - Andromeda, Pegasus, Aries West - Bootes, Hercules, Corona Borealis South - Saggitarius, Capricornus, Aquila Zenith - Cygnus, Lyra
  • 22. SKY THIS MONTH Updates about the Astronomical events of the sky for the month of May : Constellation Evening (Dusk) North - Ursa Major, Ursa Minor East - Bootes, Virgo, Hercules West - Auriga, Gemini, Canis Minor, Orion, Auriga South - Corvus, Crater Zenith - Leo
  • 23. Updates about the Astronomical events of the sky for the month of May : Constellation Midnight North - Ursa Minor , Ursa Major, Cepheus East - Lyra, Aquila, Hercules West - Leo, Virgo South - Scorpius, Libra, Saggitarius Zenith - Corona Borealis SKY THIS MONTH Moon Phases, May 2014 Last Quarter – May 2, 11:14 New Moon – May 10, 0:28 First Quarter – May 18, 4:34 Full Moon – May 25, 4:25 Last Quarter – May 31, 18:58
  • 24. Tour-de New York, Orlando & Niagara Falls is all set to come to reality !! Monday May 12’ 2014
  • 25. A Rejuvenating Destination “SARISKA” Book Now !! With the onset of summer season... Now its time for some adventures !!!! Make your journey an unforgettable experience while staying with us at “Astroport Sariska”. Well.. Don’t think much and let your imaginations turn to reality !! Adventure awaits you here... Come to Sariska !!!!
  • 26. Aurora: The celestial light curtains - Part II In the previous issue we shared with you the Aurora watching experience of one of our students with his family. In this issue, we will tell you how best to plan your own trip to watch the Northern Lights. Read on... So let’s begin with asking what is the Aurora? The Aurora is a display of lights in the sky caused by charged particles released from the sun that interact with the Earth’s atmosphere. Where does it happen: Because of the Earth’s magnetic sphere, the particles are deflected towards the poles of the planet. This leads to two kinds of aurora, Aurora Australis in the south, and Aurora Borealis or the Northern Lights, in the north. Where can it be seen: The small area that is covered by the Aurora makes it hard to see, as very few cities with proper infrastructure and accommodation come in the band of the Aurora. Popular places to see it are Reykjavik, Iceland, Tromso, Norway, Ivalo, Finland, Kiruna, Sweden and Fairbanks, Alaska. Suggested places for Indians to go (from Delhi):  If you are going to the United States for other reasons, then you can combine it with a trip to Alaska. On its own, it might be a long trip of 32 hours each way with two flight changes and cost about 1 lakh rupees. To stay and rent a car (highly recommended), would be cheaper than Europe. Remember to estimate the total cost as per the time being spent there.  A better option would be to check which of the European flights are one change only and cheapest around the predicted time of the Aurora.  Reykjavik, sometimes has a flight via Amsterdam, which makes it the quickest (7+2 hours with a short change over time) Aurora destination to reach from India. This flight however is not present all through the year. And based on flight times, you may have to spend a night in Amsterdam.
  • 27. Aurora: The celestial light curtains - Part II When to go: When selecting a time to visit the mentioned places, one should check the weather and daylight time.  The ideal time would be in October to March as nights are longer and hence higher chances of seeing the Aurora.  October-November is usually cloudy for 20 out of 30 days, so statistically fewer chances to see the lights.  December-January is very cold so outdoor activity becomes hazardous for both the human and camera bodies.  February-March has 10 out of 30 days of cloud, so is the preferred time to go. How to select where to go:  Tromso is always in the Aurora band. This intensity of the Lights is measured on a special scale called the Kp index. The scale of the index is a scale of numbers between 0 – 9 where 0 is the weakest. So with an index of 1, clear skies would always show an overhead Aurora. However, it is a coastal city and hence clouds and rain are unpredictable despite good planning. There are plenty of sightseeing spots like Fjords and Museums to see during the day.  Reykjavik, being the capital, makes transport and accommodation easier and relatively cheaper. Also, there are many winter activities and interesting sightseeing spots like Geysers, Hot Springs, Glacier Walks and the infamous volcano Hekla. You would need a minimum of Kp 2 to see the Aurora and there are plenty of easy driveable spot find a cloud-free area when this happens.  Ivalo is a small town in Finland near a lake. It offers very low light pollution and better for photographs, but it is a bit detached. A minimum Kp of 2 is required for overhead Auroras. There are little things to do during the day, like Reindeer Sleighs.  Tromso, again, has a flight via Helsinki from January to March, which is cheap and quick (7+2 hours with a larger change over time). While returning you may have to spend a day in Helsinki (bonus!)  Ivalo and Kiruna have one stop flights throughout the year, which may be more expensive than the ones above, but are quick and convenient (7+2 hours with minimum change over time).
  • 28. Aurora: The celestial light curtains - Part II  Kiruna is near a scientific blue hole at lake Torneträsk, an area where cloud cover is very low even when its raining and snowing nearby. A Kp index of 2 is required for overhead Auroras.  Fairbanks requires a minimum Kp of 2 but preferably 3 for overhead Auroras. With an Alaskan cruise, you could combine whale watching, skiing, etc. AURORA BOREALIS
  • 29. Aurora: The celestial light curtains - Part II You should have various activities planned for your day to make your trip more memorable and fun even you don’t see the Aurora. Tips for economical sightseeing and photographing the Aurora:  Rent a car: A car is one of the important things to have while Aurora hunting, as the perfect weather and aurora conditions don’t come to you. Driving around and looking for the perfect conditions is one the most fundamental parts of Aurora hunting. And, renting a car is much cheaper than a guided Aurora tour and often reaps the same results when combined with the Internet. A car would also help you in your daytime activities.  Photographing an Aurora:  Extra Batteries: Cold weather takes a toll on the battery life. And its quite embarrassing to be with discharged camera while the show goes on.  A lens with a large focal length so that you can take photos with faster shutter speed that gives definition to your aurora pictures.  A heavy tripod that does not shake with wind, arctic winds are strong enough to pick up lighter tripods, a heavy tripod or a tripod with weights attached is recommended.  Warm clothing, gloves and hand warmers, so you can stay in the cold for long and get more pictures. With contributions from the Prasad family. With contributions from the Prasad family
  • 30. WHY IS VENUS SO HOT? Venus‘s atmosphere represents a runaway greenhouse effect. 96% of the composition of the atmosphere is carbon dioxide, 3.5% is nitrogen. The remaining is sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, and hydrofluoric acid. The thick clouds that cover the surface of Venus are probably composed of sulfuric acid and sulfur crystals. Spacecraft that have reached the surface have found temperatures of 470C (878F). These harsh conditions are mostly due to Venus being 30% closer to the Sun. Venus receives twice as much solar heating however. This apparently never allowed water to condense and therefore to form oceans. Without oceans there was no effective way to absorb carbon dioxide. Venus imaged by Magellan Image Credit : NASA/JPL ASTROINQUISITES
  • 31. What determines how hot a planet will be? A planet receives sunlight and some of it is absorbed by the surface which is then heated. This thermal energy is reflected back toward space as infrared radiation. If the amount of sunlight received is greater than the amount of infrared emitted, the planet heats up. If it is less, the planet cools. The planet's atmosphere absorbs some of the emitted infrared radiation. The composition of the atmosphere determines how much is absorbed. The more CO2 and H2O in the atmosphere, the more infrared it will absorb. This warms the atmosphere and the process will continue until the amount of infrared leaving the atmosphere equals the amount of incoming sunlight. On Venus, the temperature in the atmosphere must reach 750 K before equilibrium is achieved. . Atmosphere of Venus Credit: ESA Worse yet, the temperature has gotten so high that sulfur, fluorine and chlorine have been released out of the rocks. These gases have combined with existing elements to form hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, and sulfuric acid vapors in the atmosphere. When it does "rain" on Venus, it is a truly acid rain. None of this rain however, ever reaches the surface. The temperature is so hot that the acid droplets evaporate before they ever reach the ground. ASTROINQUISITES
  • 32. An ancient galactic spectacle By : Dr. D. Bhattacharya Prof, University of California at Riverside On a dark night, from a dark spot you might be able to see Andromeda Galaxy, the twin of the Milky Way, its cloudy chimera faintly painted on the northern sky. You could miss it for a faint patch of cloud or you could simply attribute it to a ghostly optical artifact in your eyesight. Andromeda Galaxy is our nearest galactic neighbor, but it is still very far away: its faint light trickles into our vision after a 2.5- million-year journey. But can we see our own galaxy? The plane of our galaxy is called the Milky Way. Its mighty arc stretches from horizon to horizon in the dark sky. However, the electric lights that have been invented by our civilization, including the bright incandescent lights made of tungsten filament; the sodium, mercury and argon vapor discharge lamps; and even the modern low-power LED lights have managed to obliterate the beautiful ring of the Milky Way. Andromeda Galaxy through a small telescope Photo: author
  • 33. An ancient galactic spectacle By : Dr. D. Bhattacharya Prof, University of California at Riverside Just three hundred years ago, the night glowed in its own brilliant bright light. Unfettered from pollution, the stars were so bright that you would have thought you could reach out and pluck one right from the sky. Our ancestors were more aware of this glowing firmament than we are. They were mindful of comet appearances and of rare supernovae, and occasionally managed to record them. Now astronomers inform us that there might have been a galactic-scale spectacle that was witnessed by our remote ancestors almost two million years ago. Apparently, this was the time when our human race truly began. The brains of several hominid species showed signs of enlargement during that time, and there is evidence of tool making. Scientists think that many millions of years ago our galactic center lighted up like a holiday firework celebration and this light could have been seen from the earth. They say such a light would have rivaled the full moon and possibly have lasted thousands of years. Our galactic center has been an enigma for quite sometime. From observations at different wavelengths astronomers have established that there should be a giant black hole lurking at the very center of the Milky Way. Even though observations put the mass of this black hole to be between four and five million solar mass, there is not much to show for such a massive object. Its electromagnetic output, be it in radio, visible light or X-ray, is simply paltry. Astronomers like to call it a slumbering giant. However, a few years ago the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope detected two giant gamma-ray bubbles on the opposite sides of the galactic center that extended to a distance of about 25,000 light years. Some scientists think that the bubbles were caused by two highly energetic jets coming out of an accretion disk near the black hole at the galactic center.
  • 34. An ancient galactic spectacle By : Dr. D. Bhattacharya Prof, University of California at Riverside The particles from the jet interacted with the gas particles on the opposite sides of the galactic disk to generate the gamma-ray photons. Scientists estimate the time of these jet outbursts to be between 1 and 3 million years before the present. Assuming that the flare happened two million years ago, we can speculate that our earliest ancestors witnessed this fire show. Now extinct species like Australopithecus africanus, Homo habilis or Homo erectus could have been the spectators of the heavenly flare. Unfortunately, they could not have produced any historical record of such an event. According to anthropologists, the first artistic artifacts imitating a natural event were made only about 100,000 years ago. But this does not prevent us from conjuring up an image in which those primitive hominids looked up to the sky and wondered about the brilliant light that competed with the moon. Fermi Gamma-Ray : Telescope has discovered two bubbles on the opposite sides of the galactic plane. The picture shows an artist's rendition of how these bubbles were formed from jets emanating from the Galactic Center about two million years ago.
  • 35. An ancient galactic spectacle By : Dr. D. Bhattacharya Prof, University of California at Riverside A view of the southern sky. The plane of our galaxy, the Milky Way is visible. The Galactic Center is just to the right of Sagittarius. It is about 27,000 light-years away from us.
  • 36. ASTRONOMY AT HOME : GLIDING RINGS Materials Required :  An Ivory Sheet  A Scale  Straw  Scissor  Tape  pencil
  • 37. ASTRONOMY AT HOME : GLIDING RINGS Procedure : Step 1: Cut two strips out of the Ivory sheet one 1 inch into 5 inches and other 1 inch into 10 inches. Step 2: Roll the strips to form rings and tape it.
  • 38. ASTRONOMY AT HOME : GLIDING RINGS Step 3: Attach the two rings at the ends of a straw using tape. Your ‘Gliding Rings’ are ready, hold it from the centre of straw and launch it upwards. You will observe it gliding back down, in the same manner a space shuttle glides on its way back for space. How Does It Work ? The two sizes of rings help to keep the straw balanced as it flies. The big ring creates air resistance which helps keep the straw level while the smaller ring in at the front keeps your super Glider from turning off its way. An interesting thing to learn out of this glider is ‘objects of different weight fall at the same speed’ as the glider does not turn even the rings being heavier than straw.
  • 39. SPACE India is Hiring!! We have been expanding very rapidly, and offer scope for rapid growth. We value entrepreneurial attitude and a result oriented approach. Above all, we are passionate and sincere about improving the science education scenario in India and the world. If you are interested in a satisfying career helping define what learning can be, then do apply to us. Current Career Opportunities Operations Manager - Travel : 1 Position Department : Astrotourism Location : New Delhi Educator : 3 Position Department : Education Location : Chandigarh & Delhi Sr. Executive - Client Relationship : 4 Position Department : Sales & Marketing Location : Gurgaon & South Delhi Sales Executive/ Sr. Executive Client Relationship : 1 Position Department : Sales & Marketing Location : Noida If you are interested please follow the link of company website to see the job details: SPACE INDIA Website 39
  • 40. SPACE GROUP WEBSITES : Follow us on EMAIL US AT: getintouch@space-india.com WZ-19 ASALATPUR, A3 BLOCK JANAK PURI WEST, NEW DELHI-110058 PH: +91-11-45086320, 25522193 www.space-india.com www.astrotourism.in www.space-india.org www.universeintheschool.com www.spacearcade.in www.leoplanetaria.com www.eclipsechasers.in www.astronomica.in