SPACE Newsletter - June'14
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SPACE Newsletter - June'14



The monthly newsletter of SPACE group of companies

The monthly newsletter of SPACE group of companies



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    SPACE Newsletter - June'14 SPACE Newsletter - June'14 Presentation Transcript

    • Guest Article Deep Space Network – Our Communication Lifeline For Interplanetary Spacecrafts Cover Story Global Astronomy Month – How It All Began? From The News Desk Latest Updates On  Universe In The School  Space Outreach  Astro Tourism Astroinquisites Why Does Moon Have More Craters Than Earth ? S P A C E N E W S ISSUE 35, JUN 2014 Monthly Newsletter of SPACE Group Chief Editor : Sachin Bahmba Editors : Amit Verma & Divya KanchanbarasAstronomy At Home Seti @ Home – Finding Aliens BLOGPOST How To Plan Astronomy Around Vacations? ASTROPHOTOGRAPHY
    • INDEX S No Topic Page No. 1 Universe In The School 4 2 Blog : How To Plan Astronomy Around Vacations? 12 3 Outreach Programmes 19 4 Astrophotography 22 5 Sky This Month : Constellations & Moon Phases For Jun’14 26 6 Astrotourism 30 7 Cover Story : GAM* – How It All Began? By Mike Simmons, Founder And President Astronomers Without Borders * GLOBAL ASTRONOMY MONTH 31 8 Astroinquisites : Why Does Moon Have More Craters Than Earth? 34
    • 3 S No Topic Page No. 9 Guest Article : Deep Space Network - Our Communication Lifeline For Interplanetary Spacecrafts By Mr. C B Devgun – President, SPACE Foundation Mr. Sachin Bahmba - Chairman & Managing Director, SPACE 36 10 Astronomy At Home : SETI @ HOME Finding Aliens 40 11 Franchise With SPACE 43 12 SPACE India Is Hiring! 46 13 Contact Us 47
    • 4 1. Astronomy Day In SPACE Astronomy club, students learn and perform a lot of activities throughout the year. On the culmination day of SPACE club i.e., ASTRONOMY DAY, students showcase their learning in front of school management and other students. As they become a part of this event, their confidence level, scientific temperament, communication skills, organisational skills as well as leadership skills enhances. Following schools conducted Astronomy Day during May’14 : I) Mayoor School, Noida II) Sachdeva Public School, Rohini II) ASN Sr. Sec. School, Mayur Vihar II) KIIT World School, Pitampura II) Hillwoods Academy, Preet Vihar II) St. Gregorios School, Dwarka II) ITL Public School, Dwarka II) Apeejay School, Pitampura II) Ryan International School, Noida Students observing the comet making process Students observing the Sun through Telescopic Projection Method MAYOOR SCHOOL, NOIDA SPACE CLUB U N I V E R S E I N T H E S C H O O L
    • 5 Students observing Sunspots using solar projection Students observing Sun through Pinhole projection A student observes Sun through Solar View Goggles A student observing terrestrial objects through refractor telescope A Welcome Board prepared by club students for the ASTRONOMY DAY 2014 Students explaining the basic parts of a rocket to Ms. Sonia Luthra, Principal, ASN Sr. Sec. School Principal checking the texture of comet made by the SPACE club students I. SACHDEVA PUBLIC SCHOOL, ROHINI II. ASN SR. SEC. SCHOOL, MAYUR VIHAR
    • 6 Mrs. Karuna Verma , Hon’ble Vice-Principal KIIT World School, Rohini inaugurating the Astronomy Day by launching a hydro rocket Mrs. Verma observing the Sun through Solar view goggles III. KIIT WORLD SCHOOL, ROHINI Students observing terrestrial objects through refractor telescope and learning more about SPACE club Astronomy Kit IV. HILLWOOD ACADEMY, PREET VIHAR Students showing the process of comet making to their fellow students Students explaining the use of Sundial V. ST. GREGORIOS SCHOOL, DWARKA Fr. Biju P.Thomas, Chairman of St. Gregorios School, Dwarka launching the hydro rocket to inaugurate the ASTRONOMY DAY
    • 7 VI. ITL PUBLIC SCHOOL, DWARKA Students demonstrating the Comet making process to Mrs. Sudha Acharya, Principal ITL, Dwarka Students explaining about Kit Materials to the Principal VII. APEEJAY SCHOOL, PITAMPURA SPACE Club Students preparing the launch and launching the Hydro rocket Students preparing a Comet Students observing the sun by Ball Projector Students observing the Sunspots by projection method Students observe distant objects through a refractor telescope
    • 8 VIII. RYAN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL, NOIDA Students of Ryan International School, Noida explaining reflector as well as a refractor telescope Students explaining the tools of ASTRONOMY KIT SPACE EXPLORERS I. Evening Rendezvous with the Sky at DPS Sushant Lok, Gurgaon A workshop was organised at DPS, Sushant Lok on May 5, 2014 with an aim to make students learn the following : • Name of our Moon • Various physical features of Moon • Reason for occurrence of phases of Moon • Formation of craters on the Moon through an activity • Solar system planets visible from Earth • Important facts about the visible planets Students participate in the Crater Making activity where they learned how craters are formed on moon using fun activities. Students were also taught about how the moon change phases using the moon ball activity Students had a discussion about telescope and got hands-on while they observed the various parts of it. Due to overcast conditions, the celestial objects could not be observed.
    • 9 II. Rocket – A Space Vehicle, Workshop at Amity International School Gurgaon & Pathways World School Sona Road Rocket – a space vehicle, workshop was organised at Amity International School (AIS), Sector – 46, Gurgaon and Pathways World School , Aravali Campus Sona Road during May 2014. The workshop was activity oriented and fun-filled. Students thoroughly enjoyed the workshop. The students learned about pop rockets, made their own stomp rockets and launched them during the workshop. Students learned the following facts about Rockets: 1. Rocket is a space vehicle 2. Rocket is the only vehicle which can go to space 3. Space is 300 kms above the ground level 4. Basic principle of rocketry 5. Role of fuel in flight of a rocket Students of AIS, Sec 46, Gurgaon learning about the construction of rockets during “Rocket – a space vehicle” workshop A student constructing the nose cone of stomp rocket A student constructing the fins of rockets Students launching their self made stomp rocket AMITY INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL, GURGAON
    • 10 To Have Fun With Astronomy & For UITS Updates Grade 4 Students of Pathways making their own stomp rockets during a workshop named “Rocket – a space vehicle” First group of Students of Pathways launching their stomp rockets Grade 4 Students of Pathways launching their self made stomp rockets PATHWAYS WORLD SCHOOL, SONA ROAD
    • 11Astronauts of Pathways opening the mystery box Grade 4 students performing balancing test A group of grade 4 students of Pathways performing Lung capacity test Grade 4 students performing Hand-eye coordination test Winners of Astronauts Test wearing the ASTRONAUT dress Grade 4 students performing Muscle Endurance test III. Astronaut – Can You Be One Of Them? Workshop At Pathways World School , Aravali Campus Sona Road Astronaut – Can You Be One Of Them? workshop was organised at Pathways, Aravali campus sona road, on May 5, 2014. The aim of the workshop was to make student’s learn following: 1.Who is an Astronaut? 2.How is an Astronaut different from an astronomer and a space tourist? 3.A person has to go through a number of tests to become an Astronaut 4.The tests which are to be cleared are as follows: i. Lung Capacity Test: this test is done to check the capacity of lungs as Astronauts have limited air supply in space ii. Balancing test: this test is done to check the balancing power as Astronauts have to balance themselves in space iii. Hand-eye coordination test: this test is done to check the hand and eye coordination as Astronauts work in space while wearing space suit iv. Muscle Endurance Test: this test is done to check the muscle power 5.Importance and parts of an Astronaut suit 6.Difficulties faced by an Astronaut while working with Astronaut suit on with the help of an activity where a student had to wear the astronaut dress and open a mystery box
    • 12 B L O G : HOW TO PLAN ASTRONOMY AROUND VACATIONS? Vacation is the best time of the year for all of us. We have loads of time to do the things we love. So if you have zeal to know about the celestial wonders, you can easily plan out something “astronomical” this vacation. But the question is “how to plan out astronomy around vacations”? For anyone completely new to astronomy, the first step is to become familiar with the night sky, how it changes through the night and season by season, and how it varies according to the observer's latitude. A planisphere (or "star wheel"), monthly sky guide, or computer software will help with this. The first most important thing is to check what all objects will be present in the sky at that time of the year, along with their rising and setting time so that you know what all you will be looking at in spite of just scouring the sky. The next step may be to get some sort of optical aid. Keep in mind that good views of faint or diffuse astronomical objects will never be obtained from poor sites, such as urban locations. Here are a few pointers which will help you plan astronomy around vacations and in fact any time of the year. I. Finding directions It is important thing for a budding astronomer like you is to mark the directions at the place where you are at. If you manage to find one direction, you can find the rest easily. This can be done in several easy ways. Here are a few : Observing the Sun/Moon at rise or set All celestial objects rise from the eastward direction and set in the westward direction. This will give you an approximate idea about the directions North, East, West and South better known as the Cardinal Directions.
    • 13 Using a Magnetic Compass/Smartphone Though this is not the most reliable source for this activity, but in most cases it gives a good idea about directions. Both smart phones and magnetic compass are prone to error due to their dependence on magnetic fields, so try to go to an area clear of iron beams or similar material. Using The Constellations Constellations like Ursa Major and Cassiopeia easy help locate the north direction as they point towards Polaris, commonly known as the Pole Star which is always in north. (This star is not to be confused with the brightest star in the night sky, Sirius) In the given diagram, one can take the distance between the two pointer stars (labelled as Merak and Dubhe) and extend the distance 5 times to find the pole star as shown. A similar diagram for the constellation Cassiopeia is shown. Finding North Ursa Major and Cassiopeia
    • 14 II. Follow Celestial Events As you read this article, there are several celestial events happening. Some of them can be observed without the help of a telescope. An easy way is to look up in the sky and find the following events : Conjunction - A Conjunction occurs when two celestial bodies appear near one another in the sky as seen from Earth. Generally you can see the moon appear very close to different objects like stars and planets in the sky, as moon changes it position everyday. Occultation - An Occultation occurs when one object is hidden by another object that passes between it and the observer. These events are best enjoyed using a suitable telescope.
    • 15 Satellite Pass - As there are hundreds of satellites in space, we can view a few of them every now and then, especially the International Space Station ( ISS ), which has huge solar panels which reflect the light of the sun, back to the earth. These satellites are mostly visible during dawn and dusk and unlike the blinking lights of an airplane, these satellites will look a star in a constant slow motion ( no blinking ) Visit You can also use the android application for the website which will give you a reminder according to your convenience. The Application is called Sat Track Meteor Showers – As time and again, the earth passes through the dust left behind by a comet/asteroid, millions of tiny particles enter the earth’s atmosphere and burn up due to friction with air molecules. These are commonly known by misleading term, shooting stars/falling stars. These are just dust particles entering the atmosphere of the Earth. There are several meteor showers which show up to 1 meteor per minute and higher rates. Information about the same can be found at Best way to stay informed about these events is to be updated through websites which offer information about them in detail : ( Search for SPACE Calendar )
    • 16 SPACE Calendar on
    • 17 Visual and Telescopic observations After getting a bit familiar with the sky, your horizon and information about some celestial events, it is now the time to get familiar with objects in the sky and to observe its real beauty. You can use a software like Stellarium to get familiar with the objects in the sky and simulate events ahead of time to plan observations. A small telescope/binoculars can be used to view the craters on the surface of the Moon and over the period of a month, you can watch its phases changing daily. The same can be recorded in a proper format (sketching the moon phase) and then daily observations can be compared. This is the best way to learn Astronomy and helps you recognize more details through the telescope. This is how Galileo Galilee discovered that the Earth is not in the center of the solar system. Sky as simulated through Stellarium Sketch of the moon made on various nights by Galileo
    • 18 If you are rooting on travelling outstation the best skies are visible from high altitudes and it is best to go to a hill station or a dark site like a remote village to view them. Do remember to matain a notebook to keep a track of all the fun you have. Submitted by Rishabh Jain, Sr. Educator | SPACE Meenakshi Parmar, Educator | SPACE
    • 19 I. ALL INDIA ASTEROID SEARCH CAMPAIGN - 2014 SPACE is proud to bring All India Asteroid Search Campaign for the fifth time consecutively to its associated students. The programme is in its first phase at present, which will end on 3 June ‘14. The campaign is being conducted in three phases, beginning on 29 April, 2014 and ending on 13 August, ‘14. The phases are as below: Phase II – 4 June to 9 July’ 14 Phase III - 9 July to 13 August’ 14 The campaign is conducted in collaboration with International Astronomical Search Collaboration (IASC, Hardin-Simmons University, Texas, USA). SPACE is the coordinator for this highly recognized programme in India. In the first phase, we have nine NEO (Near Earth Object) Observations so far. To know about the past discoveries CLICK HERE O U T R E A C H P R O G R A M M E S ONGOING EVENTS
    • 20 II. ‘LIVING IN SPACE OR ON OTHER PLANETS’ - LECTURE BY DR KUMAR KRISHEN (NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER) ON 5 JUNE, 2014 SPACE organized a lecture on 'Living in space or on other planets' by Dr Kumar Krishen, Senior Scientist with NASA. Around 40 people attended the programme. At the end of the talk, Dr Krishen also introduced us to his book 'Why me?', which is a collection of short stories. Dr Kumar Krishen gives lecture on 'Living in Space or on other planets' at National Science Centre Mr Amit Verma welcomes Dr Kumar Krishen on behalf of SPACE with a bouquet Dr Kumar Krishen introduces his book 'Why me' to the audience at the end of the lecture
    • 21 For other upcoming celestial occurrences follow SPACE CALENDAR I. PROJECT PARIDHI (Summer Solstice) - 21 June, 2014 SPACE will be conducting Project Paridhi at India Gate with about 100 participants on 21 June, the day of summer solstice. Participants will be replicating the ancient Eratosthenes Experiment by measuring shadows cast by the sun and calculating the circumference of the Earth. Registered participants will be joining us at India Gate to participate in this activity. UPCOMING EVENTS
    • 22 Title: MILKYWAY TRAILS AND METEOR Description: The view of the Milky Way star trails glaring through the sky at Astroport, Tehla, Rajasthan. Instruments Used Camera: Canon 1100D Lens:EFS 18-55 f/3.5- 5.6 IS II Specifications: Focal Length: 18mm Sensitivity (ISO): 1600 Exposure Time: 30” x 5 Aperture: f/3.5 Photo by Raghav Mittal, Class X A| Astronomy Club Student, BBPS Pitampura A S T R O P H O T O G R A P H Y
    • 23 Title: MILKY WAY OVER TIKKAR TAL Description: The summer milky way can be seen in the picture over the beautiful lake called Tikkar Taal in Haryana. Instruments Used Camera: Canon 1100D Lens:EFS 18-55 Specifications: Focal Length: 18mm Sensitivity (ISO): 1600 Exposure Time: 30” Aperture: f/3.5 Photo by Abhinav Dubey, Educator | SPACE
    • 24 Title: STAR TRAILS OF ORION OVER ASTROPORT Description: The beautiful Orion constellation star trails. Shot at Astroport, Tehla, Rajasthan Instruments Used Camera: Canon 1100D Lens:EFS 18-55 Specifications: Focal Length: 18mm Sensitivity (ISO): 1600 Exposure Time: 30” x 5 Aperture: f/3.5 Photo by Raghav Mittal, Class X A | Astronomy Club Student, BBPS Pitampura
    • 25 Title: GUIDING THE WAY Description: Educator shows the beehive cluster to students while they observe it through a telescope. Shot at Astroport, Tehla, Rajasthan Instruments Used: Camera: EOS Canon 6D Lens: Tokina 11-16 mm Specifications: Focal Length: 16mm Sensitivity (ISO): 5000 Exposure Time: 30” Aperture: f/3.5 Photo by Rishabh Jain, Sr. Educator | SPACE All instruments used are issued from SPACE Repository
    • 26 S K Y T H I S M O N T H : Astronomical events of sky for the month of June’14 CONSTELLATIONS Evening ( Dusk ) North - Ursa Major, Ursa Minor, Cepheus East - Hercules, Lyra, Cygnus West - Bootes, Virgo, Corona Borealis South - Scorpius, Libra, Saggitarius Zenith - Bootes
    • 27 CONSTELLATIONS Midnight North - Ursa Minor , Ursa Major, Cepheus East - Lyra, Aquila, Capricornus, Cygnus West - Bootes, Virgo, Corona Borealis South - Scorpius, Libra, Saggitarius Zenith - Herrcules S K Y T H I S M O N T H : Astronomical events of sky for the month of June’14
    • 28 S K Y T H I S M O N T H : Astronomical events of sky for the month of June’14 CONSTELLATIONS Morning ( Dawn ) North - Ursa Minor, Cepheus, Cassiopeia East - Andromeda, Pegasus, Aries, Pisces, Perseus West - Lyra, Aquila, Hercules, Corona Borealis South - Capricornus, Saggitarius Zenith - Cygnus
    • 29 S K Y T H I S M O N T H : Astronomical events of sky for the month of June’14 MOON PHASES (Time in IST) Moon Phases, June 2014 First Quarter – June 5, 20:39 Full Moon – June 13, 4:11 Last Quarter – June 19, 18:39 New Moon – June 27, 8:08 FIRST QUARTER FULL MOON LAST QUARTER NEW MOON
    • To stay updated about latest Astro Tours 30 THIS SUMMER A SPACE ODYSSEY WAS TAKEN TO KENNEDY SPACE CENTRE ORLANDO USA BY ASTRO TOURISM PVT LTD (SPACE GROUP) 36 SCHOOLS + 16 SCHOOL TEACHERS + 4 SPACE TOUR DIRECTORS = AN EXPERINCE OF LIFETIME! KENNEDY SPACE CENTER VISITOR COMPLEX (KSCVC) - MAY & JUNE 2014 162 students were on a space odyssey to USA at KSCVC, Orlando with extension to New York & Niagara Falls. Students from schools all over India had a taste of space adventure at KSCVC, fun times at Disneyland and Niagara Falls! TOUR BLOG TOUR PHOTOS
    • 31 The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) was unprecedented in its reach. Most of the world’s countries, cultures, and communities played a role, largely through IYA2009’s Cornerstone Projects. The 100 Hours of Astronomy Cornerstone Project, which I organized, was unprecedented, with millions taking part over four days in April. During one 24-hour period, a live webcast from 80 observatories around the world, produced by ESO, attracted several million viewers. As part of the Global Star Party, thousands of amateur astronomers took to the streets with telescopes to bring astronomy directly to the people, with as many as one million people looking through telescopes as nighttime swept the globe in one 24-hour marathon observing session. In Gujarat Province in western India one elderly gentleman personified the spirit of the moment. After gazing through a telescope, he said that he’d been involved in three events during his lifetime that had been truly global events: Charles Lindbergh’s solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927, the first human landing on the Moon by Apollo 11 in 1969, and 100 Hours of Astronomy in 2009. It was clear that astronomy had the ability to unite the world regardless of geography or culture. And that is the mission of Astronomers Without Borders, which was founded just two years earlier in 2007. As IYA2009 drew to a close we discussed making the Global Star Party an annual event under Astronomers Without Borders to keep the legacy and community created by 100 Hours of Astronomy alive. Reducing the number of programs would make it a lot more manageable than the Cornerstone Project had been. But others suggested expanding the effort to a full month to give everyone a second chance in case of poor weather or holidays, and to allow for many more types of programs. I couldn’t imagine do something so much bigger than the gargantuan effort we’d made during IYA2009! But in the end they were provide right. C O V E R S T O R Y : G A M* – How It All Began? B y: Mike Simmons, Founder and President Astronomers Without Borders *Global Astronomy Month
    • 32 Global Astronomy Month is the outcome, a direct descendant of 100 Hours of Astronomy that has exceeded its predecessor in its ambitious scope. Without the excitement of IYA2009 behind it, participation has never reached the millions we had then but the diversity of activities and programs is more than we ever imagined. With partners from clubs to NASA there are undreamed of collaborative projects that no one organization could do alone. The arts now have a large presence through the highly successful Astronomers Without Borders’s AstroArts program created and led by artist Daniela de Paulis. The Astropoetry Contest has grown to over 200 entries in 2014, and the winners of the TWAN Earth and Sky International Photo Contest – which receives more than 600 entries annually – is featured on the websites of National Geographic, BBC, MSNBC, and more. What began as an attempt to keep the spirit of international participation alive through Astronomers Without Borders is now the world’s largest annual celebration of astronomy, with most of the world’s countries taking part. India continues to be among the most active, with SPACE being among the leaders in registering Global Astronomy Month events and posting results and photos from around the country. Local and national leadership is the key to success in global programs. No matter what Astronomers Without Borders does it will come to naught unless the astronomy community heeds the call. We’ve seen that there are countries and organizations that can always be depended on to lead this grassroots effort, especially India in general and SPACE in particular. I look forward to seeing even more from India and SPACE in the coming years as Global Astronomy Month continues to grow.
    • 33 GAM 2014 AT SPACE, INDIA
    • 34 The answer to this question includes important clues about how the Earth, moon, and other rocky planets were formed and about how Earth and the moon are geologically different. Early in the history of our solar system, asteroid and meteorite impacts were much more common. Our planet and other planets were struck by meteorites thousands of time more frequently than today. This is same for the moon. So, if Earth was catching meteorites just as often as the moon, why are there many more craters on the moon? The answer is… PLATE TECTONICS!!!.. A S T R O I N Q U I S I T E S : W H Y D O E S M O O N H A V E M O R E C R A T E R S T H A N E A R T H ? Plate tectonics is movement and interaction of “plates” of crust on the surface of our Earth. These processes shape and reshape the surface of Earth very rapidly (geologically speaking, over millions of years). Things like subduction (when crust sinks into the mantle) and erosion (wearing away of rocks at the surface) have erased many of the impact craters on earth. The moon is tectonically “dead”. Plate tectonics no longer happen on the moon, so there is nothing to erase all of the craters. In contrast, the moon - with no water or molten core - doesn't 'refresh' its surface at the same rate. Therefore, impact craters from millions of years ago are still very visible.
    • 35 Another very important reason for many craters on moon is the thin atmosphere of moon as comparison to earth that’s why moon is unprotected from external projectiles. Many craters on the moon are formed mainly because of the collision of asteroids and meteorites with the moon´s surface. These meteors also tend to hit the earth but as earth has a much denser atmosphere than the moon incoming meteors cause the air in our atmosphere to compress, rapidly heating it to the point of combustion. This causes the light we see from shooting stars, and cause most small meteors to completely degrade before they touch the surface. The moon, which has very little atmosphere, doesn't have same protection. So these are the basic two reasons for more craters on moon than earth. Submitted by Priya Chauhan | Educator, SPACE
    • 36 We humans have a knack for getting into the unknown, exploring unknown lands and as technology got more advanced, we finally left what we say our cradle and started walking on our own to unknown mysterious space up there. Since 1957 when we put first ever man made object in space and then in 1969 when we put our feet on moon and now hoping to land humans on Mars in few decades, it has always been a task to keep track of the spacecrafts as they move to their destinations millions and millions kms away. Quite a task to keep track of your vehicle and also to command it from that greater distance. How do we do that with so much precision? Lets find out….. GUEST ARTICLE : DEEP SPACE NETWORK – Our Communication Lifeline For Interplanetary Spacecrafts By : Mr. C B Devgun; President SPACE Foundation & Mr. Sachin Bhamba; Chairman & Managing Director SPACE Here comes the DSN or Deep Space Network into picture. All our space missions are being tracked and taken care by this Network. Its a world-wide network of large antennas and communication facilities that supports interplanetary spacecraft missions. It also performs radio and radar astronomy observations for the exploration of the solar system and the universe, and supports selected Earth-orbiting missions. DSN is part of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Other similar networks include ESTRACK of the European Space Agency, the Soviet Deep Space Network, the Indian Deep Space Network, and the Chinese Deep Space Network. Its more than 50 years that the DSN has been on its task, 24x7x365!! The forerunner of the DSN was established in January, 1958, when the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, or JPL – then under contract to the U.S. Army – deployed portable radio tracking stations in Nigeria, Singapore, and California. That month, when the Army successfully launched Explorer 1, the first successful U.S. satellite, these stations received telemetry and helped mission controllers plot the spacecraft’s orbit.
    • 37 How Does It Work ? Tracking vehicles in deep space is quite different from tracking missions in low Earth orbit (LEO). Deep space missions are visible for long periods of time from a large portion of the Earth's surface, and so require few stations (the DSN has only three main sites). These few stations, however, require huge antennas, ultra-sensitive receivers, and powerful transmitters in order to transmit and receive over the vast distances involved. Deep space is defined in two different ways. The first is when a mission gets sufficiently far from Earth that it is always in view of one of the tracking stations. This distance, about 16,000 km, was the definition used during Apollo and early days of the DSN. The more modern definition is from the International Telecommunications Union, which sets aside various frequency bands for deep space and near Earth use. According to this definition, deep space starts at a distance of 2,000,000 km from the Earth's surface. In particular, this means that missions to the Moon, and the Earth–Sun Lagrangian points L1 and L2, are considered near space and cannot use the deep space frequencies. DSN currently consists of three deep-space communications facilities placed approximately 120 degrees apart around the Earth so that we have the spacecraft in the communication throughout the day. Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex outside Barstow, California Madrid Deep Space Communication Complex, 60 kilometres west of Madrid, Spain; and The Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex (CDSCC) in the Australian Capital Territory 40 kilometres (25 mi) southwest of Canberra, Australia near the Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve.
    • 38 Each facility is situated in semi-mountainous, bowl-shaped terrain to help shield against radio frequency interference. The strategic 120-degree placement permits constant observation of spacecraft as the Earth rotates, and helps to make the DSN the largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications system in the world.
    • 39 Each complex consists of at least four deep space terminals equipped with ultra-sensitive receiving systems and large parabolic-dish antennas. There are: One 34-meter (112 ft) diameter High Efficiency antenna. One or more 34-meter (112 ft) Beam waveguide antennas (three at the Goldstone Complex, two at the Robledo de Chavela complex (near Madrid), and one at the Canberra Complex). One 26-meter (85 ft) antenna. One 70-meter (230 ft) antenna. The antennas at all three DSN Complexes communicate directly with the Deep Space Operations Center (also known as Deep Space Network Operations Control Center) located at the JPL facilities in Pasadena, California. For us Indian space explorers, the Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN) is a network of large antennas and communication facilities situated at Byalalu, a village about 40 kilometres from Bangalore that supports the interplanetary spacecraft missions of India. Antenna at Goldstone Image and content courtsey - Deep Space network and wikipedia
    • 40 A R E W E A L O N E I N T H E U N I V E R S E? The biggest quest to answer one of life's most intriguing questions: Are we alone in the universe? Is anyone outside Earth is talking? Is anybody listening? Yes or no, either answer will have tremendous implications for mankind We have the technology to communicate over vast distances - millions of lights years. We are capable of sending and receiving radio signals across the vast expanses of space. Actually we have been sending them for over half a century. All radio, television, and radar signals from Earth leak out into space and spread across the galaxy. Perhaps some other advanced civilization has detected our signals and is now sending their own in an attempt at communication. The only way we'll know is to look and to listen. What Is SETI? SETI is an acronym for the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence. It is the science of using telescopes, radio and optical, to search the skies for signals from alien civilizations. The idea of SETI began in 1959. Why Radio-waves? Radio waves were chosen because they are capable of traveling the vast distances between stars and can be generated with reasonable amounts of power. All of our radio, TV, satellite, and radar signals are currently spreading out throughout the galaxy. A S T R O N O M Y A T H O M E : S E T I @ H O M E – F I N D I N G A L I E N S
    • 41 Drake’s Equation In 1961 Drake and J. Peter Pearman, an officer on the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences, organized the first SETI conference. There Drake came up with the now famous Drake Equation as a way to focus on the factors which determine how many intelligent, communicating civilizations there are in our galaxy. The Drake Equation is: N = N* x fp x ne x fl x fi x fc x fL N is the number of detectable civilizations in our galaxy. The other variables are described below: R is the rate of star formation in the galaxy fp is the fraction of stars that form planets ne is the number of planets hospitable to life (i.e., Earth-like planets) fl is the fraction of these planets on which life actually emerges fi is the fraction of these planets on which intelligent life arises fc is the fraction of these planets with intelligent beings capable of interstellar communication L is the length of time such a civilization remains detectable What Is SETI@home? SETI@home ("SETI at home") is an Internet-based public volunteer computing project employing the BOINC software platform, hosted by the Space Sciences Laboratory, at the University of California, Berkeley, in the United States. Its purpose is to analyze radio signals, searching for signs of extra terrestrial intelligence, and is one of many activities undertaken as part of SETI How Does It Work? SETI@home searches for possible evidence of radio transmissions from extraterrestrial intelligence using observational data from the Arecibo radio telescope. The data is taken 'piggyback', digitized, stored, and sent to the SETI@home facility. The data is then parsed into small chunks in frequency and time, and analyzed, using software, to search for any signals—that is, variations which cannot be ascribed to noise, and contain information. The analyzed data by home computers then with the software results is reported back.
    • 42 How To Participate In SETI@home 1. System requirements - There is an initial download of about 10 MB. You'll need about 20 MB of free disk space and 64 MB of RAM. Along with a typical computer (such as a 2 GHz Pentium 4), you'll need to let SETI@home run for at least 2 hours per week (slower computers are fine but they'll have to run proportionally more). 2. Go to the SETI@home website: and download the BOINC software 3. Follow through the installer and enter into the installer when prompted 4. The software is installed. You are ready to start! Significance Of Participating In SETI@home By participating in this project through running a free program that downloads and analyses radio telescope data, there's a small but captivating possibility that your computer will detect the faint murmur of a civilization beyond Earth. Submitted by Madhu Jha | Educator, SPACE
    • SPACE (Space Technology Education & Pvt. Ltd.) is offering the established and niche business model of astronomy and space science education i.e. Franchise Business Highlights: Innovated educational programs  AstroTourism  Servicing top schools Hands-on learning Our Products :  Astronomy Club  Workshops  Digital Planetarium Teacher Training Training to become a qualified trainer Govt. Partnerships Educational Tours Telescope Astro Photography Scientific Events In association with :  Associated with organizations like ISRO, ISC, DST, Vigyan Prasar, National Council of Science Museum, NASA, All India Radio, Russian and American Embassy(s), IIT Delhi, Delhi University and many more…
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    • Learn how to make a comet ! Observe the sun via telescope ! Learn how to measure the circumference of EARTH ! Travel with us to global science observatories and agencies ! Make your own rocket and fly it ! Learning astronomy is fun and a never ending concept !
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    • S P A C E G R O U P WEBSITES Follow us on Twitter Id: org_space LinkedIn Id: SPACE India EMAIL US AT: WZ-19 ASALATPUR, A3 BLOCK JANAK PURI, NEW DELHI-110058 PH: +91-11-45086320, 25522193