Oct’11 to Dec’11 A Quarterly Newsletter from SPACE SPACE NEWS Cover story: R . I . P. SPACE SHUTTLE PROGRAM Is it the end of NASA in outer space?Featured Article:Conqueringthe Sun: Mission The picture shows the two space shuttles Endeavour and Discovery , in a nose to noseAditya photo opportunity. Photo courtesy : NASA. Contents: Education Astrotourism Events Member’s Speak Chief Editor: Sachin Bahmba, Editors: Amit Verma, Gunjan Sharma
1 Conquering the Sun – Mission AdityaTo explore the Star of the Solar System “the Sun”, a special mission isbeing commissioned by ISRO. This fiery RED ball in the sky has alwaysdominated our life and culture. In order to study the SUN in detail, avisible emission line space solar coronagraph is being proposed as apayload under the small-satellite programme of the Indian SpaceResearch Organisation (ISRO).ISRO, along with many other scientific institutions in the country, especially the IIA ; isset to roll out a deserving successor to the Chandrayaan programme. Aditya-1 isIndia’s first dedicated scientific mission to study the Sun.This is a low Earth orbit mission at an altitude of 800km. It will provide high timecadence sharp images of the solar corona in the green and red emission lines. Theseimages will be used to study the highly dynamic nature of the solar corona includingthe small scale coronal loops and large-scope coronal mass ejections (CME’S). Thesestudies will enhance our current understanding of the solar corona and also providevital data for space weather studies.Scientific objectives of the mission: • Coronal waves as a source of coronal heating • Dynamics of coronal loops: formation and evolution Uniqueness of this Payload • Temperature diagnostics of the corona using line ratio techniques - Simultaneous emission line images in • Development, dynamics and origin of CME’s the green and red emission lines • Vital inputs to Space weather prediction allowing for temperature diagnostics • Topology of magnetic fields. - Very high cadence (3images perTechnological challenges: second) • Highly polished primary mirror- micro roughness of the order of IA; an order - Simultaneous polarization images in better than the current technology the continuum and line allowing for • High pointing accuracy- 20 arcsec; requires better sensors and gyros density diagnostics, magnetic topology, •Large format fast 2d detector arrays and 3d structure of CME’S - Observations close to the limb (better than 1.1 sun)
2 Aditya weighs 125 Kg . ItsWhy is this being done? estimated cost is around RsTo study the SUN, the outer atmosphere – called the corona . The mission aims to study 50 Crores . To be placed atthe Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) and the crucial physical parameters such as the coronal an orbit of around 600 kmsmagnetic field structures, evolution of the coronal magnetic field and other factors from Earth. The satellite willdetermining space weather. In the recent past, space-based instruments (Yohkoh, SOHO, carry as its payload anTRACE, RHESSI and HINODE) have permitted us to study the corona uninterruptedly. advanced solarYet, the dynamic corona and its high temperature (1–2 million K) are yet to be fully coronagraph.understood.When is this happening?Beginning with its conceptualization in 2008 by Advisory Committee for Space Research,Aditya is planned to launch during the next high solar activity period (2012-13) and isexpected to last for 3 years.What’s cool about it?Everyone is excited for Aditya 1 after the Chandrayaan, as ‘Aditya Mission’ would be anexclusive mission which would take pictures of the sun at the speed of three frames persecond as compared to the present speed of satellite images of the sun being one frameper eighteen minutes. Dr. Banerjee delivering a talk on ‘Aditya” at Space’s CSE school –What’s in store for students? BBPS pitampuraThe Aditya Mission, aims to do scientific outreach, build Scientific Temperament andexcite the next generation towards space exploration. SPACE plans to partner ISRO andIIA, in bringing the mission’s data for student analysis and also start an outreach programwith students & society. Developed under guidance from: Dr. Dipankar Banerjee, is an Associate Professor, IIA; he pursued BSc. (Phy), then MSc. (Theoretical Physics) and further PhD in Astrophysics. He is a key member of the Aditya Mission, with crucial role to play in its research, analysis and implementation of the mission.
3ISS EARTHKAMSPACE conducted for its Centre for Student Excellence schools(CSE), a 3 hour exclusive workshop onNASA’s ISS Earth KAM which means Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle school Students. Theworkshop was conducted for Indraprastha World School Dwarka & Paschim Vihar, GD Goenka SchoolRohini, Step by Step School Noida and Bal Bharati Public School Pitam Pura. Image of theIt is an Educational program that enables students to take pictures of Earth and examine it from the Gangesunique perspective of an aerial view from outer space by way of a digital camera on board with the RiverInternational Space Station. In it, students controlled a special digital camera mounted on the window Deltaof the International Space Station. From this window they photographed a wide range of beautiful and takenfascinating features on the surface of the Earth. from ISS. Courtesy: https://earthkam.ucsd.edu/ek- images/favorites/STS081ESC00212933Video Conferencing with Sunita Williams – Women in ScienceStudents of CSE, participated in a Live Interaction with astronaut Sunita Williams, as part of the “ Women in Science” seminar organized by theAmerican Embassy in association with Department of Science & Technology (DST). The workshop focused upon women’s contribution in thefield of science and their achievements on 12th Sept, 2011 at the Constitution Club, Delhi.It included a session with well known & established females in field of science like Dr.Geetha Bali, Ms Indu Gupta, Dr. Viji Ravindranath, Dr. Jennie Hunter-Cevera. In theseminar students participated in various group activities on promoting science education,facilitating women seeking science career, raising standards of education in remote /ruralareas. It was followed by a interactive Q/A session with the students. Later studentswere put face to face with Sunita Williams via a live web conference.Anusha Jain & Aditi Jain of GD Goenka, Rohini, had the special opportunity to chat one to one withSunita Williams.
4Internet Telescope Project 16th – 17th July, 2011SPACE in collaboration with IASC ( International Astronomy Search Collaboration) opened up another project for the first time in India,called the project ‘Internet telescope’. The students remotely commanded a CCD camera on the telescope to take images of asteroids, comets and deep sky objects. For the asteroids and comets, images were taken 1-hour apart, then blinked to see the moving object against the fixed background stars. For deep sky objects three images of each were taken with red, green and blue filter. These were later combined into a colored image of the deep sky objects. This was the first time that such a project was conducted in India, this will give the students an opportunity to be a part of an international project and use hands on techniques to control telescope in real time and understand how to identify a target, how to plan the exposures and how to analyze the data. Photo taken by two students from Indraprastha World school, Paschim Vihar.SCHOOL FAIRStudents of CSE are always at the forefront of representing the school across all the available platforms, including special exhibitions that areorganized by the school. The annual exhibition organized by Indraprastha World School, saw wonderful exhibits and models on astronomyand space sciences at display, especially the Hydro Rocket that was launched by the Chief Guest. The students were allotted stalls for whichthey did the entire thing on their own. Starting from stall set up and decoration to explanation and execution of activity, all the tasks werehandled by the CSE club kids. We really appreciate the efforts put in by all the CSE club students.
5 Astro Tourism: Rediscovering Travel The Sharma’s love to travel. Back from a holiday weekend, they are still reverberating with the midnight camel safari, star gazing on sand dunes and Milky Way. Zooming in and out in the pictures taken they are still euphoric with the captivation that their Eyes have touched in sync with heart. Rahul, their son is still dazed by the 300 old watch which outdid his brand new digital piece in accuracy. He has dedicated the whole coming week in understand the working of Sundials and other interesting medieval time keeping machines. Karan the younger one didn’t even bother to unpack and straight away went to his best friend Aditya’s house to make the smallest possible accurate model of the solar system. For their next trip, Mr. Sharma and his family are looking forward to find themselves amidst a hundred shooting stars, nomadic space rocks, a few thousand young stars and places from where all of this comes alive.Astronomy has been able to resurrect its charm with everypossible occupation that humans have engaged into be it researchand education, traveling, storytelling, poetry and others. Out ofthese, travel has went on to become one of the most stimulatingventure of all. The Destinations are the same, but journeys areredefined in terms of motives only by clubbing them with scienceand astronomy, where thought engaging travel programs arereadily available, making it an Adventure Extravaganza.It is a very popular concept around the world to gather onmoonless nights in remote areas like wild life reserves to observethe beauty of the heavens above and get hands on knowledge andtraining of telescopes and learning to use frequently used objectslike binoculars to observe the sky and find places where stars takebirth.
6 “ Traveling for the purpose of Astronomy and Space-Science, or doing Astronomy or Space activities while you are traveling”, is defined as AstroTourism .Astrotourism enthusiasts within India have been into exploring offbeat and popularlocations, which are available in plenty for small duration getaways. Several people gatherevery year, where they get to interact with nature and enjoy its beauty to the fullest whilekeeping mainstream travel plans. A lot of this travel takes place around Celestial events likeSolar and Lunar eclipse, Meteor showers, and Comet appearances, while there are manystudents who have joined in to explore International destinations, important from the pointof view of Science and Learning. Space Campers with an Astronaut Countries like India, USA, France, China, Australia, at Camp KSC Germany, Switzerland, UK, Italy, Chile are some of the A few such upcoming events are : most sought after astrotourist destinations. - The Total Lunar Eclipse of Popular scientific locations including scientific institutions like Research and launch December 2011 in India centre’s at NASA, CERN, Royal observatory, enriched with their cultural ethos, is - Annular Solar Eclipse May exactly what astrotourism combines to offer. 2012 in China - The Venus Transit of 2012 in There’s a lot to travel and so little time. China -The Total Solar Eclipse of Let’s get started.. Lets astrotravel .. ! November 2012 in Australia. Astrotourism is the travel division of SPACE and offers various services in this field. Please stop by www.astrotourism.in for interesting travel ideas or write to us at firstname.lastname@example.org
7When the first ever space shuttle was sent into space on April 1981, transported along with itwas not just the best of engineering marvels but the swelling horizon of any human’s imaginationto be in SPACE. For the next 30 years, the space shuttle program of NASA (STS program); flew 5 Space Shuttles are: Columbia, Challenger,many missions to outer space including the ISS. On its way, it has had its fair share of supporters Endeavour, Discovery,and critics. The program came to close in July 2011 and with it a sea change has come in the way, Atlantis.space program and supremacy of outer space is being looked at world over. Does this mean an Late Kalpana Chawla wasend to NASA’s reign at the top? Lets explore. onboard Columbia; while Sunita Williams has flown in DiscoveryNASA’s Space Shuttle program, i.e. the Space Transportation System (STS) was the manned launch vehicle for theUS Exploration program, and 135 STS missions flew between 1981 to 2011. On July 8, 2011, Space ShuttleAtlantis completed the 135th launch - the last launch of the three-decade shuttle program. On its 14 day mission,Atlantis delivered supplies to the ISS. The first space shuttle, ‘Columbia’ was launched on April 12, 1981 on the20th anniversary of Yuri Gagarins space flight. Columbia was followed by Challenger, Endeavour, Discovery andAtlantis. The program caught the fancy of the world and has always been in the limelight world over. Humans being transported to space, is inspiring and motivating. To set things straight, that is not going to stop, Russians and their Soyuz s are still there and that is how, astronauts and cosmonauts are still going to visit outer space and the ISS. Private industry is already trying its hand at manned space flights, and the day is not far off in future; when you could pay and get to fly to outer space at affordable prices, which has already started (though it is exorbitantly expensive to do so, right now). Image Courtesy: www.nasa.gov
8 Over the past few years though, the STS program was under a lot of pressure, especially from American public and administrators. Grappling under economic recession, people are concerned about livelihood, jobs and education more than human space flights. Originally projected to cost $5 million per flight in todays dollars, each shuttle launch instead runs to around $500 million.Though the space shuttle is viewed as futuristic, its design is three decades old. The shuttles main engines, firsttested in the late 1970s, used hundred more moving parts than do new rocket-motor designs. Until 2005, theflight-deck computers on the space shuttle used old 8086 chips from the early 1980s.What the end of the STS program has done though is, it has opened the Space frontiers for others to lead.America’s dominance in the outer space is now contested strongly by Russia and China. China, though perchedhigher than Russia because of its stronger economic position and the pace at which it is developing its own Shuttle Atlantis on its last trip,space program. Using earth based laser to blow of its own satellite to sending its own manned mission in 2003. visited by KSC camper under Astro tourism tour China is still far behind the U.S. in space technology and experience, but what it doesnt lack is a plan or financial resources. While U.S. programs can fall victim to budgetary worries or a change of government, rapidly growing China appears to have no such constraints. The unmanned module, Tiangong-1, or Heavenly Palace-1, blasted off on Sept. 29 from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre in northwest Chinas desert area marking China’s strong and steady pursuit of its space aspirations.Administrators at NASA, have spelt out ambitious plans for the future, that include the space vehicles to explore the Solar system like theMulti-Purpose Crew Vehicle and Space Launch System. NASA is also researching ways to design and build aircraft that are safer, more fuel-efficient, quieter and environmentally responsible.The shuttles are now being retired, Atlantis to Kennedy Space Centre, Discovery to Smithsonian Institute, Endeavour to California ScienceCentre.; where they would be stationed for learning, inspiring and to remind people about the golden era.What the forthcoming generations go on to explore might be far more exceptional than this feat ,but this era of spaceachievements have been bookmarked in the human timeline.
9 P. Chawla, A. Aggarwal, Asteroid Discoverers, BBPS, Rajinder Nagar All India Asteroid Search Campaign 2011 SPACE in collaboration with IASC brought All India Asteroid Search Campaign to India for the 2nd year in a row. The program includes giving exclusive access to astronomy datasets of the sky provided by various observatories to hunt for asteroids. The ARI Observatory in Arizona is used to taking images along the ecliptic using its 36 inch and 24 inch telescope, targeting NEOs. 62 schools and amateur astronomy organizations from different parts of India including Delhi and NCR, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Maharashtra, Karnataka and other states participated. The schools download and analyzed the images, searching for moving objects that may be asteroids. AIASC 2011 was conducted in two phases, Phase I from May to June, and Phase II from July to August, each for a period of 45 days.This year, India had remarkable achievements including a rare Trojan Asteroid discovery, 5 Provisional Asteroid Discoveries and 52Preliminary asteroid discoveries. The ten students who have discovered an asteroid may get to name it later in time. Besides this, therewere 8 NEO Confirmations and 298 NEO Observations. A u t u m n a l E q u i n o x : P r o j e c t P a r i d h i - S e p t 2 3 rd SPACE embarked upon yet another international citizen science project to measure the size of the Earth with measuring shadows– “Project Paridhi “. Students from various schools became a part of it. Under this project students replicated it and in fact took actual measurements of the shadows made by Sun to gather the size of Earth and its shape as done 2300 years back by Eratosthenes. The project involved reading of shadows at local noon by pair of teams on the same longitude on the globe. Cities like New Delhi, Bangalore & Almata in Kazakhstan fall almost with one degree of longitude and readings taken at the same time from these cities tell us about the size and shape of the Earth. An educator explaining how to measure the size of the earth at Jantar Started on 23rd September, on the autumnal equinox day, this project initially will have a pan-Asian Mantar, astronomical observatory as a presence by having readings from India, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, china and part of Project Paridhi. Russia. The observation base will be extended to global arena by next winter solstice in Dec 2011. This project is a showcase for proving that science can be best learnt by doing. Visit http://www.space- india.org/spaceindiaorg/paridhi/
10 SOLAR ECLIPSE CONFERENCE - SEC INDIAThe International Solar Eclipse Conference (SEC), is for the first time being organized in AsiaPacific region by SPACE. It celebrates the pursuit of humans to unravel the phenomenon of solareclipses and to bring together on a single platform the excitement of travel, the joy ofphotography, the value of scientific research and recordings, of history and cultural implications,of demystifying this celestial event for public and to celebrate this event for fun and enjoymentoperation, support and help.Speakers for the conference are renowned chasers and scientists, including Sheridian Williams,Fred Espenak, Xavier Jubeir, Dr. Banerjee and many more. The conference is to be organizedfrom December 15-17, 2011 at New Delhi, India. Picture taken by an expedition member, during theRegistrations for the conference have already started; you can register yourself at www.eclipsechasers.in HELIODYSSEY ‘06 program conducted by SPACE in Turkey.Project Dark Skies: The Great Indian Star Count -GISCHave you ever wondered where all the stars have gone? Or why the stars appear soclose to touch when you are off to non commercial places ? or why the Milky waygalaxy is not visible with naked eyes?Project dark skies is an effort to bring back the charm of unpolluted ,star filled skies. It is a Let us count stars and fight light pollutiondedicated campaign for better use of lighting and other illumination devices used in our day today lives, which will lead to efficient use of electricity and saving of electrical energy. This willdirectly lead to less load on our natural fuel reserves.GISC as a part of Project Dark Skies, is an event for the astronomy fraternity in which they give something back to astronomy in the form of lesspolluted skies. GISC is an opportunity for amateurs and professional astronomers, public and students to count the stars seen in their city skiesand in turn allows us to estimate the level of light pollution, which in turn will be used in quantifying the light pollution. Projects dark skies is an initiative of SPACE . Be a part of the scientific study project to quantify light pollution in India by counting stars at night at your place. For more details log on to : http://www.projectdarkskies.org/
11 Member’s Speak"My Dream" “The trip was planned very well we had fun and education both at the same time and our tour I sat in a rocket director, Mr. Sachin Bahmba was very co-and bounded up to space, operative. SPACE TECHNOLOGY AND EDUCATIONthe asteroids all around me, ROCKS..!! 12 days I spend there was like d best 12Oh God! it was a race! days of my LIFE..!!And I would like to travel with space technology and education on further trips...I quickly landed on Mars, SACHIN SIR U R D BEST..!!U r d best educator everamongst the beautiful stars. seen...”Suddenly I saw four feet Ms. Atisha Kudesia, Space Camper, MVN school,I thought it was an alien Id meet. June-2011The alien spoke Marshian,I thought Ill go crazy with all thisconfusion!I ran to my rocketthe engine had failed,the alien started following me,"HELP ME!", I wailed. The best part of this achievement lies in the fact that, at this very moment there is something roaming around in space that I have discovered. And I know that this asteroid would stay upI tried to escape there forever and inspire me to make it big in this field and unravel the mysteries of thisI was in such a bad shape! universe.If Id listen to my parents Pragya Chawla, Asteroid Discoverer , Bal Bharati Public School, G.R.H. MargI wouldnt fall into trouble!Oh no! Its too late,Someone was eager to meet me,It was my Marshian mate!- Khushi Bhasin, 6 DStep by Step School Noida This page showcases the contributions of people linked to SPACE. We would love to build on this page further by way of your contributions. Send in your share of experiences in the form of any art, write ups, messages, feedbacks etc. to Editor at email@example.com. Also visit us at www.space-india.com
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