Air- Barrier paper- Housewrap It is a synthetic replacement material for sheathing tarpaper. It is preventing rain from getting into the wall assembly, while allowing water vapor to pass to the exterior.
Attic Ventilation – Ridge Vent Ridge Vent- A ventilator that is located that the ridge that allows the escape of warm and/or moist air from the attic area or rafter cavity.
Gable Vent Roof Turbine We need this to make sure that air is constantly being pushed through the attic. Soffit Vent
Backhoe A piece of excavating equipment or digger consisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two-part articulated arm. They are used for excavating material from a fixed position.
Brick Arches - Keystone The piece at the apex of an arch or vault.
Brick Arches – Centering of an Arch Centering – The struckture upon which the stones of arches or vault are laid during construction.
Brick Bonds – Common Bond The type of brick bond where there are a row of headers for every five rows of stretchers.
Brick Bonds – Flemish Bond A brick bond where the rows in the bond alternate between stretcher and header.
Brick Bonds - Soldiers A brick laid vertically with the narrow side exposed.
Brick Bonds- Rowlocks A brick laid horizontally on its longer edge so the shorter edge faces out.
Brick Bonds- Sailor A brick laid vertically with the broad side exposed.
Brick Bonds- Stretcher A brick laid horizontally, flat with the long side of the brick exposed on the outer face of a wall.
Brick Bonds- Header A brick laid flat with the short end of the brick exposed.
Brick Sizes- One different brick size 15 ½ X 3 ¾ X 3 ¾ This size is closest to the Utility Brick which is 11 ½ X 3 ½ X 3 1/2 .
Brick Sizes- Second different brick size 12 X 1 ½ X 3 ½ This is Closest to the Roman Style brick which is 11 ½ X 1 5/8 X 3 ½ .
Bulldozer A caterpillar tracked tractor (crawler), that is equipped with a metal plate on the front commonly known as a blade. It is used for pushing large quantities of soil, sand, and rubble during construction.
Wooden shingles is what is shown. Wood Shingles- A thin oblong piece of wood that is laid in overlapping rows to cover the roof or sides of a house. (Smooth or sawn wood) Wood Shakes- A thick wood shingle with an uneven surface from splitting, not sawing.
Code Requirements – Bedroom where you sleep Window must be 24” AFF if higher than 72” from the finished grade. The window doesn’t meet the requirement because it is only 21” AFF.
Code Requirements- Wood Framed Stairs Nose= 1in. Tread= 11in. Riser= 7 ½ in. The building code states that the tread has to at least be 10’’ and the riser has to at least be 7 ¾ ‘’, the nosing has to be between ¾ ‘’ and 1 ¼ ‘’. This staircase meets all of these requirements and therefore is in code.
Controlled joint that didn’t work A grove which is formed sawed or tooled in a concrete or masonry structure to regulate the location and amount of cracking and separation resulting from the dimensional change of different parts of the structure, thereby avoiding the development of high stresses.
Concrete Joints – Isolation Joint Isolation Joint- A pavement joint that allows relative movement in three directions and avoids formation of cracks elsewhere in the concrete. - This joint is separating the curb from the walkway.
CMU- 3 Bricks are equal to 1 CMU Concrete Masonry Unit- Large rectangular brick used in construction. Used in load bearing walls of buildings. The holes inside of the CMU allows rebar and concrete to run vertically through the block to compensate for the lack of tensile strength. The typical dimensions for a CMU is 8’’ X 8’’ X 16’’.
Concrete Masonry Unit – Two different size CMUs
Decorative Concrete Masonry Units- Split Face Block
Door – 6 Panel Door Top Rail Stile Lock Rail Panel Bottom Rail
Doors - Transom The window over a doors crosspiece.
Doors- Sidelight Sidelight- Tall, narrow windows that stand on one or both sides of a door to admit light and allow residents to see the person at the door.
Electrical Components – Power pole with Transformer Transformer- a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another. It transforms the power going into the house to either 110V, 115V, or 120V, depending on the power company. 1st Step
Electrical Component – Service head Where the wires from the city meet the residence. The service head also protects the wires from getting weathered and protects the insulation on the wires. 2nd Step
Electrical Components - Meter Device that measures the amount of electrical energy consumed by a residence , business, or and electrically powered device. 3rd Step
Electrical Components – Service Panel Usually installed near the service entrance, this panel contains the main switch or breaker to disconnect the house system from the power source as well as circuit breakers. 4th Step
Electrical Components- Duplex Receptacle The commonly used receptacle (outlet). Called “duplex” because it has two plug-in sockets. Generally has either 110V, 115V, or 120V depending on the power company. 5th Step
Front end Loader Has a front mounted square wide bucket connected to the end of the two booms or arms. It is used to scoop up loose material from the ground such as dirt, sand or gravel, and move it from one place to another. The difference between a front end loader and bulldozer is that is carries the material instead of pushing the material around on the ground. The difference between a front end loader and a backhoe is that the backhoe is stationary and the front end loader can move around with the material. The bucket is generally larger on a front end loader also.
Gypsum board Often referred to as drywall or Sheetrock. Flat sheet of the mineral gypsum, usually faced with paper, that is used as a building material for interior walls and ceilings.
Compressor/Evaporator The working fluid arrives at the compressor as a cool, low-pressure gas. The compressor squeezes the fluid. This packs the molecule of the fluid closer together. The closer the molecules are together, the higher its energy and its temperature.The working fluid leaves the compressor as a hot, high pressure gas and flows into the condenser. If you looked at the air conditioner part outside a house, look for the part that has metal fins all around. The fins act just like a radiator in a car and helps the heat go away, or dissipate, more quickly.When the working fluid leaves the condenser, its temperature is much cooler and it has changed from a gas to a liquid under high pressure. The liquid goes into the evaporator through a very tiny, narrow hole. On the other side, the liquid's pressure drops. When it does it begins to evaporate into a gas.As the liquid changes to gas and evaporates, it extracts heat from the air around it. The heat in the air is needed to separate the molecules of the fluid from a liquid to a gas.The evaporator also has metal fins to help in exchange the thermal energy with the surrounding air.By the time the working fluid leaves the evaporator, it is a cool, low pressure gas. It then returns to the compressor to begin its trip all over again. Advantage = Lower power bills. Disadvantage = High First cost.
Heat Pump- Air Handling unit A device used to condition and circulate air as part of a heating, ventilating, and air conditioned system. Advantage = Lower power bills. Disadvantage = High First cost.
Insulation – Batt/Blanket The Batts are precut pieces of insulation, whereas the blankets are continuous rolls of insulation. What its purpose is- The Batts are generally put between the studs because they are already precut to fit the general dimensions of the space between the studs, although they can be used in the attic and other places they are just harder to work with there. Blankets are generally used to insulate the attic by laying down one layer and then going back over it with another layer perpendicular to the previous one. By doing this you eliminate all of the air holes that are associated with ceiling joists. Overall Batt and Blankets are the best material for the price, and are in most of the houses in the world today.
Insulation – Loose Fill Loose Fill- Many times are made up of recycled materials, and is a type of cellulose. Loose fill can be blown into attics, finished wall cavities, and hard to reach areas which makes it a very good insulator by filling in all of the holes that Batt and Blanket might miss. It is generally sprayed into place with water based adhesives that helps the cellulose to stay in place. Loose fill is an excellent choice for attics because it covers the area very well, insulating the attic to a degree that is almost unmatched by all other types of insulation.
Insulation- Foamed The two component mixture comes together at the tip of the gun, and forms an expanding foam that is sprayed onto concrete slabs, into cavities of an unfinished wall, or through holes drilled in the wall cavity of a finished wall. What its purpose is- Blocks airflow from leaks and gaps, provides acoustical insulation, because the foam is expanding it covers walls better by filling in every little hole that batts or rigid board might have, and ultimately serves as a great insulator for buildings, especially basements and other concrete areas.
Insulation- Rigid Board Made from fibrous materials being fiberglass, rock, and slag wool, or from plastic foam. This type of insulation is used for many different purposes. There is types that are suitable for ground contact, and some, like the rigid board in this picture are just put on the exterior of the building for added insulation.
Lintel This is a concrete lintel that is on a brick wall. A Lintel- a horizontal block that spans the space between two supports. It is generally used for ornamental purposes and not for structural purposes, but can be in certain circumstances.
Mortar- Flush The Size of the mortar joint is 3/8 and it was trowled. The building that it was used on was a fraternity house, so the type of brick that was probably used was “S” because it is an exterior non load bearing wall.
Mortar- Concave The size of the mortar was 3/8 ‘’ and tooled. The type of building that it was used on was the science center building of the university. For this type of wall type “S” was probably used because it is a non load bearing exterior wall.
Oriental Strand Board Oriented strand Board – An engineered wood product created by laminating shreds of wood into sheets. Not a veneered product. How it’s made- rectangular wooden strips are compressed and bonded together with wax and resin adhesives.
Plumbing – Lavatory Lavatory- The bathroom sink. The Size Piping that is usually used is = 1 ½ inches in diameter.
Plumbing – Water Closet Water Closet- The Toilet. The size piping that is typically used= 3 inch in diameter piping is generally what is used.
Tub/shower installed without the gypsum board installed
Plumbing- plumbing vent What it does- It vents the gases produced by waste through the roof.
Plumbing – Kitchen Sink This is a Drop in style Kitchen sink. The size piping that is typically used is = 2 inch in diameter piping.
Plywood- 4X8 Sheet Plywood- Plywood is a manufactured wood, made by gluing together a number of thin veneers or plies of softwood or hardwood. Veneer – A thin decorative covering of fine wood applied to coarser wood or other material.
Radiant Barrier Radiant Barrier- A reflective service, on or near a building component, that intercepts the flow of radiant energy to and from the building component.
Rebar This rebar is ½ inch rebar which would be refered to as number 4 rebar. The deformations are to add more surface area so that the concrete has more area to bond too.
Steep Roof Drainage- Gutter A narrow channel, or trough, forming the component of a roof system which collects and diverts rainwater shed by the roof.
Steep Roof Drainage – Downspout A vertical pipe for carrying rainwater from a rain gutter to ground level.
Steep Roof Drainage- Splashblock A pad placed under the lower end of a downspout and diverts the water from the downspout away from the house. Usually made out of fiberglass or concrete.
Steep Roof Materials- under construction where the tar paper is exposed. Tarpaper- A heavy paper that is coated with tar that is waterproofed. What it is doing- it is put on top of the sheathing either on the roof or the exterior walls. This is done in order to further waterproof the building before the cladding or the final roof materials are installed.
Steep Roof Materials- Roof that is Clay Tile A thin flat slab of fired clay used for roofing. The clay is a very fine grained soil that is plastic when moist, but very hard when fired.
Steep Roof Materials- Shingle roof that isn’t Asphalt Shingle- A roof covering consisting of individual overlapping elements. They are normally flat rectangular shapes that are laid in rows without the side edges overlapping, the end result is a roofing material that is watertight.
Steep Roof Materials- Metal Panel Roof The typical materials that were used was galvanized or aluminized steel.
Steep roof shapes - Gable A slope falling from ridge to eave creating a peak or triangle on the side or front face.
Steep roof shapes - Gambrel A gabled roof that peaks at the ridgeline then falls away in a broad, low slope, breaks horizontally and changes to a steeper pitch. A gambrel roof has a broad upper story and side façade, and is often associated with barns.
Steep Roof shapes – Hip roof A roof formed from inclined, planar ends and sides, joined at their edges to form hips, the longer sides forming a ridge at the top.
Steep Roof Shapes- Mansard A four sided gambrel style hip roof characterized by two slopes on each of its sides with the lower slope at a steeper angle.
Steep Roof Terms – Ridge Horizontal line formed at the junction of the top edges of a roof’s surfaces.
Steep roof terms - Valley The junction where two roof surfaces at different pitches meet.
Steep Roof Terms - Eave Eave- The edge of a roof. Eaves usually project beyond the side of the building generally to provide weather protection.
Steep Roof Terms - Rake Rake- The edge of a gable roof system which runs parallel to the roof.
Steep Roof Terms - Soffit Soffit- The underside of a structural component, such as a beam, arch, staircase, or cornice. The term is typically used to refer to the flat horizontal area between the edge of the roof and the exterior veneer of the home.
Steep Roof terms- With Fascia A wide band of material covering the ends of roof rafters sometimes supporting a gutter.
Steep Roof Terms – Building with no Fascia Building with no Fascia- At the roof line the rafters will come down and hang over the exterior walls, without being boxed in by soffit and fascia.
Stone – Random Rubble Random rubble- Masonry that is composed of unsquared pieces of stone, and does not have continuous horizontal joint lines.
Stone- Random Ashlar Masonry composed of rectangular stones set without continuous joints.
Stone- Coursed Ashlar Square shaped stones that have definite horizontal lines.
Vapor Retarder Vapor Retarder- Treated paper or plastic that is either attached to insulation or plastic that is placed over unfaced, installed insulation to keep the moisture in the air from condensing in the insulated cavity. What side is the vapor retarder most commonly put?- It is installed on the Warm-In-Winter side, so in the south the vapor retarder is generally facing the interior of the building.
Waterproofing- Fully adhered Fully Adhered Waterproofing- Is said to be the best type of waterproofing because it limits leakage more efficiently by covering up all of the small crevices that may be on the lower part of the wall.
Weep Hole Weep Hole- Small openings left in the outer wall of masonry construction as an outlet for water inside the building to move outside the wall and evaporate.
Windows- Casement Window Casement Window- A window that is attached to its frame by one or more hinges. Type of Window that this is- “Outswinging Casement Window” because it is hinged along the side of the window and opens to the exterior of the building.
Window- Double hung Double Hung Window- A window having two sashes that slide up and down. It is double hung because the two sashes of the window slide up and down.
Window – Single hung (Edge West) Single Hung Window- A window with a fixed upper sash and movable lower sash that slides vertically. Type of Window that this is- The upper half of this window is fixed, while the bottom half slides up and down, making this a Single Hung Window