Visual Dictionary Material I April 26, 2010 Username : Sp10skylight
Air Barrier Paper Air Barrier Paper is applied to the exterior wall sheathing but underneath the exterior finish. It serves to prevent water and air infiltration. It helps weatherproof the structure.
Attic Ventilation Soffit Vents allow air to flow through the attic, allowing heat to escape. This helps cool the structure and save on energy costs. Also increases the life of the roof.
Attic Ventilation Ridge Vents are located on the ridge of the roof, which is typically the highest point in the structure. They allow heat to escape, which cools the structure. They often work in conjunction with soffit vents to provide ventilation.
Attic Ventilation Gable Vents are located at the very top of the gable; they create a draft through the attic, which helps ventilation.
Attic Ventilation Roof Turbine are wind powered and help suck hot air out of the structure.
Backhoe -a hydraulic excavating machine consisting of a tractor having an attached hinged boom, with a bucket with movable jaws on the end of the boom. -Typically used for excavation or the placing of backfill -This bucket was 24” wide
Batter Boards Batter boardsare the first step in building a square foundation. String lines are then connected between each set of batter boards to keep the foundation square.
Brick Arches Segmental Arch Roman Arch
Arch with a Keystone Centering- a temporary formwork for an arch, dome, or vault. Keystone
Brick Bonds Common or American Bond Row off headers with 5 rows of stretchers in between them. Running Bond Continuous rows of stretchers.
Brick Sizes Standard Brick 3 ½”x 8”x 2 ¼” King Size Brick 3”x 9 5/8”x 2 ¾”
Bulldozer -A large, powerful tractor having a vertical blade at the front end for moving earth, tree stumps, rocks, etc.
Cladding Brick Clad Structure
Cladding EFIS Clad Structure Stone Clad Structure with Random Ashlar
Cladding Wood shake siding can be made out of wood, composite material, concrete, or vinyl. They are assembled to overlap to prevent water intrusion. Real wood shakes are expensive to buy and maintain. Wood Board Clad Structure
Code Requirements This window meets the standard requirements. 29 ½” X 34 ½” = 7.0 ft2, sill height 44” The IBC requirements are 20” min. width, 24” min. height, 5.7 sq ft min. area.
Code Requirements These stairs meet the IBC code of a 10” minimum tread and a 7 ¾” max riser because the measurements meet the requirements. These stairs here measured 11 ½” treads and a 7 ½” riser.
Concrete Joints 1. 2. 1.Control Joints-Grooves cut into concrete surfaces to “control” cracking. They are basically designed to weaken the surface so that cracks occur there instead of somewhere else. 2.Isolation Joints-completely isolated the slab from something else. That something else can be a wall, column, drain pipe, etc.
Concrete masonry Unit 1. 2. -Large blocks used in construction that are made from cast concrete. The most common size for CMU is a nominal 8x8x16 block. Actual dimensions are slightly smaller to allow for mortar joints. 1 course of 8x8x16 CMU equals 3 courses of modular brick. 1. 4x8x16 2. 8x8x16
Decorative CMU Split Block Ribbed Block
Doors 1.Top Rail 2.Stile 3.Panel 4.Lock Rail 5.Bottom Rail Exterior Flush Door Exterior Panel Door
Doors Transom Sidelight Transom is a horizontal crosspiece over a door or between a door and a window above it. Sidelight is a window at the side of a door or another window.
Electrical Components Transformer Box Meter Head Service Head -Transformer Box- Converts the electricity from high voltage that travels through the power lines to the typical voltage (120 volts for lights, 240 volts for appliances). -Service Head- The service for this particular install comes from the ground rather on a line through the air. -Meter Head- This particular transformer features the meter head mounded on it. The meter reads Kilowatt-hours to shows how much energy the service user is consuming.
Electrical Components Service Panel Duplex Receptacle -Service Panel- Contains many breakers or fuses (older structures). Provides for a systematic distribution of power and allows for certain areas to be shut off for maintenance, etc. -Duplex Receptacle- The point at which the consumer uses the power. Lights, appliances, etc. are plugged in to receive power. They are both polarized and grounded.
Front End Loader -A loader having a shovel or bucket at the end of an articulated arm located at the front of the vehicle. -Differs from a bulldozer because of the ability to pick up and scoop, not just scrape and push. Does not have the control and digging power of a backhoe, but can load or carry more volume of load at a time.
Gypsum Board -Wallboard composed primarily of gypsum and often used as sheathing. (drywall)
Heat Pump Compressor/Condenser Air Handling Unit -Both cools and heats the structure according to the desired temperature. Consists of an inside air handler, and an outside compressor unit.
Insulation Blanket Loose Fill -This is Blanket Insulation. The purpose of insulation is to preserve the temperate of the interior of the house. It helps conserves energy costs and is the best way to conserve. - Loose fill insulation is the most cost effective and common type of attic insulation. It is blown in which allows it to easily fit into small cracks and crevices.
Insulation Foam Rigid Foam Board -Foamed Insulation is sprayed in and expands tremendously as it dries. It is great to fill in cracks around pipes (like shown above). It can also be used to insulate an entire home (but more expensive). It is very effective in energy conservation. -Rigid Foam Board is typically installed on the exterior walls of a structure, underneath cladding and air barrier paper.
Lintel -A horizontal architectural member supporting the weight above an opening, as a window or a door.
Mortar Raked Joint Tooled 3/8” House Type N Concave Joint Tooled 3/8” House Type N
Oriented Strand Board -OSB is manufactured from waterproof heat-cured adhesives and rectangular shaped wood strands that are pressed and arranged in cross-oriented layers, similar to plywood. This results in a structural engineered wood panel that shares many of the strength and performance characteristics of plywood. Produced in huge, continuous mats, OSB is a solid panel product of consistent quality with no laps, gaps or voids.
Plumbing Lavatory 1- ½” Piping Water Closet 3” Piping
Plumbing Manufactured Shower
Plumbing -Roof Vent is used to remove sewage gases from house. Drop-in Sink
Plywood -Plywood is a panel composed of an odd number of layers of wood veneer bonded together under pressure. -Veneer is any of the thin layers of wood glued together to form plywood. The outside facing veneer is typically better finished.
Radiant Barrier Radiant barrier is a reflective foil placed adjacent to an airspace in roof or wall assemblies as a deterrent to the passage of infrared energy.
Rebar -This rebar is 1/2” thick and if referred to as #4 rebar. Rebar is used to add tensile strength to concrete. The surface of the rebar is deformed so that it has a better grip to the aggregate in concrete and can have better tensile strength.
Steep Roof Drainage 1. 2. 3. 1.Gutter isa channel at the eaves or on the roof of a building, for carrying off rainwater. 2.Downspout is a pipe for conveying rainwater from a roof or gutter to the ground away from the foundation or to a drain. 3.Splash Block helps to disperse water from the downspout away from the foundation.
Steep Roof Materials -Underlayment is a waterproof material (felt paper) that is installed between the roof sheathing and roofing material (shingles, etc.). Helps weatherproof structure.
Steep Roof Materials Clay Tile Roof -Shingle is a thin piece of wood, slate, metal, asbestos, or the like, usually oblong, laid in overlapping rows to cove
Steep Roof Terms Ridge - the level intersection of roof planes at their highest point. Valley - the sloping intersection of two roof planes. Eave - the level, low edge of a roof. Rake - the sloping edge of a roof. Soffit - the underside of a horizontal element of a building. Fascia - a roll formed sheet metal fitting that covers the wood. No Fascia – end of rafters lack a fascia board.
Steep Roof Terms No Fascia
Stone Random Rubble Pattern Coursed Rubble Pattern
Stone Random Ashlar Pattern Coursed Ashlar Pattern
Vapor Retarder Vapor retarder is a layer of material intended to obstruct the passage of water vapor through a building assembly; also called a vapor barrier. It is most commonly faced inside and is called (warm in winter).
Waterproofing -This is liquid applied waterproofing. It seals under grade basement and crawlspace walls from moisture.
Weep Hole -The purpose of a weep hole is to allow water that enters a masonry wall to escape. The water condenses when it hits the air barrier within the wall, weeps down, and exits through the weep hole.
Welded Wire Fabric 8x8” Squares
Windows Single-Hung Window Lower window panel slide on sashes.
Windows Casement Window This casement window operates via crank and opens outward on a hinge.
Windows Double-Hung Window -Two sashes are able to travel along a track and open vertically. The most common in homes today.