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Completed visual dictionary



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  • 1. Sp10Concrete
    BSCI 2400
    April 25, 2010
    Visual Dictionary
  • 2. Air Barrier Paper
    A membrane that is applied over the sheathing in order to close up the joints and prevent air passage into the building.
  • 3. Attic Ventilation
    Important for allowing water vapor and heat to escape the attic space.
    Ridge Vent: a vent placed over the gap where the roof decking meets at the ridge
  • 4. Attic Ventilation Continued
    • Soffit Vent- allows air to come into the bottom of the attic so that the hot air can be pushed through the gable and ridge vents.
  • Attic Ventilation Continued
    Gable Vent- vent usually found on the upper portion of the house that allows heat and water vapor to escape
  • 5. Backhoe
    • Heavy machinery with a bucket used to dig footings for foundations and other excavation situations.
    • 6. 2 ft. bucket width
  • Batter Boards
    Boards used during the rough site work and excavation period to create the temporary outline of where the building will be constructed.
    Helps ensure the building footings will be square and straight.
  • 7. Brick Arches
    Radius Arch
  • 8. Brick Arches Continued
    Jack Arch
  • 9. Brick Arches Continued
    • Arch with a Keystone:
    • 10. Centering: the formwork used to support the arch during construction
  • Brick Bonds
    • Running Bond- All stretchers, each course offset by half a brick
    • 11. Flemish bond- stretcher and header alternate during course
  • Brick Bonds Continued
  • Brick Bonds Continued
    • Soldiers
    • 13. Stretcher Rowlocks
  • Brick Bonds Continued
    • Sailors
  • Brick Sizes
    Standard Brick:
    3½”X 2¼”X 8”
    Utility Brick:
    3½”X 3½” X 11 ½”
  • 14. Bulldozer
    • A piece of heavy equipment with a large blade on the front used to move large amounts of dirt around the site and set grade.
  • Cladding
  • 15. Cladding Continued
    Wood Shingles
    Shingles- sawn with smooth surface
    Shakes- split and have rougher exterior
    Random Rubble
  • 16. Cladding Continued
    • Wood Boards
  • Code Requirements
    • Bedroom Window:
    • 17. Minimum opening of 5.7 sq.ft.(only 5.0 if sill is less than 44” AFF)
    • 18. Minimum opening width:20”
    • 19. Minimum opening height: 24”
    • 20. Actual Measurements:
    26 ¾” h X 29 ½” w=
    5.48 sq.ft.
    21” AFF
    Window Meets Code
  • 21. Code Requirements Continued
    • Wood Stairs:
    • 22. Code: Tread: 10” minimum
    Riser: 7 ¾” maximum
    • Actual:
    Tread: 11 ¾”
    Riser: 7 ¼”
    Meets Requirements
  • 23. Concrete Joints
    • Control Joint- A groove cut into the concrete that is ¼ of the depth of the concrete slab
    • 24. Purpose: To intentionally create a point of weakness in the concrete to better control where it will crack instead of allowing it to crack randomly.
  • Concrete Joints Continued
    • Isolation Joint- Separates one slab of concrete from another slab, wall or column.
  • Concrete Masonry Unit(CMU)
    • A block of hardened concrete with or without hollow cores that comes in many different sizes and be filled in with concrete for additional strength.
    • 25. 1 CMU=3 Brick Courses
    • 26. Standard Size(Nominal):
    8” X 8” X 16”
    • Actual Size:
    7 5/8” X 7 5/8” X 15 5/8”
  • 27. CMU Continued
    • 4” Block
    • 28. 12” Block
  • Decorative CMU
    Split Block
    Ribbed Block
  • 29. Doors
    • Flush Door
  • Doors
    • Panel Door:
    Top Rail
    Lock Rail
    Bottom Rail
  • 30. Doors
    • Transom: a small window directly above a door
    • 31. Sidelight: a tall, narrow window alongside a door
  • Electrical Components
    • Power Pole with Transformer- Steps voltage down to desired amount (110/220 Volts)
    • 32. Service Head- Assembly by which electricity is conducted from outdoor lines to the meter base
  • Electrical Components
    • Meter- Keeps track of the amount of electricity being used.
    • 33. Service Panel- Contains the main disconnect and circuit breakers
  • Electrical Components
    • Duplex Receptacle: Used for plugging in household items such as lamps, phone, etc.
  • Framing Elements
    Anchor Bolts
    Sill Plate
    Floor Joists
  • 34. Framing Elements
    4. Subflooring
    5. Sole Plate
    6. Stud
    7. Top Plate
  • 35. Framing Elements
    8. Ceiling Joists
    9. Rafters
    10. Roof Decking
    11. Sheathing
  • 36. Front End Loader
    • Piece of heavy machinery used for transporting large amounts of soil or dirt from different points on the site or for loading dump trucks for the removal of the dirt from the site.
  • Gypsum Board
    • An interior facing panel consisting of a gypsum core between two paper faces.
    • 37. Usually sanded and painted
    • 38. Also known as “dry wall”
  • Heat Pump
    • Compressor/Evaporator: Compresses gases which gives off heat. The air cools as it blows across the cooling coils in the air handler
    • 39. Advantage: Highly efficient in mild climates
    • 40. Disadvantage: May need additional heating source in areas with very cold climates. Not used as much up north.
    • 41. Air handling unit: forces air through a duct system with a strong fan
  • InsulationPurpose: to reduce the heat flow through the assembly of a building
    Batt/Blanket- rolls or sheets of insulation easily installed between the studs in walls
    Loose Fill- fiberglass insulation blown into place between ceiling joists in attics
  • 42. Insulation
    Foamed- a mixture of two chemicals that react to form very affective insulation that also completely fills in cracks.
    Rigid Board- comes in 4’X8’ sheets and is used as exterior sheathing for basement walls
  • 43. Lintel
    • A beam that carries the load of a wall across a window or opening
    • 44. Steel lintel
  • Mortar
    • Flush Joint:
    • 45. Troweled
    • 46. 3/8” Joint
    • 47. Engineering Building
    • 48. Most likely Type S(Medium High Strength) Mortar
  • Mortar Continued
  • Oriented Strand Board(OSB)
    • A nonveneered building panel composed of long sheets of wood fiber oriented in specific directions and bonded together under pressure.
  • Plumbing
    Typical 1 ½” Drain Piping
    Water Closet
    Typical 3” Drain/Waste Pipe
  • 53. Plumbing
    Plumbing Vent
    Plumbing Vent: allows the plumbing system to drain by letting air in and eliminating the vacuum affect a closed drain would create
  • 54. Plumbing
    • Manufactured Shower/Tub
  • Plumbing
    • Drop-In Sink
  • Plywood
    • A wood panel composed of an odd number of layers of wood veneer bonded together under pressure.
    • 55. Veneer- A thin layer, sheet, or facing.
  • Radiant Barrier
    • A reflective foil placed adjacent to an airspace in the roof or wall to prevent the passage of infrared energy by reflecting it back.
  • Rebar
    • The deformations found on the rebar helps the concrete bond to the rebar for better support.
    • 56. Size: #4 Rebar (1/2”)
  • Steep Roof Drainage
    • Gutter- a channel that collects rainwater and snowmelt at the eave of the roof
  • Steep Roof Drainage
    • Downspout- a vertical pipe for conducting water from the roof to a lower level
  • Steep Roof Drainage
    • Splashblock-A small precast block of concrete or plastic used to divert water at the bottom of a downspout and prevent ground erosion.
  • Steep Roof Materials
    • Underlayment- Layer of waterproof materials that protects the sheathing from getting wet until the roofing can be applied.
    • 57. Also called building felt.
  • Steep Roof Materials
    Clay Tile Roof
  • 58. Steep Roof Materials
    • Shingles- Small units applied in overlapping layers with staggered vertical joints. Allows for expansion and contraction and vent water vapor easily
    • 59. Type- Wood Shakes
  • Steep Roof Materials
    • Metal Roof:
    • 60. Common materials- copper, aluminum, tin.
  • Steep Roof Shapes
  • Steep Roof Shapes
  • Steep Roof Terms
    • Ridge-top of roof where edges meet
    • 63. Valley-where two slopes come together
    • 64. Eave-lowest horizontal line
    • 65. Fascia- exposed vertical face of the eave
    • 66. Soffit- the underside of the roofing overhang
    • 67. Rake- a fascia on a slope
  • Steep Roof Terms
    • Building without a fascia:
  • Stone
    Random Rubble
    Coursed Rubble
  • 68. Stone
    Random Ashlar
    Coursed Ashlar
  • 69. Vapor Retarder
    • A layer of material intended to obstruct the passage of water vapor through a building assembly.
    • 70. Usually placed on inside of the building.
  • Waterproofing
    • An impervious membrane applied to the outside of the foundation to prevent water passage.
    • 71. Fully Adhered
  • Weep Hole
    • A small opening with the purpose of permitting the drainage of water that accumulates inside a building assembly.
  • Welded Wire Fabric
    • Laid inside form work prior to pouring concrete to provide better support for the concrete. Helps prevent cracking and separating during periods of freezing and thawing.
    • 72. Supported by high chairs.
    • 73. 6” X 6” grid
  • Windows
    Sliding Window- unlike hung and double-hung windows that move in the vertical direction, sliding windows open and close in the horizontal direction.
  • 74. Windows
    • Out-swinging Casement Window- hinged along the vertical edge of the window
  • Windows
    • Single-Hung Window: only the bottom sash can be opened and closed