Market value added


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Market value added

  1. 1. Market value added From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Market Value Added (MVA) is the difference between the current market value of a firm and the capital contributed by investors. If MVA is positive, the firm has added value. If it is negative, the firm has destroyed value. The amount of value added needs to be greater than the firm's investors could have achieved investing in the market portfolio, adjusted for the leverage (beta coefficient) of the firm relative to the market. The formula for MVA is: where: MVA is market value added V is the market value of the firm, including the value of the firm's equity and debt K is the capital invested in the firm MVA is the present value of a series of EVA values. MVA is economically equivalent to the traditional NPV measure of worth for evaluating an after-tax cash flow profile of a project if the cost of capital is used for discounting.
  2. 2. Economic Value Added In corporate finance, Economic Value Added or EVA, is an estimate of a firm's economic profit – being the value created in excess of the required return of the company's investors (being shareholders and debt holders). Quite simply, EVA is the profit earned by the firm less the cost of financing the firm's capital. The idea is that value is created when the return on the firm's economic capital employed is greater than the cost of that capital. This amount can be determined by making adjustments to GAAP accounting. There are potentially over 160 adjustments that could be made but in practice only five or seven key ones are made, depending on the company and the industry it competes in. Contents 1 Calculating EVA 2 Comparison with other approaches 3 Relationship to market value added 4 Integrating EVA and PBC 5 See also 6 References 7 External links Calculating EVA EVA is net operating profit after taxes (or NOPAT) less a capital charge, the latter being the product of the cost of capital and the economic capital. The basic formula is: where: , is the Return on Invested Capital (ROIC); is the weighted average cost of capital (WACC); is the economic capital employed; NOPAT is the net operating profit after tax, with adjustments and translations, generally for the amortization of goodwill, the capitalization of brand advertising and others non-cash items. EVA Calculation: EVA = net operating profit after taxes – a capital charge [the residual income method] therefore EVA = NOPAT – (c × capital), or alternatively
  3. 3. EVA = (r x capital) – (c × capital) so that EVA = (r-c) × capital [the spread method, or excess return method] where: r = rate of return, and c = cost of capital, or the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC). NOPAT is profits derived from a company’s operations after cash taxes but before financing costs and non-cash bookkeeping entries. It is the total pool of profits available to provide a cash return to those who provide capital to the firm. Capital is the amount of cash invested in the business, net of depreciation. It can be calculated as the sum of interest-bearing debt and equity or as the sum of net assets less non-interest-bearing current liabilities (NIBCLs). The capital charge is the cash flow required to compensate investors for the riskiness of the business given the amount of economic capital invested. The cost of capital is the minimum rate of return on capital required to compensate investors (debt and equity) for bearing risk, their opportunity cost. Another perspective on EVA can be gained by looking at a firm’s return on net assets (RONA). RONA is a ratio that is calculated by dividing a firm’s NOPAT by the amount of capital it employs (RONA = NOPAT/Capital) after making the necessary adjustments of the data reported by a conventional financial accounting system. EVA = (RONA – required minimum return) × net investments If RONA is above the threshold rate, EVA is positive. Comparison with other approaches Other approaches along similar lines include Residual Income Valuation (RI) and residual cash flow. Although EVA is similar to residual income, under some definitions there may be minor technical differences between EVA and RI (for example, adjustments that might be made to NOPAT before it is suitable for the formula below). Residual cash flow is another, much older term for economic profit. In all three cases, money cost of capital refers to the amount of money rather than the proportional cost (% cost of capital); at the same time, the adjustments to NOPAT are unique to EVA. Although in concept, these approaches are in a sense nothing more than the traditional, commonsense idea of "profit", the utility of having a separate and more precisely defined term such as EVA is that it makes a clear separation from dubious accounting adjustments that have enabled businesses such as Enron to report profits while actually approaching insolvency.
  4. 4. Other measures of shareholder value include: Added value Market value added Total shareholder return. [1] Relationship to market value added The firm's market value added, or MVA, is the discounted sum (present value) of all future expected economic value added: Note that MVA = PV of EVA. More enlightening is that since MVA = NPV of Free cash flow (FCF) it follows therefore that the NPV of FCF = PV of EVA; since after all, EVA is simply the re-arrangement of the FCF formula. Integrating EVA and PBC Recently, Mocciaro Li Destri, Picone & Minà (2012)[2] proposed a performance and cost measurement system that integrates the EVA criteria with Process Based Costing (PBC). The EVA-PBC methodology allows us to implement the EVA management logic not only at the firm level, but also at lower levels of the organization. EVA-PBC methodology plays an interesting role in bringing strategy back into financial performance measures.
  5. 5. What is the difference between economic value added and market value added? Economic value added (EVA) is a performance measure developed by Stern Stewart & Co that attempts to measure the true economic profit produced by a company. It is frequently also referred to as "economic profit", and provides a measurement of a company's economic success (or failure) over a period of time. Such a metric is useful for investors who wish to determine how well a company has produced value for its investors, and it can be compared against the company's peers for a quick analysis of how well the company is operating in its industry. Economic profit can be calculated by taking a company's net after-tax operating profit and subtracting from it the product of the company's invested capital multiplied by its percentage cost of capital. For example, if a fictional firm, Cory's Tequila Company (CTC), has 2005 net after-tax operating profits of $200,000 and invested capital of $2 million at an average cost of 8.5%, then CTC's economic profit would be computed as $200,000 - ($2 million x 8.5%) = $30,000. This $30,000 represents an amount equal to 1.5% of CTC's invested capital, providing a standardized measure for the wealth the company generated over and above its cost of capital during the year. Market value added (MVA), on the other hand, is simply the difference between the current total market value of a company and the capital contributed by investors (including both shareholders and bondholders). MVA is not a performance metric like EVA, but instead is a wealth metric, measuring the level of value a company has accumulated over time. As a company performs well over time, it will retain earnings. This will improve the book value of the company's shares, and investors will likely bid up the prices of those shares in expectation of future earnings, causing the company's market value to rise. As this occurs, the difference between the company's market value and the capital contributed by investors (its MVA) represents the excess price tag the market assigns to the company as a result of it past operating successes.