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  • 1. International IDEA The International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance 15 years 1995 – 2010 Supporting Democracy Worldwide 15 stories on democracy support »
  • 2. 15 years 1995 – 2010 Supporting Democracy Worldwide © International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance 2010 Views expressed in this publication do not necessarily represent the views of International IDEA, its Board or its Council of Member States. graphic design: KSB Design/Kristina Schollin-Borg photos: Fredrik Naumann/Panos Pictures (cover), University of Newcastle, Australia (p 10), Aldas Kirvaitis (p 12), Gerry Lauzon (p 14), Dominique Kramer (p 16), Adam Gault/Getty Images (p 18), IDEA/Peru (p 20), Adam Wiseman (p 22), Hans Hendriksen (p 24), Rita Rai and Cecilia Bylesjö/ IDEA (p 26), UN Photo/Joao Araujo Pinto (p 28), Hughes Léglise-Bataille (p 30), Mihai Potirniche/ © European Union, 1995–2010 (p 32), Wayan Vota (p 34), UN Photo/Albert Gonzalez Farran (36) printed: Trydells Tryckeri AB, Sweden ISBN: 978-91-85724-99-4 15 stories on democracy support »
  • 3. 15 Years of Democracy Building created an appetite for knowledge beyond electoral Very early on International IDEA stated that genuine management and the best electoral system – a quest democratization could not occur without the full For the past 15 years International IDEA’s that seeded work on political parties, gender in participation of women in political life. Accordingly, vision has been to support democracy building politics, conflict resolution and reconciliation, and one of IDEA’s early handbooks, Women in worldwide. What was not so evident when the constitution building. Parliament: Beyond Numbers, first published in 1998, Institute started up was just how it would go about became a seminal work. Today gender issues permeate From the outset International IDEA has applied everything IDEA does and are integrated into all of doing this. one principle consistently, one which is reflected its programmes and knowledge resources. Clearly though, as many authoritarian and in all of its handbooks and other knowledge undemocratic governments were collapsing around resources – there is no single prescription for how Building capacity and strengthening elections the world, a pressing need was emerging for more to improve and deepen democracy! Consequently, management is a priority in many different knowledge on electoral systems and practical the Institute develops its knowledge resources countries. Recognizing the growing potential information on how to run elections. So this is based on the comparative experiences of for information technology to provide access to where IDEA started. democracy building in countries around the knowledge and information across the world, world, knowledge that can then be selected, International IDEA and its partners instigated the Out of this work came the Institute’s first started looking at democracy opportunities in deep adapted and applied by people in other countries development of two landmark resources: the ACE handbook, a classic work, the handbook of rooted conflict, and building comparative knowledge in their own contexts in their own time. Electoral Knowledge Network in 1998 that makes Electoral Systems Design. In retrospect, the resources on elections management, codes of material on elections available worldwide – and knowledge contained in this book laid down the conduct, political parties and more. Where exactly does this information come from? Not which has become the most dynamic collections foundation for IDEA’s subsequent work. just political scientists and academics – who certainly of information in its field – and the BRIDGE Against this background, International IDEA was play a key role – but, importantly, from the valuable training curriculum in 2000, which is probably the The Institute realised quickly that, although properly invited to facilitate local dialogues on democratic networks of election administrators, politicians, civil world’s most comprehensive training programme managed free and fair elections were important to development in several countries including Burkina society and others involved in conducting democratic for electoral management. democracy, they were not the be-all and end-all of Faso, Georgia, Guatemala and Nigeria. Questions processes. In short, empowerment through access it: other issues needed to be addressed and resolved raised in these deliberations about how to make to, and sharing of, information and advice based on IDEA’s in-country work attempts to give a local for democracy to take root. So, early on, IDEA a country and its institutions more democratic proven experience. voice to democracy reform; to foster local ownership 5
  • 4. of the reform process. Starting with dialogues, New Partnership for Africa’s Development such Table of contents IDEA later formed a partnership with the UK Audit that, in 2008, a Joint Activity Plan to implement team from Essex University and established the State the African Charter for Democracy, Elections and 15 Years of Democracy Building ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4 of Democracy methodology, putting the means of Governance was launched. assessing democracy and coming up with a reform 1 Elections: a continuous cycle ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8 agenda in the hands of normal citizens. These are all small but bold steps contributing towards democracy building processes. They are a 2 Platforms for pushing reform in Burkina Faso and Georgia ………………………………… 10 Democratic reform often stems from the design reflection of the determination and commitment 3 Reconciliation after conflict …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12 or implementation of constitutions. IDEA has of our Member States – mainly small and medium- 4 Peru’s first political parties law …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 14 developed considerable experience supporting sized democracies from all continents – that support inclusive constitution building processes from our Institute. They are a reflection of the Institute’s 5 Knowledge empowers democracy ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 16 countries as far apart and with different issues as credibility, flexibility and its ability to play a neutral 6 Global training meets local needs ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 18 Nepal and Bolivia. role and bring opposing parties or factions together 7 Multiplying knowledge and skills in Peru ………………………………………………………………………… 20 to discuss a common reform agenda. They are Along the way, IDEA digested the lessons of its a reflection of the strength and value of IDEA’s 8 Changing political party rules in Mexico …………………………………………………………………………… 22 own experience and engaged more assertively in the knowledge resources and practitioner networks built 9 Taking the pulse of a country’s democracy ……………………………………………………………………… 24 wider policy debate about what constitutes effective up over the past 15 years. electoral assistance. In 2003, IDEA was granted 10 Sitting trust at the table of negotiations in Nepal ……………………………………………………… 26 Observer status by the United Nations General Most of all, they are a reflection of the efforts of 11 Spotlight on democracy building in the UN ……………………………………………………………………… 28 Assembly. Moreover, it has developed a strong and the many individuals and organizations committed 12 Advocacy triggers tangible electoral results in Bolivia ……………………………………… 30 continuing relationship with the European Union to bringing about democratization in their own marked most recently in 2009 by the compilation of countries. Here are 15 of their stories. 13 From regional consultations to EU policy ………………………………………………………………………… 32 views from other regions about the EU’s democracy 14 Africa’s commitment to democracy ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 34 policy and assistance programmes. International 15 Collaborative learning across political parties in Sudan …………………………………… 36 IDEA has also developed ties with the African Union following on from its engagement with the vidar helgesen, Secretary-General International IDEA at a glance ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 38 7
  • 5. 1 15 stories on democracy support Elections: a continuous cycle E F F E c T I V E E l E c T o R A l A S S I S TA n c E T PuBlIcATIonS he electoral cycle approach has become the gold standard for in electoral processes. This tool has become known as was officially endorsed by the EC and UNDP for d A Making Electoral Assistance tio n p erio Electoral Management Bodies (EMBs), assistance providers and the Electoral Cycle Approach. every electoral assistance project from the moment lec Effective: From Formal os t-e Institutional Constitution donors to determine the most effective form of electoral assistance the Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of Commitment to Actual p Strengthening “We drew a circle on the wall,” says Paul Guerin, Audits & & Professional Legislation required in any given country. This approach considers not only Electoral Assistance was signed in April 2006. Implementation (ACE “Focus IDEA Senior Programme Manager. “It’s a Evaluations Development Electoral System & Boundaries those activities undertaken on Election Day, but also the whole on…” Series) (2009) also Voter Lists Legal Reform simple visual tool that has been adopted by As a means to spread the knowledge about available in French series of activities and processes undertaken after, between and leading Update Electoral Bodies Archiving & Research Codes of Conduct main assistance providers and donors, such as the approach IDEA worked with the EC and up to each election – in other words, the entire electoral cycle. Electoral A Electoral Management the European Commission and United Nations Official Results Budgeting, Funding & Financing assistance projects in countries like the Democratic Republic of Congo, UNDP to build a five day training course on the Design: The International Complaints and Post-Election Legal Development Programme, and to which the UN subject specially targeting development agencies, IDEA Handbook (2008) also East Timor, Sierra Leone and Togo, which were considered successfully Framework Election Calendar Appeals Recruitment & Secretary General’s report to the General Assembly electoral assistance providers, donors and Electoral available in Arabic Tabulation of implemented, were informed by the electoral cycle approach. ion period Results Procurement Verification Planning & in 2009 refers.” (see page 28). Management Bodies. of Results Implementation Logistics & Security onlInE the electoral In the late 1990s, after the fall of the Berlin wall, many countries cycle The concept of the electoral cycle, which focuses It was piloted in Brussels and Tanzania in 2006. p Voting organized multiparty elections for the first time. The main challenges A AcE – The Electoral elect Operations Training and on the post-election period and the possibilities Since then it has been held in Accra, Dar es Salaam, Knowledge network Vote Counting and Election Education Operational Training that faced those elections were identified as lack of experience and a Day for Election Officials of providing long-term support and developing www.aceproject.org/ re-e Voting Electoral Voter Civic Education knowledge gap. The international community was keen to provide Maputo and Milan. Because of its popularity, an Special & local capacity in between elections, rapidly electoral-advice/electoral- lec External Voting Campaign Registration Voter Information assistance to these elections, but the knowledge and experience on eLearning course was developed in 2008 as a means tio assistance/electoral-cycle gained consensus among practitioners and of widening access to such training. n p their side was also limited, and support often resulted in short-term er development agencies. Its conceptualization was Campaign io Media Voters Registration and costly interventions focusing on isolated electoral events. d Coordination Access Breaches Code of Observers Accreditation completed with the publication of the European The “paradigm shift” towards the electoral cycle Domestic Observers & Penalties Conduct Parties & Candidates Recognizing the obstacles to the implementation of long-term assistance, Commission Methodological Guide on Electoral approach has now taken root. There is still Party Financing International IDEA and the European Commission (EC) developed a Assistance, the International IDEA Handbook considerable work to be done before this evolution can visual planning and training tool in 2004 that could help development on Electoral Management Design and the UN be completed however; capacity building, both at the agencies, electoral assistance providers and electoral officials in partner Development Programme (UNDP) Electoral development agency and partner country level, will be countries to understand the cyclical nature of the various challenges faced Assistance Implementation Guide. This approach the way forward to continue its implementation. 9
  • 6. 2 15 stories15 stories on democracy support on democracy support Platforms for pushing reform in Burkina Faso and Georgia D I A l o G u E S F o R D E M o c R AT I c D E V E l o P M E n T I PuBlIcATIonS n a number of fledgling democracies – such as Burkina Faso avenues for democratic development and thereby The Rose Revolution of 2003 underscored the public’s and Georgia – it was the local people themselves rather than generate new dynamics to advance democracy.” desire for democratic structures which involved limits A Democracy in Burkina Faso (1998) the international community that led dialogues to work out to presidential power. Opposing positions needed the reforms needed to improve democratic processes and The government responded positively to the to be reconciled and IDEA played a central role in A The Reform of the Electoral institutions. These ‘dialogues for democratic development’ conclusions emerging from the dialogues to make facilitating the dialogues that brought people together System in Burkina Faso reforms in the political system. It established a cabinet (1999) included politicians, political parties, academics, NGOs and to agree on solutions to the concerns including the civil society, the media and others with a vested interest in of national unity and created a truth commission to conduct of elections, the balance of power between A Democracy at the Local securing a democratic future. investigate past crimes and end impunity. the parliament and the presidency, and increasing the Level: A Guide for the South Caucasus (2003) also At the time IDEA left Burkina Faso the reins for level of participation in political life. available in Russian In both Burkina Faso and Georgia International IDEA played the role of ‘honest broker’, bringing opposing forces promoting democracy lay in the hands of the Centre IDEA has long since closed operations in Georgia, together on neutral ground. As the dialogues progressed, for Democratic Governance (CDG), an NGO but key partner organizations such as the Caucasus IDEA convened meetings for the partners and supported established with the help of IDEA. Today this NGO Institute for Peace, Democracy and Development them with a broad range of information, allowing them to still lobbies on issues like constitutionalism and and the Centre for Democratic Studies continue to make concrete recommendations towards reform on electoral electoral reform. this day to push the debate forward. systems, voting methods, conflict resolution, options for In Georgia a similar dialogue process occurred with social inclusion, gender quotas, the role of EMBs, political local people taking charge and coming together parties and electoral dispute resolution mechanisms. to reflect on their situation and articulate a “The CDG brings together the governing In Burkina Faso one of the earliest dialogues took place in 1997. reform agenda some ten years after independence. majority and the opposition, which is quite In 2001 IDEA was asked to coordinate a two The aim, according to Senegal’s Adama Dieng, distinguished international lawyer and former IDEA board member, was “to year programme of dialogues among activists, an achievement in the local context.” increase the opportunities for dialogue, consensus-building and practitioners and academics to tease out a vision augustin loada, Director, Centre for Democratic Governance, consultation within the Burkinabe society . . . to suggest new for Georgia. Burkina Faso 11
  • 7. 3 15 stories15 stories on democracy support on democracy support Reconciliation after conflict D E M o c R A c Y A n D R E c o n c I l I AT I o n C PuBlIcATIonS ountries with vastly different Preventing a recurrence of previous conflict is an It is important to understand that reconciliation histories such as Cambodia, essential element in building lasting democracy, is not only about forgiveness, morality, religion A Traditional Justice and Guatemala, Northern Ireland, and is the focus of International IDEA’s studies or sentiment; it can also have a pragmatic effect, Reconciliation after Violent Conflict: Learning from Rwanda and Zimbabwe have each on reconciliation. Drawing on examples of as a tool to learn about how to coexist. African Experiences (2008) managed reconciliation processes healing, justice, truth telling and reparation also available in French And reconciliation does not happen overnight; its as a means to emerge from periods from Guatemala, Northern Ireland, Rwanda A Verdad, justicia y repa- impact might be felt in generations to come so a of violent conflict towards greater and South Africa, International IDEA published ración: desafíos para la focus on long-term processes is needed. democracy. Their experiences in turn its first handbook Reconciliation After Violent democracia y la convivencia have been used to find pathways Conflict in 2003 that highlights lessons that can social (Truth, Justice and towards democracy in similar situations be considered when addressing similar situations Reparations: challenges for democracy and social elsewhere. around the world. coexistence) (2005) Reconstructing broken ties between The handbook is available in French and associated “Creating trust and understanding A Reconciliation After Violent people after a violent conflict or finding Conflict: A Handbook (2003) a means of peaceful coexistence is as material has been developed in Sinhala, Tamil, Burmese and Spanish to meet country-specific between former enemies is a also available in French urgent as rebuilding infrastructure and needs. supremely difficult challenge. onlInE facilities. As South African Archbishop Desmond Tutu said, “Creating trust and Having been through the process himself, It is, however, an essential one to A Reconciliation Resource understanding between former enemies Archbishop Tutu said about the book, “The address in the process of building network www.idea.int/rrn is a supremely difficult challenge. It is, practical tools and lessons from experience however, an essential one to address in presented in the handbook will inspire, assist and a lasting peace.” the process of building a lasting peace.” support others in their supremely important task.” desmond tutu, Archbishop Emeritus, South Africa 13
  • 8. 4 15 stories15 stories on democracy support on democracy support Peru’s first political parties law PolIT Ic Al PART Y RulES P PuBlIcATIonS eru has made significant progress reform agenda and come up with a bill to regulate in 2008 aimed at Latin American audiences towards restoring the credibility the parties. Experience of party regulation in other containing 95 best practices for promoting greater A Ley de Partidos Políticos: of its political institutions and countries – particularly in other Latin American participation by women in political life. La construcción de un con- senso (Political party law: reclaiming civil liberties after the countries – was compiled for the working group building consensus) (2004) Even though passage of the new law on parties collapse in 2000 of the Fujimori by International IDEA and Peru’s Asociación in Peru in 2003 was groundbreaking, it is clear A Del dicho al hecho: Manual presidency that was tainted by Civil Transparencia. This information formed the that the real work for the parties lies in the de buenas practicas para la corruption and authoritarianism. basis of several dialogues held among experts and participación de mujeres en implementation phase, as significant internal practitioners who were brought together from across los partidos políticos lati- A key initiative in the process was reforms and modernization efforts are necessary if Latin America to exchange their knowledge and noamericanos (From Words the establishment of a Truth and parties are to fully comply with the law. to Action: Best Practices for practical experience with their Peruvian counterparts. Reconciliation Commission and the Women’s Participation in adoption by the Peruvian Congress in When it came to drafting the legislation, IDEA Latin American Political 2003 of legislation to reform political Parties) (2008) also available was requested to provide technical inputs into the in English parties. construction of the regulations covering the official “Re-establishing laws to govern and registration of parties, the supervision by the National strengthen political parties was critical,” Office for Electoral Processes, the internal elections, the limits to private financing and media exposure. explains Kristen Sample, IDEA’s Head of Mission of the Andean Region, “The drafting of the law showed that it is “especially considering that democracy The new law also set a 30 per cent quota for women in both general and internal party possible to get members of political parties … was constantly interrupted.” elections. “If parties are the gate-keepers of to discuss issues of common interest that lead The journey began with the 12 main political life, it is important for them to work in a gender-friendly way,” Sample argues. To support to the development of a specific product.” political parties coming together in a working group to develop a common the ambition of the law IDEA published a manual percy medina, Secretary-General, Asociación Civil Transparencia, Peru 15
  • 9. 5 15 stories15 stories on democracy support on democracy support Knowledge empowers democracy nETWoRKS AnD RESouRcES W onlInE hat started back in 1998 as a project to make material on elections Adding to its appeal is the facility for people to such as the Voter Turnout database, a statistical available worldwide – the Administration and Cost of Elections obtain advice direct from some 200 electoral compilation of voter turnout in all presidential and A AcE – The Electoral Knowledge network (ACE) Project – has become the most dynamic collection of experts located around the world. For example, parliamentary elections since 1945, the iKNOW www.aceproject.org information in its field, currently accessed on the internet by 1.2 when the Zimbabwean Electoral Support Network Politics (International Knowledge Network of A iKnoW Politics million visitors per year. Now called the ACE Electoral Knowledge (ZESN) sought guidance in 2009 on what Women in Politics) network that aims at increasing www.iknowpolitics.org Network, the project provides a platform for global, regional, national, constituted fair rules for appointing a new electoral the participation and effectiveness of women in governmental and non governmental players to share expertise on electoral commission, they used that advice to put pressure political life, among others (see box). A Voter Turnout database www.idea.int/vt management. on the government. A unified Database: How big should a polling station be in relation to the number of voters it IDEA is one of the original ACE partners, hosting community-supported serves? What size budget is required for voter registration? What is the best the secretariat and continuing to participate democracy and election data format for ballot papers? What needs to happen to allow for voting from in its growth. The present partners include www.idea.int/uid abroad? the Electoral Institute for the Sustainability of Democracy in Africa (EISA), Elections Canada, These are all questions ACE can provide answers to, or a range of options the Federal Electoral Institute of Mexico (IFE), on. “The goal is not to provide election professionals with a prescription the International Foundation for Electoral Systems of what to do,” explains Ola Pettersson, Assistant Programme Officer at (IFES), the UN Department for Social Affairs International IDEA, “but to facilitate informed decisions.” (UNDESA), the UN Development Programme “Some issues are not in textbooks so getting And, as if ACE isn’t encyclopaedic enough, it is constantly being expanded (UNDP) and the UN Electoral Assistance Division it from the practitioners is always practical and updated. Most of this work is done by the ten ACE Regional Electoral (UNEAD), with the European Commission as an Resource Centres located throughout the world. These Centres ensure ex-officio member. and relevant. In most cases responses are that ACE is a living, growing resource by adding material based on ACE is supplemented by other web based received speedy and timely.” developments in their own regions and in their own languages. resources developed by IDEA and its partners rindai chipfunde, Director, Zimbabwean Electoral Support Network 17
  • 10. 6 15 stories15 stories on democracy support on democracy support E l E c T o R A l A D M I n I S T R AT I o n Global training meets local needs PuBlIcATIonS A Electoral Management Design: The International I IDEA Handbook (2008) also available in Arabic n 2010 the global training curriculum for election Apart from the professional empowerment of Currently in its second version, BRIDGE now aims administrators, BRIDGE (Building Resources in Democracy, successive generations of BRIDGE participants, at expanding its success with Electoral Management A Direct Democracy: The International IDEA Governance and Elections), won the UN Public Service there is a multiplier effect as knowledge is passed Bodies and targeting others such as observer Handbook (2008) Award in the category Improving the delivery of public services on to colleagues as local training is provided by groups, media, civil society and the security forces. for contributing towards more effective and responsive public BRIDGE accredited facilitators. BRIDGE is also evolving to become more geared A Electoral System Design: The New International administration in countries worldwide. towards democracy and governance – trialled IDEA Handbook (2005) “In my opinion the BRIDGE training is successfully in Bhutan and Vanuatu in 2009. The also available in Arabic, Developed in 2000, the comprehensive BRIDGE training curriculum very useful as it is based on the practical and inclusion of democracy and governance into the Burmese, French, Nepali, with its 24 modules represents the most ambitious attempt ever implementation methods,” says Ghanashyam BRIDGE curriculum will form an important new and Spanish undertaken to cover the spectrum of electoral processes. Coupled Bhandari, a district election officer from Nepal. growth point for the programme, fleshing out the onlInE with a facilitator accreditation programme, BRIDGE is the result This is corroborated by others who undertake full name of BRIDGE. of a partnership between five organizations: Australian Electoral A BRIDGE (Building the programme. The Chair of Uganda’s Electoral Commission, International IDEA, International Foundation of Resources in Democracy, Commission Dr Badru M Kiggundu says that Electoral Systems (IFES), UN Electoral Assistance Division, and the Governance and Elections): BRIDGE training undertaken by his staff in 2009 www.bridge-project.org UN Development Programme. has meant “an enormous capacity contribution to “Your institution’s outstanding A decade on, BRIDGE is now available in a wide range of languages, the human resource of my institution.” its curriculum has been adapted to different regions, and countless achievement has demonstrated excellence And in Mozambique for instance, the consequence thousands of electoral administrators have benefited from its training. of BRIDGE training for members of the Technical in serving the public interest and … it will The course emphasizes the principles underlying all properly Secretariat for the Administration of Elections be an inspiration and encouragement for run elections, while drawing practical examples from different during the lead up to the 2003 local government countries. A highly interactive approach is used for learning since elections resulted in less administrative errors others working for the public service.” peer-learning and sharing experiences with other participants is an being reported in the polling stations, despite the haiyan qian, Director, UN Division for Public Administration essential part of the training. occurrence of other irregularities. and Development Management 19
  • 11. 7 15 stories15 stories on democracy support on democracy support Multiplying know ledge and skills in Peru TRAInInG THE TRAInERS PuBlIcATIonS A MÓDULO AVANZADO DE FORMACIÓN POLÍTICA P (Advanced Course for Political Training) ublic perception and approval of peruvian How did it all begin? International IDEA and have delivered replica training exercises in their Economía y competitividad political parties has long been among the Transparencia started working with the parties in own social and political organizations so that (2005), Reforma y moderni­ lowest in the region. To improve their 2002–2003, initially focusing on Peru’s first-ever today, over 800 women have benefited. zación del Estado (2005), standing, the political parties called upon political party law, facilitating inter-party roundtables Comunicación política en And more recently, ahead of the 2010 general campañas electorales (2006), International IDEA and local partner to assist the process (see page 14). The outcomes of elections, International IDEA was involved in La equidad de género desde Asociación Civil Transparencia as long ago as the collaboration in later phases of the programme los gobiernos regionales y training 300 people from 42 political organizations 2002 to provide capacity building designed to have resulted in the members of national and regional locales (2007) on strengthening parties, equal opportunity, the strengthen political organizations. The programme parties developing their own strategies for promoting electoral system, governance issues and economic onlInE was designed to improve the country’s political multi-party political dialogue, for consensus building policies. Not only has this new phase of work organizations members’ and local leaders’ and for improving the parties’ internal agendas. A IDEA Internacional: involved developing web-based support for the knowledge on the role and responsibilities of Plataforma virtual Several political organizations have also organized participants but this support now serves as a ‘virtual (International IDEA: Virtual political parties, and on women’s participation and internet based courses; the one organized by the space’ (www.evirtual.com.pe/idea) for them to share Platform) leadership in political organizations. party “Perú Posible” for instance, was regarded their knowledge and experience among their peers. www.evirtual.com.pe/idea Built into the programme were modules on how as ‘very successful’ by its National Secretary of the participants themselves could train other Women’s Affairs, Isabel Montalvo Roel. members of their political organizations. Thus, by the time the second phase of the programme In 2008, around 100 women from political parties “I acquired much knowledge … which in 12 regions across the country embarked on a ended in December 2009, over 3,500 leaders had benefited directly or indirectly from the training, capacity building programme designed to equip strengthened my leadership … I was able to offer and at least four political organizations had them for political leadership, and dealing with many seminars myself about the same topics … media and equality issues. As well as strengthening implemented formal party training programmes of their own using International IDEA’s their leadership capabilities and improving the to other women and men in my party.” methodologies and training materials. quality of debate within their parties, these women isabel montalvo roel, National Secretary of Women’s Affairs of “Perú Posible” 21
  • 12. 8 15 stories15 stories on democracy support on democracy support D E M o c R AT I c R E F o R M S changing political party rules in Mexico T PuBlIcATIonS he political heat generated by the 2006 elections followed by a series of one-to-one meetings between purchase advertising in the broadcast media, which when Felipe Calderón won the Mexican Mexican legislators and IDEA staff that facilitated levelled the playing field and subverted the impact A Regulación jurídica de los partidos políticos en Amé- presidency by a margin of only 0.5 % over the their efforts to work through the various options. of money flowing into party treasures from illicit rica Latina (Legal Regula­ rival leftist candidate ensured that pressure for sources. It also meant that parties had to campaign tion of Political Parties in greater fairness and transparency in the electoral As the work progressed, politicians were able to more vigorously in communities across Mexico, Latin America) (2006) system could not be ignored. Shortly afterwards weigh the advantages and disadvantages of each ensuring greater contact with the concerns of the Senate embarked on an ambitious programme proposal. International IDEA further facilitated ordinary Mexican voters. of political and electoral reform which Congress the discussions among legislators who grappled with the question of political advertising in election The reform package was successfully tested in the adopted by the end of 2007. campaigns – whether to use a model of buying free 2009 federal mid term elections. Afterwards, the To begin this process the Senate needed specialized airtime in electronic media, or forbid it completely Mexican electoral authorities organized a seminar comparative knowledge on electoral matters and, in all media, or only allow it in electronic media – with support from International IDEA to assess in March 2007, invited International IDEA to and what types of sanctions need to be applied to the new laws. The assessment suggested that the assist by providing technical expertise on these those not complying with the rules. legislation needed to be adjusted to improve issues. The cooperation focused on two priorities: monitoring of radio and television, and the strengthening Mexico’s electoral institutions, and “IDEA’s approach was a consultative one, sanctioning powers of the electoral bodies needed injecting greater transparency into the financing of presenting several possibilities,” said Daniel strengthening. political parties. Zovatto, IDEA Director for Latin America based in Costa Rica. “Lawmakers,” according to Zovatto, The relationship between Mexico and IDEA Within a few months of signing a cooperation “were able to pluck what they judged most suitable continues to this day and, in 2010, Senate agreement, a Senate Committee and IDEA brought for their own realities.” President Carlos Navarrete is working to extend together specialists on party financing from across the Senate’s partnership with International IDEA Latin America to address the reform agenda. The And, as a result, the rules of the game changed to secure the Institute’s ongoing assistance to the initial “Mexico City” seminar held in August 2007 was substantially – parties were no longer able to country’s future political reform processes. 23
  • 13. 9 15 stories15 stories on democracy support on democracy support Taking the pulse of a country’s democracy S TAT E o F D E M o c R A c Y G PuBlIcATIonS iving the citizens of a country the ability to The SoD is the fruit of a partnership between the status of these three elements every year, assess their own democracy is a potent means of International IDEA and the UK Democratic monitoring progress using indicators specifically A Assessing the Quality of enlisting broad support for democratic reform. Audit. It was piloted in 2000 and guided by two developed for this purpose. Democracy: A Practical Guide (2008) also available This is what the State of Democracy (SoD) basic principles: “popular control over decision- in Spanish Today, International IDEA supports countries assessment framework has encouraged in over 20 making” and “equality among citizens in the conduct their respective SoDs by providing training onlInE countries since its introduction ten years ago. exercise of that control”. The methodology is and technical support as necessary on how to adaptable to old, new and emerging democracies A State of Democracy Take Mongolia: Mongolia chose to use the SoD conduct the assessments and coaching the national and allows for a broad spread of information to be network website in 2005–6. Its history suggested it was one of the assessment teams. IDEA’s comparative knowledge gathered, making the assessments more useful than www.idea.int/sod countries least likely to move towards internationally resources – handbooks on electoral systems or if they were only based on numbers. accepted models of democracy. Yet, the results of the political parties for example – are provided to assist assessment provided the government with some clear those reviewing their democracy to make more Thus, in the case of Mongolia, the assessment team indicators for improving democratic governance, informed judgments about their own situation. was able to customize the assessment methodology which led to a commitment to adopt a broad agenda to make it relevant to the Mongolian context, and for improving democracy, human rights and anti- ensuring that the views of Mongolia’s nomadic corruption. population were heard alongside that of academics State of Democracy is an analytical tool that can be and others located within cities with greater “Our government has incorporated the outcome used by the citizens of any country around the world experience of government. In fact, the Mongolian of the audit exercise into the country’s Millennium government incorporated the outcome of the audit to probe, question and assess the quality of their governments and democratic institutions. Strengths and used it as a basis from creating an additional Development Goals mix, by uniquely creating and weaknesses can be identified for example, in the national Millennium Development Goal, MDG a new goal, MDG 9, focused on Democracy, 9, focusing on democracy, human rights and electoral system, or in the parliament, the role of the media, in political parties and so on – which can lead anti-corruption (see page 28). Based on the Human Rights and Anti-Corruption.” towards the development of an agenda for reform. SoD framework Mongolia continues to examine h.e. ms. ochir enkhtsetseg, Permanent Representative of Mongolia to the UN 25
  • 14. 10 15 stories15 stories on democracy support on democracy support Sitting trust at the table of negotiations in nepal conSTITuTIon BuIlDInG PuBlIcATIonS A Creating the New Constitu- tion: A Guide for Nepali T Citizens (2008) also available in Nepali he signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2006 and Nepal’s Once the CA began its work, it formed various provided suggestions, and identified and analyzed Constituent Assembly (CA) elections two years later ended a decade thematic committees that were charged with outstanding issues and concerns arising from the A English-Nepali Glossary of Federalism Terms (2009) of Maoist insurgency and civil war, popular protest and constitutional preparing preliminary drafts and concept papers texts for consideration by the Assembly. stalemate. The resulting popularly elected 601-member Constituent for the new constitution. These committees A A Glossary of Constitutional Although the original timetable envisaged for the Terms English-Nepali (2007) Assembly formed in 2008 comprised 33 per cent women, 8 per cent Dalit consulted many different organizations and new constitution to be promulgated was May 2010, (up from 0), and the Maoist party becoming the biggest party in the legislature individuals, and sought the opinions of people onlInE the process at the time of writing has been delayed and the Constituent Assembly. The first meeting of the CA also ended the from all districts including Nepalese living for a further year due to a number of political A More resources on nepal centuries old monarchy and declared Nepal a republic. abroad. Studies and research carried out by differences that are presently being resolved. www.idea.int/asia_pacific/ various national and international institutions nepal Through the provision of a non partisan platform for dialogue, International were also taken into account, together with the IDEA has been supporting Nepal since 2006, working with political parties views from political parties, experts, civil society and civil society to design and to elect the Constituent Assembly and build the bodies, professional organizations and others. new constitution. In facilitating the dialogues, IDEA has been pushing for a Constituent Assembly and a constitution that is gender inclusive and supports Public consultations are planned to be held on “As a chair of this committee, I feel myself responsible the rights of minorities and ethnic groups, and provided its published works that the first draft constitution as well. for making every person participate in the process of contain comparative experiences from other countries around the world. At the CA’s bidding, International IDEA and constitution building. Linking public consultation Given the fractures within Nepalese society these processes have not always gone smoothly – underlining the need to build mutual trust before any consensus the Nepal Law Society put together an expert team to analyze and prepare commentaries on and public ownership is a very good idea. Certainly can be formed. For example, although the agenda about rights, inclusion, self- the draft concept papers and preliminary drafts this gives us a long-lasting and democratic determination, accountability and responsiveness is, by and large, shared by the political parties at the level of election manifestos and submissions, a degree of of the constitution from a legal perspective. The political issues on the other hand were reviewed constitution. IDEA’s view is similar to ours … our elite resistance still exists. The question remains whether the party elites are able by a team – consisting of members of the objectives complement each other.” and visionary enough to draft and agree on a constitution which realises these Constituent Assembly – representing the different pramod gupta, Chair, Public Opinion Collection and Coordination Committee, Nepal goals, even if this goes against their immediate interests. political parties. The resulting commentaries 27
  • 15. 11 15 stories15 stories on democracy support on democracy support Spotlight on democracy building in the un AGEnDA SETTInG B onlInE uilding democracy is intimately related to the three pillars of the electoral processes, political parties, constitution important, the fact that much of the source of United Nations – development, peace and security, and human building, democracy assessments and gender. information is derived from the global South is A International IDEA at the un www.idea.int/un rights. By 2004 almost a third of the UN’s 192 Member States In his report he embodied several specific of greater appeal as it directly fosters the cross had requested its assistance in conducting elections. Today the recommendations made by IDEA, for example, fertilization of ideas on the issues surrounding UN continues to meet the challenge of supporting the new “the implementation of self-assessments of the democracy building. Whether it be comparing wave of democracy throughout the world. state of democracy by Member States with the the experience of electoral processes among Arab aim of identifying areas for action and entry nations, or how a large and diverse society like Over the years the UN relationship with International IDEA has points for policy reform.” (document A/64/372, India conducts elections, or describing the role deepened resulting in 2003 in the UN General Assembly granting paragraph 88). of political parties in conflict-prone countries, or the Institute “Observer” status. how traditional justice mechanisms work in post- In November 2007, the UN Secretary-General’s report to the In fact, back in 2005, Mongolia’s use of IDEA’s conflict situations in Africa, IDEA is able to draw General Assembly recognized the Institute’s role as a key partner citizen-led national assessments of the quality of this local knowledge into the UN family. among the intergovernmental democracy movements and democracy led to the development of an agenda organizations in supporting the UN on democracy issues, and made for change – the National Plan of Action – which a specific acknowledgement on the strength of the cooperation in turn, led to the adoption of the country’s between the UN, the International Conferences on New or Restored national Millennium Development Goal 9 on Democracies (ICNRD), and International IDEA. democracy, human rights and anti-corruption (see page 24). Today, no less that 20 countries On 8 November 2007, the General In November 2009, the UN Secretary-General again highlighted worldwide have used the methodology and more Assembly proclaimed 15 September as the International IDEA’s contributions to the General Assembly, acknowledging the Institute as a key partner in collaborating are in the pipeline. International Day of Democracy, which with the UN in developing knowledge resources on democracy Though disseminating the Institute’s comparative provides an opportunity to review the issues, and developing networks of experts and practitioners on knowledge resources to UN Member States is state of democracy in the world. 29
  • 16. 12 15 stories15 stories on democracy support on democracy support Advocacy triggers tangible electoral results in Bolivia c lo S E R To G E n D E R B A l A n c E T PuBlIcATIonS he 2009 elections saw that today, the Plurinational Legislative Assembly three day training courses across Bolivia to Bolivian women win 47 comprises 30 per cent women. around 150 women candidates covering the A Los caminos de la paridad. Mujeres participación y re- per cent of the seats in details of the electoral framework, how to present Why did women do so well? President Evo presentación en el proceso the Senate and occupy oneself as a candidate, and how to boost women’s post constituyente (Paths half of the ministries Morales had much to do with this, calling for participation in the political process. to Parity: Women’s Partici­ after the national elections. women to make up 50 per cent of all government pation and Representation This was a direct result of positions. His call was taken up by the Women’s This work built on IDEA’s previous engagement in the Post­Constituent Coordinating Committee which, with support in Bolivia during the constitutional reform Assembly) (2009) the Temporary Electoral Law mandate securing from International IDEA and several local partner process prior to 2009, when training was A Del dicho al hecho: Manual gender equality and parity, organizations, launched a campaign with the provided to women members of the Constituent de buenas practicas para slogan “We share your dream, Mr President”. This Assembly to develop the new constitution. la participación de mujeres with provision for the en los partidos políticos alternation of male and campaign resulted in the drafting and approval Seminars were arranged that included people latinoamericanos (From female candidates on party of Article 9 of the Temporary Electoral Law that from other Latin American countries, facilitating Words to Action: Best voting lists. crucially deals with equity opportunities for the sharing of experiences and good practices. Practices for Women’s Par­ women and men. The seminar framework was based on a similar ticipation in Latin American Besides the solid increase in model used by IDEA in Nepal and Peru during Political Parties) (2008) the number of women in During this campaign, International IDEA their constitutional reform processes. also available in English the Senate (up from 3 per provided various inputs including dissemination cent in the 2005 elections), of its publications on boosting women’s onlInE the number of women in participation and quotas, and facilitating a A Global Database of Quotas women’s caucus across party lines that gave more for Women the Chamber of Deputies www.quotaproject.org also increased, and now lies prominence to gender issues and promoted at 25 per cent. This means networking. IDEA also conducted a series of 31
  • 17. 13 15 stories15 stories on democracy support on democracy support From regional consultations to Eu policy STREnGTHEnInG DEMocRAc Y BuIlDInG PARTnER SHIPS T PuBlIcATIonS he European Union (EU) has become Throughout 2008 in the lead up to the Swedish Minister Gunilla Carlsson when Sweden took EU Presidency the following year, IDEA mobilized over its six month presidency of the EU in July A Democracy in Development the largest provider of democracy – global consultations on assistance in the world, yet little its network of partner organizations in Africa, Asia, 2009. With the entry into force of the Lisbon the EU’s role in democracy is known of what others think of the Arab World, Latin America and the Caribbean, Treaty in December 2009, the EU is setting up building (2009) also it as a partner. Through a series conducting consultations with a wide range of the European External Action Service towards the available in Arabic, French of global consultations, International individuals and organizations in these regions that were end of 2010 that will operationalize certain EU and Spanish onlInE IDEA set about finding how the EU can familiar with EU democracy assistance on the ground. activities and programmes. The challenge now is best assist democracy building efforts how this Service will move on the EU Council’s A Democracy in Development As expected, while the assessments varied conclusions and Agenda for Action over the Web Portal worldwide by getting feedback on the www.idea.int/eu from region to region, there were many forthcoming years. impact of its democracy building policies common viewpoints and perspectives. The and practices. As input to the Swedish most crucial viewpoints were summarized in Presidency, the recommendations arising the main recommendations emerging from from these consultations were positively the consultations: the EU needs to tap its own “The EU countries are models of democracy … received by the EU and incorporated into the European Parliament Resolution experience to inform external action; apply a broader understanding of democracy; stand by but at the same time one feels that the problems of October 2009 on democracy its long-term commitments; and move towards of the EU and the problems of the developing building in the EU’s external relations. Moreover, in November 2009, they genuine partnerships – presenting a sound basis on which the EU could adjust its policies and respond world are probably a little different. Therefore were incorporated into the EU Council better to the needs of its partners worldwide. local emphasis, local focus, local variation is conclusions on democracy support and its Agenda for Action on Democracy The findings of the global consultations were also very necessary.” Support in EU External Relations. presented to Swedish Development Cooperation dr s y quraishi, Election Commissioner, India 33
  • 18. 14 15 stories15 stories on democracy support on democracy support Africa’s commit ment to democracy InFluEncInG PolIc Y T he African Union’s (AU) The high priority assigned by the AU to translate A key aim of the JAP is to bring the knowledge adoption of the African Charter the Charter into action led the AU to approach resources of the global South to Africa. Sharing the on Democracy, Elections and IDEA again, specifically to bring its broad experiences of Latin America and Asia with Africa Governance in 2007 is an historic knowledge of issues around elections and political – made available via International IDEA’s networks commitment to democracy. “[This] reform into the process. This resulted in the and knowledge resources – is contributing towards is a big step in the right direction; launch of the Joint Activity Plan (JAP) in 2008, strengthening countries abilities to drive their a watershed in the democratic committing the AU and IDEA to an initial five- own democratic processes and reforms forward by development of Africa,” according to year programme of activities designed to support adapting what has been done successfully elsewhere. Abdalla Hamdok, Director at the UN democracy in Africa. Economic Commission for Africa. Since late 2008, action to begin implementation As IDEA Secretary-General Vidar Helgesen of the JAP has included a workshop in Benin on His view was echoed by Emile Ognimba, noted, “The Joint Activity Plan is designed to constitution building, an ongoing programme of AU Political Affairs Director who added, respond to the challenges facing democracy across BRIDGE courses for election administrators; a “This will expedite the AU efforts to the continent: making democracy work better seminar to ascertain how to reduce the spiralling democratize the continent.” for development, peace and security through violence during elections witnessed in some recent strengthening political institutions and processes.” Throughout the 2000s International election campaigns such as in Kenya and Zimbabwe; IDEA has had an ongoing relationship The JAP has two main strands: capacity building assistance in preparing the theme document on with the AU which resulted in 2007 for the AU Secretariat (including the Political the 2011 AU Summit on Shared Values and the with the signing of a Memorandum Affairs Department which is responsible for the secondment of four staff to capacitate the Political of Understanding on working together. Charter), and implementing projects under the Affairs Department. An IDEA Liaison Office to the Assisting with the drafting of the Charter such as BRIDGE courses (see page 18) AU is presently being established in Addis Ababa, Charter formed the basis of throughout Africa and other activities falling under Ethiopia as an integral part of strengthening the roll this partnership. IDEA’s mandate. out of the Joint Activity Plan. 35
  • 19. 15 15 stories15 stories on democracy support on democracy support collaborative learning across political parties in Sudan STREnGTHEnInG PolIT Ic Al PART IES S udanese political parties, though In phase one of the programme, leaders of the six Although there are many reservations about the debilitated through many years of major political parties attended workshops on, for 2010 elections, not everything is lost. “The elections civil war, put aside their differences example, election observation, the role of party did take place and parties were engaged in preparing over the last few years to focus agents, polling and appropriate codes of conduct. for them,” says Manal Ali Basheir, a Sudanese on a common goal: acquiring the gender activist and IDEA’s project manager in In the second phase, the training included similar knowledge necessary to participate in Sudan. Even though Sudan only signed the African capacity building workshops for 24 smaller future elections. Yet, though the credibility Charter on women’s rights immediately before this parties. These parties formed a ‘Coordination of the 2010 elections in Sudan was rightly election, “women inside the parties are now raising Committee’ to liaise with International IDEA disputed, progress has certainly been made. their voices,” Basheir observes. And while the 25 per and determine the priority areas for training cent gender-quota stipulated in Sudan’s provisional Building properly functioning political and follow-up activities, while ensuring their constitution is not as high as desired, gender is now parties was highlighted as a major priority knowledge would be transferred to other firmly on the political agenda. by party members in Sudan throughout members. the early 2000s. They understood there Working with the 240 women candidates was an urgent need to build capacity in became an important focus during this time, electoral processes, internal democracy, and gender equality if elections were to be coaching them on how to present themselves to “The programme is about strengthening the electorate and canvassing issues on housing, successfully conducted. health, gender policies, access to education, the voice of women candidates, preparing In cooperation with a number of local and their own security – a critical topic in the them to campaign, but also to do their and international partners, IDEA was Sudanese context. It was important for the invited to lead a capacity building female candidates to build their own networks work in the Parliament.” initiative from 2006 up to the planned and collaborate on matters of common interest, rumbidzai kandawasvika-nhundu, elections in 2010. regardless of party affiliation. Senior Programme Officer, International IDEA 37
  • 20. International IDEA at a glance What is International IDEA? What does International IDEA do? processes, and engaging in political The International Institute for In the field of elections, constitution processes when invited to do so; and Democracy and Electoral Assistance building, political parties, women’s – influencing democracy building (International IDEA) is an political empowerment, democracy policies through the provision of our intergovernmental organization that self-assessments, and democracy and comparative knowledge resources supports sustainable democracy development, IDEA undertakes its work and assistance to political actors. worldwide. through three activity areas: International IDEA’s mission is to – providing comparative knowledge Where does International IDEA work? support sustainable democratic change and experience derived from practical International IDEA works worldwide. through providing comparative experience on democracy building Based in Stockholm, Sweden, it knowledge, and assisting in democratic processes from diverse contexts has offices in Africa, Asia and Latin reform, and influencing policies and around the world; America. politics. – assisting political actors in reforming democratic institutions and INTERNATIONAL IDEA International IDEA’s Member States are all democracies and provide both Strömsborg political and financial support to the work of the Institute. The Member States SE - 103 34 Stockholm include Australia, Barbados, Belgium, Botswana, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, Sweden Costa Rica, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ghana, India, Mauritius, Mexico, Tel: +46 8 698 37 00, Fax: +46 8 20 24 22 Namibia, the Netherlands, Norway, Peru, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Email: info@idea.int, Website: www.idea.int Sweden, Switzerland and Uruguay. Japan has observer status.
  • 21. www.idea.int