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  • 1. A SUMMER TRAINING REPORT IN “TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT AT AIRTEL” Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the degree of Bachelor of Business Administration, TILAK MAHARASHTRA UNIVERSITY, PUNETraining Supervisor: Submitted by:Mr. Karan Ranjan Gagandeep Singh Sethi(Training officer) PR No. 07108017204 SESSION: 2008–2011
  • 2. TILAK MAHARASHTRA UNIVERSITY, PUNE (INDIA) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTThis study would not have been possible without the cooperation ofand generous help from a number of people. While it may not bepossible for me to express my gratitude to all of them individually, Iwish to place on my record my appreciation to them for all the helpthey extended to me during the project.I am very thankful to Mr. Karan Ranjan (Training officer) of Airtelwho guided me in the whole process. I would also like to thank allthose employees of Airtel who helped me in my Project.Report was completed successfully because of the grace of the godand the blessings of my parents. Gagandeep Singh Sethi 2
  • 3. TABLE OF CONTENTSAcknowledgementExecutive Summary Page No.Introduction Chapter I 6Research Methodology Chapter II 7♦ Objectives♦ Scope♦ Type of Data♦ Sample size & design♦ Statistical tools♦ Type of research♦ LimitationsIndustry & Company Profile Chapter III 9Theory of Training Chapter IV 19Analysis and Findings Chapter V 37Conclusion and Suggestions Chapter VI 47AnnexureBibliography 3
  • 4. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe global economy of the day has endangered the survival of everyorganization and in particular those who want to have a competitive edge overthe others. The competitive edge may be a distant dream in the absence ofSuperior Quality Products which otherwise is the function of well-trainedemployees. Today resources are scarce and have to be used carefully andtrainers of all kinds are required to justify their position and account for theiractivities. Training activities, which are ill directed and inadequately focused, donot serve the purpose of the trainers. The trainees or the organization henceidentification of training needs becomes the top priority of every progressiveorganization. Identification of training needs, if done properly, provides the basison which all other training activities can be considered and will lead tomultiskilling, fitting people to take extra responsibilities increasing all roundcompetence and preparing people to take on higher level responsibility in future. 4
  • 5. CHAPTER I INRODUCTIONEvery organization needs to have experienced and well-trained employees toperform the activities. Rapid changes in the environment have not only made thejobs more complex but have also created increased pressures for theorganizations to re-adapt the products and services offered to compete in thisfast changing world. Therefore, in a rapidly changing society training is anactivity, which is must for maintaining a viable and knowledgeable work force.Success of any training programme largely depends upon proper identification oftraining needs. Training needs are felt by the managers when theydiscover/perceive deviation between standard performance and actualperformance of its employees. It is not that only workers need training.Simultaneously supervisors, managers and executives need to be trained anddeveloped to grow and acquire maturity of thought and action. Manyorganizations invest considerable resources in training and development butnever really examine how and where this can most effectively promoteorganizational objectives and individual growth. The failure to analyze trainingneeds within the organization will lead to lesser of benefits and huge investmentin the training programme of the institute. Hence it would be pertinent to analyzetraining needs first and then impart training accordingly.Training is a long term investment in HR using the equation given below:Performance = ability x motivationTraining can have an impact on both these factors. It can heighten the skills andabilities of the employees and their motivation by increasing their sense ofcommitment and encouraging them to develop and use new skills. 5
  • 6. CHAPTER II RESEARCH METHODOLOGYOBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY− To understand the prevailing trends of training and development at Bharti Cellular (Airtel).− This project is an attempt to study, training need identification and evaluation of training programme at Bharti Cellular Ltd (Airtel).− To suggest ways to improve training.TYPE OF RESEARCH Descriptive ResearchSAMPLE UNIT Trainees at Okhla officeSAMPLE SIZE TwentyTYPE OF QUESTION Close ended & open- ended.TYPE OF QUESTIONNAIRE Structured and non DisguisedTOOLS USED FOR DATA COLLECTION• Primary data collected through questionnaires and informal interviews. 6
  • 7. • Secondary data collected through magazines, journals, websites, and other corporate publications.PROCEDURE FOR DATA COLLECTION.• Communication, asking questions and receiving a response in person• Visiting the various organizations, libraries, internet and also preparation of the questionnaire with the help of the project guide.STATISTICAL TOOLS USED  Pie Charts  Bar diagrams 7
  • 8. CHAPTER III INDUSTRY PROFILEIn the early 1990s, the Indian government adopted a new economic policy aimedat improving Indias competitiveness in the global markets and the rapid growthof exports. Key to achieving these goals was a world-class telecominfrastructure.In India, the telecom service areas are divided into four metros (New Delhi,Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata) and 20 circles, which roughly correspond to thestates in India. The circles are further classified under "A," "B" and "C," with the"A" circle being the most attractive and "C" being the least attractive. Theregulatory body at that time — the Department of Telecommunications (DOT) —allocated two cellular licenses for each metro and circle. Thirty-four licenses forGSM900 cellular services were auctioned to 22 firms in 1995. The first cellularservice was provided by, Modi Telstra in Kolkatta in August 1995. For theauction, it was stipulated that no firm can win in more than one metro, threecircles or both. The circles of Jammu and Kashmir and Andaman and Nicobarhad no bidders, while West Bengal and Assam had only one bidder each.In 1996, the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) bill was introduced inthe Lok Sabha, and the president officially announced the TRAI ordinance on 25January 1997. The government decided to set up TRAI to separate regulatoryfunctions from policy formulation, licensing and telecom operations. Prior to thecreation of TRAI, these functions were the sole responsibility of the DOT. 8
  • 9. AIRTEL - A PROFILEAirTel comes to you from Bharti Cellular Ltd, consortium of giants in thetelecommunication business.AirTel launched its services in Delhi on November 14, 1995. It has at presentover six lakh fifty thousand customers in its six years of pursuit of greatercustomer satisfaction; AirTel has redefined the business through marketinginnovations, continuous technological up gradation of the network, introduction ofnew generation value added services and the highest standard of customer care.AirTel has consistently set the benchmarks for the Indian cellular industry tofollow.First to launch Cellular service in Delhi on November, 1995.First operator to revolutionaries the concept of retailing with the inauguration ofAirTel Connect (exclusive showrooms) in 1995. Today AirTel has 20 CustomerCare Touch points called "Connects" and over 350 dealers in Delhi and NCRtowns.First to expand its network with the installation of second mobile switching centerin April, 1997 and the first in Delhi to introduce the Intelligent Network PlatformFirst to provide Roaming to its subscribers by forming an association calledWorld 1 Network.First to provide roaming facility in USA. Enjoy the mobile roaming across 38partner networks & above 700 cities Moreover roam across internationaldestinations in 119 countries including USA, Canada, and UK etc with 284partner networks. 9
  • 10. HISTORYHighlights of our history, collaborations and achievements are given below.1995• Bharti Tele-Ventures Limited incorporated on July 7, 1995• Bharti Cellular launched mobile services AirTel in Delhi1996• Bharti Telenet launched mobile services in Himachal Pradesh1997• Bharti Telenet obtained a license for providing fixed-line services in Madhya Pradesh circle• Bharti Telecom formed a joint venture, Bharti BT, for providing VSAT services.1998• Bharti Telecom formed a joint venture, Bharti BT Internet for providing Internet services• First Indian private fixed-line services launched in Indore in the Madhya Pradesh circle on June 4, 1998 by Bharti Telenet thereby ending fixed-line services monopoly of DoT (now BSNL)1999• Warburg Pincus (through its investment company Brentwood Investment Holdings Limited) acquired equity interest in Bharti Tele-Ventures 10
  • 11. • Bharti Tele-Ventures acquired an effective equity interest in Bharti Mobile (formerly JT Mobiles), the mobile services provider in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh circles.2000• New York Life Insurance and Fund, or NYLIF, acquired a equity interest in Bharti Cellular• Bharti Tele-Ventures acquired an effective equity interest in Bharti Mobiles (formerlySkycell Communications), the mobile services provider in Chennai• Bharti Tele-Ventures acquired equity interest of Telecom in Bharti Telenet thereby making Bharti Telenet a 100% subsidiary of Bharti Tele-Ventures• SingTel (through its investment company Pastel Limited) acquired STETs equity interest in Bharti Tele-Ventures• Bharti Tele-Ventures acquired an additional effective equity interest in Bharti Mobile resulting in Bharti Tele-Ventures holding an effective 74% equity interest in Bharti Mobile.2001• Bharti Telesonic entered into a joint venture, Bharti Aqua net, with SingTel for establishing a submarine cable landing station at Chennai.• Bharti Tele-Ventures acquired NYLIFs equity interest in Bharti Cellular• Bharti Cellular acquired a 100% equity interest in Bharti Mobitel (formerly Spice Cell), the mobile services provider in Kolkata• Bharti Tele-Ventures acquired equity interest in Bharti Cellular from British Telecom, thereby making Bharti Cellular its 100% subsidiary• Bharti Tele-Ventures acquired an additional equity interest in Bharti Mobinet from Millicon International and BellSouth International 11
  • 12. • Punjab license restored to Bharti Mobile by the DoT and migration to NTP - 1999 accepted• Bharti Cellular entered into license agreements to provide mobile services in eight new circles following the fourth operator mobile license bidding process.• Bharti Telenet entered into license agreements to provide fixed-line services in the Haryana, Delhi, Tami Nadu and Karnataka circles• Bharti Telesonic has entered into a license agreement with DoT to provide National Long Distance Services in India and has been the first service provider to start service in the country.• Bharti Aquanet, Bharti Telesonic and Bharti Cellular have entered into license agreements with the DoT to provide ISP services in India2002• Bharti launched mobile services in Gujarat Haryana, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh circle, Maharashtra, Mumbai, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, and Uttar Pradesh (West) Circle.• Bharti listed on the National Stock Exchange, Bombay Stock Exchange and the Delhi Stock Exchange on February 18, 2002.2003• Bharti entered into a license agreement with the DoT to provide international long distance services in India.• Bharti launched fixed-line services in the Delhi, Haryana, and Karnataka and Tamil Nadu license areas.2004• Bharti became the first private telecommunications services provider to launch international long distance services. 12
  • 13. AwardsConsecutively for years and 2004, AirTel has been voted as the Best CellularService in the country and won the coveted Techies award.The Asia Pacific Award for the Most Innovative HR practices-2000.The Golden Peacock National Training Award for excellence in Trainingpractices-2000.The Golden Peacock National Quality Award-2001.BCL is first mobile communication service provider in India to be certified for ISO9001:2000 and 1st in world certified by British Standards Institution for MobileCommunication.Born a leader, the first cellular service in Delhi, AirTel has maintained leadershipthrough constant innovations which have redefined standards of cellular servicesin India.First to introduce a wide array of value added services like Smart mail, Faxfacility, Call Hold, Call waiting, Web message, Information services etc. toenhance the convenience of its subscribers. 13
  • 14. Vision“To make mobile communications a way of life and be the customers firstchoice” MissionWe will meet the mobile communication needs of our customers through:  Error- free service delivery  Innovative products and services  Cost efficiency  Unified Messaging Solutions  Bharti Values  Inn venturingWe will generate and implement entrepreneurial and innovative ideas, which willcontinuously create new growth engines.Customer FirstWe are committed to delivering service beyond the expectations of the customer.Our quality of customer responsiveness clearly differentiates us from others.Performance CultureWe benchmark our processes and performance against world-class standards.We distinguish between performers and non-performers by valuing achievementat the individual as well as the team level. Ours is a culture of inclusively wherefeedback, learning and ideas are actively encouraged, sought and acted upon. 14
  • 15. Valuing Partnership"We are committed to building exemplary relationship with our partners, whichstand on the principles of mutual trust and mutual growth.Valuing People"We nurture an environment where people are respected and their uniqueness isvalued. We believe that people are our key differentiators.Responsible Corporate Citizenship"We are committed to making a positive and proactive contribution to thecommunity. As a responsible corporate citizen we will contribute to and abide byenvironmental and legal norms.Ethical PracticesWe will uphold the highest ethical standards in all internal and externalrelationship. We will not allow misuse or misrepresentation of any kind. SUCCESS STORYAfter launch in September 27, 1995 was a red letter day when cell phones finallyarrived in the city (Delhi), thanks to Bharti cellular that launched its mobiletelephone services under the brand name AIRTEL.Today, Delhi has more than 200,000 subscribers of which 55% are hooked on toAIRTEL network.However, the success was not easy for the company which brought the cellularrevolution in Delhi. Cellular phones were not being used so much anywhere inthe country. "Initially, there was a lot of confusion and apprehension about the 15
  • 16. mobile phone services. Some believed that mobile phones are same ascordless," according to Executive Director Mr. Anil Nayyar (AIRTEL). Thereforethe first priority was to create awareness. "In order to create a market for thecellular services, it was necessary to educate people. This required a lot of effort"said Mr. Nayyar. However, the hardwork has paid and today AIRTEL is one ofthe strongest brand names in the country with more than 100,000 subscribers inthe network. AIRTEL is the largest private sector telecom service company innumber of subscribers. In Delhi, it has been constantly leading the market duringthe last three years. Currently, the network has a capacity of 240,000subscribers. Their target is to provide services to 500,000 subscribers by the turnof the century.AIRTELS TECHNOLOGYThe technology base for AirTel is GSM – Global System for MobileCommunications. Sourced from Ericsson of Sweden, the world leaders in cellulartechnology. Operating in over 74 countries, Ericsson connects over 40% of theworlds cellular subscriber base and also has to its credit some of the mostadvanced cellular phones in the world.AIRTELS COVERAGEAirTel cellular phone service plans over 150 cell sites to give you the finestcoverage all over Delhi and its adjoining suburbs, including Faridabad,Ballabhgarh, Ghaziabad, Noida and Gurgaon. Thanks to the excellent networkplanning by the world leaders Ericsson of Sweden who connect over 22 millioncellular subscribers in over 78 countries worldwide putting through more than40% of the worlds cellular phone calls. As and when the need arises, the cellsites and capacity can be increased to enhance the networks coverage. 16
  • 17. MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE BOARD OF DIRECTORS CHAIRMAN &GROUP MANAGING DIRECTOR Jt. Managing Director Jt. Managing DirectorPresident President Director Director Infotel Business Human Develop. Resource Fixed line Long distance Group Data Director Director Group Fin. & Broadband Marketing Legal Controller Director IT Director Head Regulat- & Corporate ory & Group Technolog Relations Co. Secretary y Director Group Corporate Director Affairs Corporate Strategy & Planning Director Corporate Communic ations 17
  • 18. CHAPTER IV THEORY OF TRAININGTraining is a learning experience in that it seeks a relatively permanent change inan individual that will improve his/her ability to perform on the job. We typicallysay training can involve the changing of skills, knowledge, attitudes or socialbehavior. It may mean changing employees, how they work, and their attitudestoward their work of their interaction with their co-workers or supervisors.TRAINING OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIESHaving identified the training needs based on the various analyses discussedabove, the next logical steps are to set training objectives in concrete terms andto decide on the training strategies to be adopted to meet these objectives. Thetraining needs basically highlight the gap between the existing and desiredrepertoire of knowledge attitude and skills at individual, group and organizationallevel to enable the employees to contribute towards the realization oforganizational objectives at optimum efficiency. The training effort thus will haveto aim at filling in this gap by clearly stating the objectives in quantitative andqualitative terms to be achieved through training. Such an exercise will alsoenable the training specialists to evaluate, monitor and measure the extent towhich stated objectives have been met through training intervention. As thetraining objectives are related to organizational objectives, the involvement of thetop management will be necessary to ensure that the two sets of objectives areintegrated. 18
  • 19. It will be desirable to use the following criteria in setting training objectives:I. Specific requirements of individuals and organizations so as to achieve integration of the two.II. Roles and tasks to be carried out by the target group.III. Relationship with other positions vertically and horizontally and technological imperatives.IV. Relevance, applicability and compatibility of training to work situations.V. Training as a means of bringing about a change in behavior back on the job.VI. Behavior including activities that can be observed, measured and/or recordedVII. The expected change in behavior must be useful, closely related to and subject to maintenance in the work environment.More specifically the following steps could be involved in setting trainingobjectives:I. Identification of the behavior where change is required.II. Nature and size of the group to be trained in terms of prior training, situational factors, formal education.III. Existing behavior defined in terms of ratio, frequency, quality of interaction and supervision, routines and repetitiveness, innovations, omissions, error, etc. 19
  • 20. IV. Desired behavior aimed at improving the existing condition stated preferably in quantitative such as ratio, frequency of occurrence, reporting by exceptions, self-monitoring mechanisms etc.V. Operational results to be achieved through training stated in terms of increase in efficiency and effectiveness criteria such as productivity, cost, down time, turnover, time for innovations and creativity.VI. Indicators to be used in determining changes from existing to the desired level in terms of ratio and frequency.Depending on the objectives set, the next step is to decide on the strategy oftraining involving the following:♦ Classification of objectives in terms of purposes :a) Corrective objectivesb) Maintenance/status-quo objectivesc) Problem solving objectives, andd) Innovative objectives♦ Classification of objectives in terms of levels of learning:a) Skills of motor responses, memorization and simple conditioning.b) Adaptation level where one is gaining knowledge or adapting to a simple environment;c) interpersonal understanding and skill;d) Values of individuals and groups. 20
  • 21. ♦ On-the-job or off-the job training.♦ In house or external training.♦ Individual or group training.♦ Horizontal, vertical or diagonal/mixed group.♦ Changes required, if any, in the existing work roles, organizational relationships, work system requirements, process of supervision and alternative structures. 21
  • 22. SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO TRAINING ORGANISATIONAL ANALYSIS  • Identification of organizational objectives/needs/growth potential and resources.  TASK ROLE ANALYSIS • Identification of knowledge, skills and attitudes required.  MANPOWER ANALYSIS • Identification /definition of target population and performance analysis.  STATEMENT OF TRAINING NEED• Identification of gap between existing and required level of knowledge skills and attitude. • Isolate problem areas amenable to resolution through training  SETTING TRAINING OBJECTIVES • In terms of behavioral charges • In terms of output/results  DEVELOP MEASURES FOR JOB PROFICIENCY  DEVELOP TRAINING POLICY, PLAN, PROFICIENCY 22
  • 23.  PLAN AND DESIGN TRAINING AND PROGRAMME • Course construction • Arrange resource  CONDUCT TRAINING PROGRAMMES • Individual • Group • On-the job  FOLLOW UP AND EVALUATION• Carry out evaluation at various phases against the training objectives set. • Develop follow-up measures for monitoring.  VALIDATE • Against measures of job proficiency  ENSURE FEEDBACK OF RESULTS  REVISE IF NECESSARY 23
  • 24. DETERMINING TRAINING NEEDS AND PRIORITIESManagement can determine the training needs by answering the followingquestions:• What are the organizations goals?• What task must be completed to achieve these goals?• What behaviors are necessary for each job incumbent to complete his/her assigned jobs?• What deficiencies, if any, do incumbents have in skills, knowledge or attitudes required to perform the necessary behaviors?• It again depends on seeing the performance of an individual?Based on out determination of the organizations needs, the type of work that isto be done, and the type of skills necessary to complete this work, the trainingprogramme should follow naturally.What kind of signals can warn a manager that employee training may benecessary?Clearly, the more obvious, ones relate directly to productivity; inadequate jobperformance assuming the individual is making a satisfactory effort, attentionshould be given toward raining the skill level of the worker. When a manager isconfronted with a drop in productivity, it may suggest that skills need to be “finetuned”.In addition to productivity measures, a high reject rate or larger than usual scrappage may indicate a need for employee training. A rise in the number of 24
  • 25. accidents reported also suggests some type of re-training is necessary. There isalso the future element: changes that are being imposed on the worker as aresult of a job redesign or a technological breakthrough. These types of changesrequire a training effort that is fewer crises oriented; that is, a proportion forplanned change rather than a reaction to immediately unsatisfactory condition.When inadequate performance results from a motivation problem rather than askills problem, the rewards and disciplinary action may be of greater relevance.Nor would training be the answer of the problem lies outside the job activity itself.For examples, if salaries are low, if supervision is poor, if workers benefits areinadequate or if the physical work tryout is deficient, spending on employeetraining may have little or no effect on productivity, since inadequate performanceis due to conditions that training cannot remedy. Training can enhance skills butdoes nothing to relieve monotony.Once if has been determined that training is necessary, training goals must beestablished. Management should explicitly state what changes or results aresought for each employee. It is not adequate merely to say that change inemployee knowledge, skills, attitudes or social behavior is desirable, we mustclarify what is to change, and by how much. These goals should be tangible,feasible and measurable. It should be clear both to the management as well asthe employee. 25
  • 26. TRAINING NEEDS Organizational Individual- Identified through thecorporate MBO serious. Itgives the necessaryinformation, regarding thegaps which prevails Manager Operative Personnel Personnel - Training needs identified through employees merit rating system External Training Internal Training - Exposure approved by - Needs identified through divisional director and appraisal system, and monitored by corporate programme monitored by training and corporate training and development manager development manager. TYPES OF TRAINING METHODS 26
  • 27. The training methods which are generally used in an organization are classifiedinto two i.e., a) On the job: The most important type of training is on the job training. The experience of actually doing something makes a lasting impression and has a reality that other types of training cannot provide. There are several types of training programmes which make use of on-the-job training concept which are as follows: ♦ Job Rotation ♦ Internship training ♦ Apprenticeship b) Off the job: This is a type of training which is imparted to the employees through education programmes,simulators and training aids etc.The off the job training includes the following:♦ Case study method♦ Incident method♦ Management Games♦ Role playing♦ SeminarsTraining, as a process of long tem learning is essentially a developmental tool.Through, effectively utilizing this tool, the organization expects to achieve careerobjectives.• Sensitize employees towards their role in achieving the organizational vision of “Leadership through Differentiation”. 27
  • 28. • Contribute towards the career progressions of the employees by importing knowledge of an additional or reinforcing nature, developing skills and bringing about desired attitudinal changes among them. This would not merely prove effective in assisting them to achieve organizational goals but also enable enhancement of their self esteem and self confidences to face external challenges.• Ours is changing and dynamic organizations which have to pay considerable emphasis on training and retraining its employees to enable them to be competent committed and have the capacity to change according to the external and internal demands and pressures.Training of employees is not merely the responsibility of the management or thetraining cell alone, but the responsibility of department managers as well.Accordingly, the human resource department must enable their involvement inthe process. In the process of employee training and development.TRAINING STEPSThere are four basic steps in carrying out the training function:• Assessment of Training needs (A)• Designing the training action plan (B)• Administration of training (C)• Retraining and Reinforcement of training (D).(A) ASSESSMENT OF TRAINING NEEDS 28
  • 29. There are five steps towards the assessment and analysis of training anddevelopment of the organization.• Collection of information through interviewing and discussing with key personnel both inside and outside the organization or specific departments; observing the work place, working conditions, processes and outcomes; examining records, other written information and annual employee appraisal.• Compare performances of each department and each employee against objectives, targets and standards set for them and keeping in mind future work requirements in the organization.• Identify cause of problems faced by the organization to enable the management to train the employees in handling the problems as well as solving the problem in a satisfactory manner.• Segregate identified problems into problems requiring staff development action such as training and into problems requiring other management actions, so that these problems are accurately addressed.• Prioritize training actions in accordance to where the training need is more urgent. 29
  • 30. (B) DESIGNING TRAINING PROGRAMME.Having completed the ground work of training needs and assessment wherebytraining gaps are identified and prioritized, the next step is to design the trainingaction plan which involves the following:TYPES OF TRAINING ADDRESSING VARIOUS TRAINING NEEDS:• Entry training involving new recruits and employees required to take a new job.• Problem resolution training to meet a shortfall or deficiency in job performance.• Training for change to prepare employees for job identified in near future.• Development to equip employees to meet organizational changes in future.Training imparted in any type would be skill, attitude or knowledge based trainingor a combination of the three.• Identifying the Trainee groups.• Identifying the most effective training methodology.• Classroom training outside the organization through external agencies for meeting specific job function related needs which cannot be imported internally. This is normally the case when the training involves specific are as and smaller numbers making it uneconomical to conduct the programme internally. These external sources must be chosen with care and must be able to fulfill the organizations analyzed training and development needs. These training methods must be supplemented by enabling the trainees to apply in the work place and translating into job competence the knowledge and skill gained through such training.• Classroom training within the organization through external and internal agencies: These programmes must be carefully designed to ensure that they mirror the trainee group’s requirements individually and collectively. Like the 30
  • 31. external courses, when designing these programmes, one must ensure that the training objectives are expressed in terms of job competence as well as knowledge and skill.• This method of training is must effective in bringing together employees in larger numbers to address common training needs. The training faculty is critical to the success of such training programmes. The importance and the initiality of the need for proper communication of knowledge and ideas dictate that the selection of faculty members must be made keeping the receiver in mind.• On the job training enables the employees to learn the job while actually carrying out the tasks involved in the job. All new recruits joining the organization are required to undergo induction programme with planned work experience in various departments associated with the employee’s own department for a short duration to equip the employee with basic knowledge fundamental to his job function.Entry level training is normally imparted through internal on-job and off-jobtraining methods.Problem resolution training, training for change and development related trainingmay be imported through internal or external on-job or off-job training methodsdepending on programme design, objective and target size. 31
  • 32. FRAMEWORK FOR EVALUATION OF TRAININGTypes of Evaluation Levels of Evaluation/Objective Methods of Evaluation1. Context Evaluation 1. Pre training (I) Same as the ones used in assessment Obtaining and using of training needs. information about the current operational context i.e., individual difficulties, organization deficiencies - i.e., Training Need Assessment as basis for decision. To what extent are training courses related to job requirement?2. Input Evaluation -do- (i) Same as the ones used in design and Determining and using organisation of training. facts/opinions about human/material resources for training to decide training methods or types of training - inventory of outside training programmes3. Process Evaluation 2. Reactions Level (i) Observation by trainer Monitoring training as it is Opinions/attitudes about trainer, unsystematic/random in progress – continuos presentation, usefulness, (ii) Rating Scales for each sessions or examination of involvement. theme - Analyze, present to trainees and administrative arrangements discuss. and feedback from trainees. (iii) Questionnaires/Interviews4. Outcome Evaluation 3. Learning level Acquisition of (I) Knowledge learning, factual and Measuring effects of training knowledge, skills and attitudes intellectual understanding on the relation to his job. capable of translating into - Programmed instruction - multiple- behavior in training situation. choice questions administered at the beginning of training and end of session - Examinations of academic type, written and/or oral. (Ii) skill learning, technical and social - Practical tests to demonstrate skill administered at the beginning and at end. (Iii) Attitude learning - attitude scales semantic differential scales 7 o 5 point scales stretching between pairs of adjectives with opposite meaning administered at the beginning and end of training. 4. Job Behavior Level Changed (i) Activity sampling - percentage of behavior back on the job time spent by trainee on different aspect of his job. - observer diaries, continuos record of his activities 32
  • 33. (iii) Self dairies (iv) Observation of specific incidents, e.g., interviewing skills (v) Self recording of specific incidents : devising tailor made evaluation instruments through which the trainee can himself record details f the way in which he performs certain tasks (vi) Appraisal by superiors: asking questions such as, “Can you describe any specific incidents in which the employee demonstrated improvement in knowledge/skill/attitude?” (vii) Self-appraisal, used in conjunction with appraisal by others.5. Consequence Evaluation 5. Functioning Level Efficiency (I) Productivity/efficiency of traineesMeasuring effect of training on of the firm, effect on other’s departmentoverall efficiency of behavior, cost reduction, etc. (ii) Morale of subordinate’s expresseddepartment/organization. by absence rates; labor return over as or incidence of industrial disputes. Any index of functioning which is related to the training objective can be used. (Iii) Control Groups compare performance of similar employees who have not undergone training. 33
  • 34. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT AT AIRTELRATIONALE OF STUDYThe essential elements in any commercial enterprise are materials, equipmentand human resource. Training allied to the other human resource specializationswithin management, ensures a pool of manpower of the required level~ ofexpertise at the right time. But firstly consider the attention given by an averageorganization to the provision of materials, machinery and equipment. Thencompare the commitment to the third essential factor in then production cycle,viz: - human resources. One of the most important factors in his regard is thetraditional view of training and trainers. They are seen as an expense, a service,as second rate to production or as a necessary evil. Training has tended to fallbehind other management activities, especially in the planning phase. It is oftencarried out as a reaction to immediate needs, a patch up operation in manycases, instead of an ordered activity. Training and Development is especiallydesigned to enhance the competency of managers and workers dealing with avariety of organizational functions. Training and Development is a processthrough which the goals of management development can be achieved.Investment in Training and Development has come to be considered as an assetfor organizational development or in other words, Training is indispensable foreffective organizational development. Earlier, training was almost exclusivelytrainer oriented and it was not need based. The trainer (training institute)determined the objectives of the course, its duration, its contents and format etc.On many occasions training was of a pedagogic nature with the trainer incomplete control of the direction of the training. Moreover, the alignment of thecorporate goal was missing. The views of the trainees were rarely sought or evenif they were, it was with a condescending attitude. Due to all these reasons thebottom-line contribution of training or the organizational development was less. 34
  • 35. All employees are expected to participate in company sponsored trainingprograms considered necessary for enhancing their work skills. We realize thatin today’s constantly changing environment, our services have to be better thanthose of our competitors. Therefore, training opportunities are offered throughspecialized training programs conducted by in-house instructors, instructors fromthe industry, or by experts in the field.Training Need Assessment• Training needs are assessed by the Human Resources Department in consultation with the individual, his/her supervisor and the Head/Chief of the department. The performance management system as well as feedback by employees across the organization is used for collaborating the training needs.Training Calendar• A Training Calendar is prepared and circulated at the beginning of the year. This carries details about the training programmes that will be conducted during the course of the year. In-hour and external training are held on behavioral as well as specific job related skills.Training Evaluations• Training programmes are evaluated by Human Resources regularly to ascertain the value being added to the employees.Managers nominate employees for training. Attendance at the training classes isobligatory. You are encouraged to make the best use of these opportunitiesprovided by the company to enhance your professional skills. Training recordswill be maintained in the Personal File of each employee, for review at any time. 35
  • 36. CHAPTER V DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGSWe now try to analyze and interpret the data to reach a conclusion. We beginwith the analysis of the data collected from the T&D staff.METHODS USED FOR TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS• The training needs analysis is done generally by discussion with superiors and departmental heads.• However, the participants themselves also play a vital role in identifying their own training needs.• Also, performance appraisal sessions and customer feedback are two important ways through which training needs can be analyzed.Areas in which training is impartedBharti provides training to all areas mentioned, however, the training imparted tothe employees depends on the level of organizations.Frequency of training programmeTraining programmes are conducted at Bharti throughout the year. The durationdepends on the type of the training. Training for computer basics are for 3-5days, and for executive trainees are for 1 year. 36
  • 37. Changing trends in T&D today  Focus on right attitude and overall development of the employee.  Focus on sophistication of technologies  Trainer-trainee cooperation  Elements for making training programme successfulClear objectives, good faculty, right training method, physical arrangements,duration of training programme, contents of TP, and rewards/incentives after TP.We have used the method of Moving Averages to determine the rankings.Identification of training needs90% involved 10% not involved.Effectiveness of training method used85% said effective, 15% said ineffective.Achievement of training objectives95% satisfied, 15% dissatisfiedContinuous training60% satisfied, 40% not satisfiedInvolvement in programme planning55% happy with involvement, 45% not.Communication of problems to management 37
  • 38. 30% dissatisfied, 15% not involved, 55% involved and satisfied. TRAINING UNDERGONEDifferent companies adopt different training and development as per the needs oftrainee as well as organization so that person dont lack in any area of hisactivity, which in turn wont affect the company at large. Hence training as per theneed arising up. At Bharti they have a separate education and trainingdepartment, which looks for the training and development of employee. Here newtechnique includes 6 sigma, 5s, kaizan and so, where as hr includes, team-building, motivation, behavior, general includes the rest other kind of training anddevelopment progamme at Bharti Cellular Ltd. 38
  • 39. IDEAL SIZE OF THE TRAINING 20 19 18 16 16 14 12 10 10 8 6 4 4 2 1 0 Batch 10 Batch 15 Batch 20 Batch 25 Batch 30Too many cooks spoils the broth", many Indian utter confusion, keeping this inmind. Accordingly many of the respondent feels that no of trainee whether inhouse or our house should be in and about 10-15 and should not exceed thiswhere as few that it should be in the batch of 20 as they together is better, andvery negligible feels that batch of 25-30 would also be suitable for training. Wefind out from this study that people like the concept of "small is beautiful". 39
  • 40. NEED IDENTIFICATIONAs already discussed in brief in report as to how it should be done so root ofproblem can be traced out and accordingly it can be treated well for the bestoutput. There are so many ways to identify the cause of the problem. Over herewe discussed 3 main causes where by few find that 3 of them are very much inuse in industry. That is employee himself, performance appraisal, and superiorassessment. Here we can see that the best to know about you is he. He can be 23% 38% 39% Superior assessment Employee himself Appraisalmonitored by the team head too who sees him working regularly and if foundthen can recommend him to undergo training. 40
  • 41. KIND OF TRAINING 16 15 14 14 12 11 10 9 8 6 4 3 2 0 In-house Outhouse Online Offline All aboveTraining small word covering wide connotation, is the way you groom some onein different environment and ways available as per the capacity as well asavailability. On the complexities of it training is imparted to individual. At Airtelemployees have been undergone in almost all the above category but most ofthem feel it should be held off the job so that they can concentrate approximatelyin what ever they are taught, where as they feel that some training like 6 sigma,5s, Kaizan should be help on the job for its effectiveness. 41
  • 42. HOW FREQUENTLY YOU GO FOR TRAINING?Learning at Bharti is a continuous process and they learn at each and every 10 9 9 8 7 6 6 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 2 1 0 Frequently Non- Monthly Quarterly Half yearly Annually frequentlystage. The education and training team continuously strive to make its colleaguelearn as frequent as possible. So that they are always prepared for any situationto face the competitive world. Proper training of employee is held as per the needand requirement of the employee related to the work he is assigned. So that hecan do his best. But still if we see people frequently go for training. 42
  • 43. TRAINING ALIGNMENT WITH ORGANISATION OBJECTIVETraining programme is prepared keeping in mind the development of 28% 32% 0% 0% 40% Marginal (3) Low(2) Very low (1) Very high (5) High (4)organization as well as employee. Most of the people feel that the training theyundergo is aligned to organization objective only. But while during interview andself observation it was found that training at Bharti moves parallel i.e.organizational development as well as individual too rather they feel they gohand in hand. 43
  • 44. ANY FEEDBACK TAKEN 17 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 3 4 2 0 YES NOYes feedback is taken from the trainee after the training is over. In terms likewhether they liked the training, which they had undergone, was that sufficientenough to make them handy and competitive to go with. If not then what can bedone which make it easy and handy to understand. If they are looking for anykind of further training keeping in mind any consecutive training related toprevious undergone and if any new conceptual training emerged as on. 44
  • 45. LIMITATIONS• Between the sender and the receiver, due to differing perceptions, communication errors in the form of miscomprehension, selective perception etc. creeps in. In this case too, these were unavoidable, and thus might have added to slight inaccuracy in my results.• The other major limitation was of time and nonavailablity of the concerned persons at times.• The respondents would not have divulged all the information needed because of some of its company policies. 45
  • 46. CHAPTER VI CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONSTraining analysis is done with the view of both the superiors and the criminals.The common feeling is that the thrust in future should be on developing peopleskills and not only functional skills. IT would be a key focus area. Many traineesare not satisfied with performance. Most of the times trainees involved in variousprogrammes. Thus we conclude that Bhartis effort towards training anddevelopment has been successful.We also feel training should be imparted on current issues like changemanagement etc. Training sessions should not to be long and self directedlearning should be encouraged.Training process of Bharti Cellular Ltd. depends upon: - • Training need identification • Selecting the right training programmes • Preparation of training calendars • Finalizing about the training programme and sending the information to the concerned employees • Organize effective training programme • Deliver course and validate training • Take a training programme feedbackEvaluate training and incorporate changes if required. 46
  • 47. Annexure 1 QUESTIONNAIRE1. What are the methods used for the analysis of your training needs?i. Analysis by superiors or company, identification by individuals(TNA)ii. Discussion with superiorsiii. Identification by group head or depending on departmental functional needsiv. Feedback from persons to be trained about what training they need and this is incorporated in PMI’s programme to the extent possible by management.v. Planned interventions Questionnaires filled by participantsvii. Training is identified from a list which has been proposed by the training department, by the employee based on his needs and aptitude.viii. Self analysisix. Depending on the type and nature of job being handledx. Discussions at departmental levelsxi. Keeping in mind the career map of an employee and also the functional requirements.2. Are you employees involved in identifying their training needs/areas of training? RESPONSE No. of respondents saying Yes 18 No 23. What are the various areas in which training is imparted?i Company policies and procedures ii Functional skillsiii Human relations iv Problem solvingv Managerial and supervisory training vi Apprentice trainingvii Creativity viii Strategic planningix Computers x Cross-functional skills 47
  • 48. 4. In future, what according to you would be the potential areas oftraining?i. Computer programmingii. Core technical areasiii. Management relatediv. Work culture and disciplinev. Objectives of organizationvi. HRD/HRMvii. Strategic managementviii. Corporate governanceix. Behavioral and emotional trainingx. Interpersonal and interactive skillsxi. Adaptability to change in futurexii. Problem solvingxiii. Communication skills5. What are the various training methods employed?On the jobi. different locations with the location in chargeii. practical workOff the jobi. lecturesii. audio-visual aidsiii. simulationsiv. discussionsv. seminarsvi. workshopsvii. project work 48
  • 49. 6. Do you think the methods used are relevant and effective? Response No. of respondents saying Yes 17 No 37. What are your objectives in attending a training programme?i. gain knowledge in your areaii. to enjoy social get togetheriii. develop competenciesiv. self developmentv. personal satisfaction as well as taking a break from continuous and strenuous workvi. overcome mental blockage0 and eliminate complacency8. Do you think your objective of attending the training program isnormally achieved? Response No. of respondents saying Yes 19 No 19. What according to you are the key areas in which training should beimparted?i. Technical skillsii. Managerial skillsiii. Computersiv. Functional areasv. Interpersonal relationsvi. Self developmentvii. Behavioral skillsviii. Handling workforce in the age group of 45-50 yearsix. Human relations.x. Communication skills 49
  • 50. 10. Are you provided with adequate continuing training to keep you abreastof the changes in the environment?Response No. of respondents sayingYes 12No 811. What are the methods used to evaluate the effectiveness of a trainingprogramme?i. feedback after trainingii. improvement in performanceiii. written test/exam12. Does the management take into consideration your opinion on thetraining programme?RESPONSE No. of respondentsYes 11No 913. Identify the shortcomings in the programmes, if any, regarding thefollowing?1. physical arrangements2. faculty3. training methods4. contents of the program14. Have you communicated these problems to the management? Response No. of respondents saying Yes 6 No 3 Not applicable 11 50
  • 51. 15. In what way would you like to be involved in improving/ planning the trainingprogram in future? R Individual Commn. Survey Suggestio F/b on PA views Meeting n box 1.   2.  3.  4.   5.    6.      7.   8.  9.  10.  11.  12.  13.  14.  15.  16.  17.    18.   19.  20. Total 9 6 10 3 4responses 51
  • 52. Annexure -2TRAINEES PROGRAM REACTION SHEETName (optional) ………………………………. Please take some time, think about the program andTicket No. (Optional) ………. Divn/Dept…. indicate your option in each section by putting a tickProgram Title …………………………………. mark.Program duration ……………… to………………………………1. COURSE RELEVANCE AND STRUCTURE: 0 1 2 3 4 5How relevant to you feel the course is to you?Did the course meet the objectives as you understoodthem?How well did the course meet you specific needs?How was the ratio of lecture to discussion?General comment/or explain low rating.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 52
  • 53. 2. PROGRAM EFFECTIVENESS:2.1 CONTENT:was the subject leveltoo advanced/too elementary/ about right2.2 FACULTY EVALUATION:Please rate the faculty according to the given below:Poor ------------------------------------------------------- Excellent 1 2 3 4 5Name of How well How well How well How well How wellFaculty did he did he did he did he did he state keep the summaries maintain a illustrate objective. session during the friendly and clarify alive and session and helpful the doubts interesting manner ?2.3 Was there any more topics which should have been included? If so pleasespecify.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 53
  • 54. 2.4 What would have made the session more beneficial/effective to you?------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2.5 Additional comments or suggestions (facilities, room, meals, schedules etc.)------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2.6 Over all rating: Considering the general of the course, how would you rate iton a scale of five?--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Remarks for Further Improvement------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 54
  • 55. ANNEXURE -3REACTION SHEET BY CO-ORDINATOR/PERSONNEL MANAGERSpeaker: -------------------------------------------------------------------------Subject: --------------------------------------------------------------------------Date: --------------------------------------------- To ----------------------------A. Preparation Very much so To some extent No1. Did he preparefor thetraining/seminar?2. Was hispresentationgeared to thegroup?B. CONDUCTING Very much To some No so extent(1). Did he read his material?(2). Did he hold the interest of the group?(3). Was he enthusiastic/dynamic? 55
  • 56. (4). Did he use visual aids?(5). Did he present the material clearly(6). Did he help the group to apply the material?(7). Did he adequately cover the subject?(8). Did he summarize the summarise during the session and at the end?(9). Did he involve the group?C. Constructive comments for future sessions.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 56
  • 57. Annexure –4 QUESTIONNAIREInterview-Schedule1. How do you determine your training needs in your organization?------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2. What are the different types of training program you have in the organization?------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. Approximately how many days in a year you give training to a particular employee?-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 57
  • 58. 4.1 If no, how many days to management s staff and how many to workers?------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5. What is the ratio of in-house and outside training program?--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. Which one (in-house or outside training) do you think is more beneficial to the organization and why?--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2. Do you evaluate your training program?--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. If yes, what is the methodology of evaluating the training program?-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 58
  • 59. 4. Do you evaluate the training program in different stages (reaction level, learning level, job behavior level and result)?----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5. Do you have any system of making action plan or job improvement plan by the trainee after he undergoes the training----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6. If yes, then are you gaining from this action plan and how?--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7. Do you think it is difficult to evaluate the entire training program?------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8. If yes, then what are the different training programs which are difficult to evaluate? 59
  • 60. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9. How do you evaluate the behavioral training program?--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10. Who all are involved in the evaluation process (superior, subordinate, peers, trainer and co-coordinator)?--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11. If you have not evaluated your training programs till now then are you planning to evaluate them in the near future?----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------12. If yes, then why now, and what will be the methodology?------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 60
  • 61. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 61
  • 62. BIBLIOGRAPHY Mamoria, C.B and Gankar, S.V (2002) “Personnel Management” Published by Himalaya Publishing House. Virmani, B.R. And Seth Premila (1985) “Evaluating Management Training and Development” Published By Vision Book Pvt Ltd Training and Development - a perspective Harward Business Review 2000 Economic Times, Business World 62