Cir 1429Landscaping Backyards for Wildlife: Top Ten Tips forSuccess1Mark E. Hostetler, Gregg Klowden, Sarah Webb Miller, Kara N. Youngentob2 In Florida, urban areas are a dominant feature in to travel from one natural area to another, thusthe landscape, and many of these urban areas are benefiting wildlife at a larger scale.situated near natural wildlife preserves. What peopledo in their own yards and neighborhoods affect localand nearby wildlife populations. Steps can be taken tocreate and save wildlife habitat in urban areas,minimizing our adverse impact on local wildlife.Plus, creating wildlife habitat provides wildlifeviewing opportunities for people in cities. Wildlife are affected by how homeownersmanage their yards and neighborhoods at both localand regional scales (Figure 1). For example,maintaining a habitat for wildlife in a yard increasesbiodiversity in the neighborhood. (Biodiversity issimply the number of different species occurring in agiven area.) On a larger scale, how one manages Figure 1. Yards can be designed and managed for both wildife and humans. Photo by Mark E. Hostetler. Credits:yards and neighborhoods can have a positive effect on Mark E. Hostetlersurrounding habitat. For example, a neighborhoodmay separate natural areas. These natural areas can However, neighborhoods can have a negativebe connected if residents provide a corridor of natural impact on both local and nearby wildlife habitat.vegetation through the neighborhood. Residents can People may plant invasive, exotic plants that invadeplant natural vegetation in their individual yards so it nearby natural areas (for example, Chinese Tallow).is near or connected to vegetation in the next yard, The growth of these plants in natural areas destroysand so on. This creates a corridor that animals can use1. This document is Circular 1429, one of a series of the Department of Widlife Ecology and Conservation, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. First published in January 2003. Reviewed April 2009. Please visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu for more publications.2. Mark E. Hostetler, Assistant Professor and Extension Wildlife Specialist; Gregg Klowden, Doctoral Student; Sarah Webb Miller, Wildlife Extension Program Assistant; Kara N. Youngentob, Graduate Student; Dept. of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information andother services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex,sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service,University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A. & M. University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. MillieFerrer-Chancy, Interim Dean
Landscaping Backyards for Wildlife: Top Ten Tips for Success 2wildlife habitat. Also, pets may run loose in example, birds are attracted to areas that areneighborhoods and nearby areas. Pets can disrupt structurally diverse. These areas provide shelter inwildlife populations through hunting and harassment which to hide from predators or build nests. Further,of animals. What people do within their own yards the diversity of plants provides more feedingdoes affect nearby wildlife populations. opportunities. More fruits and seeds can occur in these unmowed areas. Most importantly, diverse Collectively and as individuals, homeowners can areas attract more insects and most birds eat insects.do many different things to provide wildlife habitat.Essentially, wildlife habitat consists of food, cover,water, and space. However, providing habitat is notenough. One must manage the yard or neighborhoodso that impacts are minimal. The suggestions belowwill guide homeowners to manage and design theiryards and neighborhoods for wildlife. Ten Tips for Landscaping for Wildlife All these tips are of value to wildlife, so they arepresented in random order. 1. Limit the Amount of Lawn Figure 2. You can reduce mowed lawn by leaving low-traffic areas unmowed and by planting ground cover 2. Increase Vertical Layering plants to replace grass. Photo by Mark E. Hostetler Credits: Mark E. Hostetler 3. Provide Snags and Brush Piles Why does mowing favor grass? Mowing favors 4. Provide Water grass because it is adapted to being cut down. When 5. Plant Native Vegetation you leave an area unmowed, other plants will gradually replace the grass. These plants may sprout 6. Provide Bird/Bat Houses and Bird Feeders from seeds already in the soil. Also, seeds could come from the surrounding area. Wind and water can 7. Remove Invasive Exotic Plants bring a wide variety of seeds to a given place. As an 8. Manage Pets area becomes more diverse, animals will visit the area and bring in more seeds. Seeds are stuck to their 9. Reduce Pesticide Use body or are found in their droppings. To help speed up the replacement of lawn, you can remove the grass 10. Expand the Scale of Habitat and plant seeds of NATIVE wildflowers that are adapted to the conditions in that part of your yard Tip 1: Limit the Amount of Lawn (sunny, shady, wet, dry, etc.). Lawn is like concrete to most species of animals. Replace Some Lawn Grass with GroundIt offers very little food or cover. In general, we Cover Plants: Another option is to replace lawnrecommend reducing the amount of mowed lawn with ground cover plants, which are more valuable toaround your house, especially in areas of low traffic wildlife than lawn grass (Figure 3). Compared tosuch as corners of the yard (Figure 2). By simply not ground cover plants, lawn grasses require a lot ofmowing, you will be creating shelter and food for maintenance -- mowing, fertilizing and watering -- allmany animal species. Over time, unmowed areas of which have high energy costs in electricity, water,contain more plant species than mowed areas. This and other natural resources. In general, yards haveplant diversity attracts more wildlife species. For many areas where native ground covers would be
Landscaping Backyards for Wildlife: Top Ten Tips for Success 3attractive (under trees and bushes, or along a privacyfence). Ground covers also provide food and coverfor small animals. For information on the benefits ofground covers, see this Web page athttp://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_book_enviroscaping_to_conserve_energy. Figure 4. Replacing some lawn grass with islands of vegetation is beneficial to birds and small animals, and to you -- if youre the one who mows the lawn! Photo by Mark E. Hostetler Credits: Mark E. Hostetler and the book titled Your Florida Guide to Butterfly Gardening by Jaret Daniels. If you do not have aFigure 3. Ground covers provide habitat for a variety of computer, your local County Extension Agent canwildife species, and they are easier to maintain than lawns. print a copy of the free publication for you. The bookPhoto by Mark E. Hostetler. Credits: Mark E. Hostetler is available from the University of Floridas IFAS Book Store. To order Your Florida Guide to Butterfly Add Islands of Vegetation: Islands of Gardening, call 1-800-226-1764 or visit their websitelandscaped vegetation are also very helpful to at http://www.ifasbooks.ufl.edu/merchant2/.wildlife. These can be planted with native groundcover, wildflowers, or other vegetation. If possible, Both of the above resources contain lists oflocate the islands so they are near each other. Islands plants that attract butterflies and tell which plants arecan also be located near unmowed areas of the yard native to Florida. When planting your butterfly(Figure 4). Overall, the nearer they are to each other, garden, keep in mind that the food plants for larvathe more likely an animal will cross from one island (caterpillars) will be munched on and may look a littleto the next. A group of islands reduces the amount of tattered at times.open space animals have to cross. Animals that cross Another way to help butterflies is to create aopen areas are at greater risk of being prey for other small, bare area of moist sand in your yard. Thisspecies. Animals are more likely to use an island if it moist area is attractive to male butterflies inis located near another. Small, ground-dwelling particular. They sip water from damp sand to obtainwildlife species benefit greatly from islands of needed salts/minerals -- this behavior is calledvegetation. Grouping islands of vegetation evenbenefits birds. Birds like to be near shelter while "puddling."foraging for food. Tip 2: Increase Vertical Layering Plant a Butterfly Garden: For butterfly habitat, Looking across your yard, do you see large trees,add plants for both the adult butterflies and their low grass, and nothing in between? Increasing plantlarvae (caterpillars). They often feed on different structure between the ground and the tree canopy isspecies of plants. For information on which plants are called "vertical layering." Planting bushes or groundutilized by butterfly larvae and by adults, see the free covers below some of your trees would benefitpublication "Butterfly Gardening in Florida" on the wildlife. Planting a variety of vegetation in differentWeb at sizes and heights provides more cover and feedinghttp://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/UW/UW05700.pdf,
Landscaping Backyards for Wildlife: Top Ten Tips for Success 4opportunities for wildlife species. Clumps (or A brush pile or two, especially if near otherislands) of vegetation with plants of different heights vegetation, will provide excellent cover and feedingare best (Figure 5). One example of vertical layering opportunities for wildlife (small mammals, birds, andis a tree with medium-sized shrubs surrounding it and butterflies). This will also serve as cover in opensome ground covers planted around the shrubs. Use areas.native plants whenever possible (more informationbelow about native plants). Tip 4: Provide Water Water is an essential part of productive wildlife habitats. Wildlife will benefit from any water source you provide, such as a birdbath and/or a small pond. Ponds are not only beautiful, but also attract a variety of species and enhance amphibian breeding. Please consult our free publications "Water for Wildlife" and "An Introduction to Aquascaping." These publications can be accessed through this website: http://www.wec.ufl.edu/extension/landscaping/. Tip 5: Plant Native Vegetation Plant NATIVE plant species in your yardFigure 5. Notice the different heights of vegetation in this whenever possible. Landscaping with plants that areyard -- ground covers, shrubs, and trees. This "vertical native to Florida not only provides better food andlayering" of vegetation is very beneficial to wildlife. Credits: cover for native wildlife than do non-native plants,Mark E. Hostetler but on average, requires less care and resources to maintain. As with all plants, newly planted native Tip 3: Provide Snags and Brush plants must be watered until they are established. But Piles after they are established, Floridas native plants require less water because most are adapted to local As trees become diseased or die, consider leaving water conditions. Native plants are better adapted tothem standing as "snags". Many wildlife species use natural soil conditions and generally do not requiresnags for feeding and nesting. While nest boxes fertilizing. They are more resistant to natural pestssupply homes for many species, some woodpeckers and diseases, so do not require pesticides.will only use cavities they excavated themselves.Thus, the need for snags. Many of the insects that Even with native plants, be sure to plant them inoccur in snags are food for woodpeckers and other the specific conditions for their optimal growth (fullbird species. sun, part sun/part shade, full shade, wet soil, dry soil, acidic soil, sandy soil, etc.). Its best to first take a If safety is a concern in leaving snags (dead look at the conditions in your yard: sunny and shadytrees) standing, ask a tree surgeon to cut the snag to areas, wet areas, compare morning versus afternoon,about 15 feet tall. This will still be valuable to etc. Then go buy the appropriate plants for thewildlife! conditions in your yard. For those without a dead or dying tree, adding a Native plant species have evolved and adapted tosmall snag is an option. For example, you could local conditions over thousands of years. They areobtain permission from a developer to remove small usually much more tolerant to climatic conditions at adowned trees, or sections of downed trees, from a given location. Once established, most speciesproperty. These snags could be placed in your yard require little or no additional irrigation beyond normal(either propped upright, or laid down horizontally to rainfall. They typically grow more slowly, generatingprovide a rotting log). much less yard waste.
Landscaping Backyards for Wildlife: Top Ten Tips for Success 5 Each native plant species is a member of a Rinse well with warm water after cleaning. Washcommunity that includes other plants, animals, and wood or cement birdfeeders and baths with soap andmicro-organisms. The natural balance keeps each warm water only (no chlorine). Remember to cleanspecies in check. Plants thrive in conditions to which old or wet seeds out of the feeders or they will rot andthey are adapted. However, other organisms (e.g., make birds sick. Several lethal diseases can beinsects) prevent plants from spreading uncontrolled. transmitted between birds at feeders and birdbaths.Thus, native species rarely become invasive, unlikesome exotic (non-native) plants imported from other Locating the feeders near cover (bushes, trees) isareas that have no natural organisms here to keep helpful for songbirds if they have to escape a predator.their spread in check. However, keep feeders at least 15 feet away from vegetation so that squirrels cannot jump onto the For more information on native plants, visit the feeder. Fifteen feet is still close enough to provideFlorida Native Plant Society website at birds with some avenue of escape from predators. Forhttp://www.fnps.org/. Information on where you can more information, please see the website atpurchase native Florida plants can be found on the http://birds.cornell.edu.Association of Florida Native Nurseries website athttp://www.afnn.org/. Bird and Bat Houses: Adding birdhouses (nest boxes) and bat houses in your yard will provide If you want to know the specific benefits that nesting and roosting shelter for wildlife. Theseeach type of plant provides for wildlife, consult the resources will be used primarily by birds and bats, butbooklet entitled Planting a Refuge for Wildlife. This other species will use these shelters if not occupied.booklet includes a list of trees, shrubs, and vines, and For example: Flying squirrels and gray squirrels willgives their specific value to wildlife (see last section roost in empty birdhouses (if entry hole is largeof booklet). One copy of this booklet is available for enough).free and can be obtained by sending a request for onecopy to: Planting a Refuge, P.O. Box 1289, What types of birds nest in birdhouses? How doWoodville, FL 32362-1289. Additonal copies are 50 you make your birdhouse attractive to birds,cents each. Make your check payable to the Florida especially if you want to attract a particular species?Wildlife Federation, and write "Habitat Fund" in the Cavity-Nesting Birds: The types of birds thatMemo area on the check. nest in birdhouses (nest boxes) are called Tip 6: Provide Bird/Bat Houses and "cavity-nesting" species. They typically excavate holes in dead trees or use existing cavities (natural or Bird Feeders bird-made). Cavity-nesting birds include Bird Feeders: Adding birdfeeders of different woodpeckers, owls, chickadees, great-cresteddesigns or with different seeds may increase the flycatchers, bluebirds, nuthatches, kestrels, wooddiversity of birds you see on your property. If you add ducks, etc. (Figure 6). Even small mammals such asa hummingbird feeder, be sure to change water often, flying squirrels will roost in nest boxes! In urbanat least weekly during hot weather. Check it regularly areas, cavity-nesting birds may not be able to findto see if the solution becomes cloudy. If so, change it enough natural cavities for nesting. That makessoon or it will make hummingbirds ill. Wash birdhouses a valuable habitat resource for these birds.hummingbird feeders with just hot water and a little Some cavity-nesting birds are primarysoap; do NOT use chlorine bleach when cleaning cavity-nesters and some are secondary cavity-nesters.hummingbird feeders. Primary cavity-nesters (woodpeckers) excavate their Wash all other birdfeeders and birdbaths own cavities, usually in dead or dying trees (there areregularly with soap and water or a solution of 1 part a few exceptions). Secondary cavity-nesterschlorine bleach to 10 parts water. We recommend (bluebirds, chickadees, owls, great-crestedcleaning with chlorine at least bi-monthly, or when flycatchers, etc.) dont make their own cavity. Theythe feeders and birdbaths are exceptionally dirty. use a cavity that has been excavated by a primary
Landscaping Backyards for Wildlife: Top Ten Tips for Success 6cavity-nesting bird, or they use a natural cavity if they attract, and the proper placement of the birdhouse incan find one. Secondary cavity-nesting birds are the your yard. Other articles can be found on ourspecies most likely to use your birdhouse(s). Landscaping for Wildlife Web page at http://www.wec.ufl.edu/extension. In addition, the Provide snags (dead trees) for primary Cornell Lab of Ornithology provides dimensions forcavity-nesters, and provide birdhouses for secondary nest boxes for many different bird species on theircavity-nesting species (Figure 6). Web page called The Birdhouse Network, at http://watch.birds.cornell.edu/nest/home/index. Tip 7: Remove Invasive Exotic Plants Some species of exotic (non-native) plants are highly invasive and should not be planted. Invasive exotic plants aggressively take over natural habitat -- altering natural ecology of an area and sometimes replacing all native vegetation. Approximately 1.7 million acres of Floridas remaining natural areas have been invaded by exotic plant species. In fact, invasive exotic pest plantsFigure 6. Many birds will nest in birdhouses (nest boxes).Here, a Great-crested Flycatcher perches atop a nest box. destroy more natural habitat every year thanPhoto copyrighted by Karl E. Miller. Credits: Karl E. Miller development. These exotic plant invasions degrade and diminish what remains of Floridas natural areas. Making a Birdhouse Attractive to Birds: So,which birds will use your birdhouse? That is When it comes to exotic non-native plants, whatdetermined by several factors, including: we do in our individual yards can affect areas far beyond our yards. The seeds of non-native invasive • the size of birdhouse (overall size, as well as plants are designed to be easily carried far away by depth) wind, water, birds, and other animals. Once established, these non-native plants then overpower • the size of the entry hole and replace native plants, thus destroying wildlife habitat and altering the natural ecology of a site. This • the height at which the birdhouse is mounted results in areas with fewer plant species and fewer • the amount of surrounding vegetation (lack of, feeding and cover opportunities for wildlife. presence of, size of, etc.), and In some cases, such as with Australian Pine, • the habitat adjacent to your yard, in your Brazilian Pepper, Kudzu, and Melaleuca, a complete neighborhood. loss of ALL native plants may occur. This results in areas with only a single invasive plant species. The When you know a bird species requirements, effects of this loss of native vegetation arethen you can look for suitable locations to mount the detrimental to wildlife. Wildlife may have relied on abirdhouse, or nest box, in your yard. Your birdhouse plant that no longer occurs in an area. Domination bycould be mounted on a freestanding post or on a tree. a single non-native plant species is especiallyFor recommendations on building birdhouses and destructive because wildlife generally need a varietynest boxes, see our free publication "Helping of plants for cover and food. These changes can beCavity-nesters in Florida" on the Web at especially detrimental to endangered species. Manyhttp://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/UW058. This publication will endangered species rely on specific features foundhelp you decide on the best birdhouse (nest box) only in their natural ecosystems. Further, non-nativedesign for the species you see in your yard, or want to plants can alter natural wildfire patterns. In some
Landscaping Backyards for Wildlife: Top Ten Tips for Success 7situations, they can cause increased wildfire Keeping cats exclusively indoors is stronglyfrequency and intensity. Endangered plants, animals, supported by the animal welfare, veterinary,and native ecosystems are being pushed closer to conservation, and scientific communities. Makingextinction by invasive exotic plants. For more sure that your cats stay indoors will keep them safeinformation, go to http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu. from other strays, traffic, and many diseases that can be transmitted to your pet through contact with wild Before buying plants for your landscape, consult animals. If you still feel that it is important for yourthe list of invasive exotic plants on the Florida Exotic cats to spend time outside, consider a screened-inPest Plant Council website so you will know which patio or even leash training, which many catsplants to avoid http://www.fleppc.org/index.cfm. (especially Siamese) can learn to accept. It is important though that you never leave your cat on a Other helpful websites include: leash when you are not around because it can easily • University of Florida, IFAS, Center for Aquatic get tangled and choke. and Invasive Plants at http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu Information on the American Bird • University of Florida website with photographs Conservancys Cats Indoors campaign is available on of aquatic and wetland plants and invasive plants the Web at at http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/node/21 http://www.abcbirds.org/abcprograms/policy/cats/. Also, the California Department of Fish and Game • University of Florida, Wildlife Extension at has a wealth of information about this issue available http://www.wec.ufl.edu/extension at http://www.dfg.ca.gov/wildlife/nongame/nuis_exo/ Tip 8: Manage Pets dom_cat/urbanrural.html. National Audubon Society has released a statement on cats at Pets can have a huge impact on wildlife. Both http://www.audubon.org/bird/cat/.dogs and cats can drastically impact wildlifepopulations. Cats are extremely good at hunting. Further, a variety of released exotic pets canTheir small size, agility, and speed are a lethal impact wildlife. Releasing exotic pets can cause direcombination for the small animals on which they consequences for natural habitats and wildlife.prey. Loose dogs will also harass and even kill a wide “Exotic” pets include parrots, giant toads, andvariety of wildlife species. Scientists estimate that almost any animal bought at a pet store because mostcats are responsible for killing hundreds of millions of these animals are originally from other parts of theof birds and possibly more than a billion small world. These exotic pets could establish themselvesmammals in the U.S. each year. Just because an in the wild. They may actually compete with nativeanimal is well-fed does not mean that it wont hunt. wildlife for food and shelter. Further, some carryCats and dogs hunt for fun, not necessarily for food. diseases that may infect local wildlife. For example,A well-fed pet or stray is even more adept at hunting pet turtles are thought to have transmitted asince it has a lot of energy. Pet predation is especially respiratory disease to gopher tortoises.problematic if you are attracting birds and otherwildlife to your yard. Please take steps to insure that Tip 9: Reduce Pesticide Useyour yard is not the last yard that these wild animalswill ever visit. Anything you can do to reduce pesticides in your yard will benefit wildlife. Most pesticides do not Contact your countys Animal Control shelter or target one species of insect but will kill any type ofthe local Humane Society immediately if you see a insect that comes in contact with it. Thus, when youstray animal in your neighborhood. Please never spray your yard with pesticides to kill one pestattempt to approach an unknown stray animal or species, you are also killing lots of beneficial species.wildlife for any reason. Also, do not offer food to Almost all wildlife species eat insects in some way.stray animals. Feeding strays will increase local Wildlife, and even humans, are truly connected topopulations.
Landscaping Backyards for Wildlife: Top Ten Tips for Success 8insects. Most birds, reptiles, amphibians and example, Red-eyed Vireos like primarily forestedmammals eat insects. Even if they do not eat insects habitats. Northern Mockingbirds like a mixture ofdirectly, their prey eat insects. For example, some shrubs, trees, and open areas.hawks eat smaller birds. Some of these smaller birdseat insects. Essentially, if you have good insect In particular, larger species respond to landscapediversity, you have good wildlife diversity. structure (such as tree canopy) at much broader scales than do smaller species. For example, a Further, many insects provide a valuable service Red-tailed Hawk will respond to landscape structurein the environment. They pollinate plants. Insect across a whole neighborhood. A Carolina Wren willpollinators include flies, bees, wasps, beetles, moths, probably respond to landscape structure within one orbutterflies, and other insects. As they feed on flower two backyards.nectar, they carry pollen from flower to flower whichpromotes plant reproduction. Without pollinating Discuss with your neighbors about designinginsects, some plant species may not reproduce in a wild areas at the property lines or on adjacent cornerslocal area. This change in plant diversity ultimately of your properties. Utilize land where people traffic iswill affect wildlife diversity. These plants might have low. This will create larger habitat patches forprovided food and shelter for various animals. wildlife. Even creating wildlife habitat withWithout the plants, many wildlife species may not be neighbors that are not adjacent to your propertyable to survive in the immediate area. creates a number of different habitat patches. This design would make your neighborhood attractive to Instead of broadcasting pesticides over a large more species. For more information, visitarea, spot treat or use baits that target one pest http://www.nwf.org/News-and-Magazines/National-species. If you spray indiscriminately, you also kill Wildlife/Birds/Archives/1998/How-Birds-Perceive-the natural predators of pest insects. The pests will Landscapes.aspxactually come back much quicker than theirpredators. Encourage insects that eat pest species. For Additional Suggestionexample, encourage ladybugs to live in your garden. Interested in Monitoring Birds?They eat aphids. Allow spiders and paper wasps toexist around your house. They eat lots of kinds of Do you like attracting birds to your yard? Theinsects. Did you know that some birds eat spiders? Department of Wildlife Ecology and ConservationsAlso, hummingbirds use spider webs in building their Wildlife Extension office, in conjunction with IFASnests. Information Technologies, developed the Florida Bird Monitoring Program. The objective of the Some plants, such as marigolds, deter insects. To Florida Bird Monitoring Program is to provide alearn more about integrated pest management - see website where participants can enter and view birdhttp://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_pest_management. survey data collected by themselves and others Tip 10: Expand the Scale of Habitat around the state. Homeowners and participants from natural resource, Cooperative Extension, and The required habitat for many species is much education programs are encouraged to participate.larger than what you could provide within your yard.Consider talking with your neighbors about creating Which types of birds are visiting a yard orlarger wildlife habitat patches. The combination of neighborhood? Through this website, you can trackseveral different yards with wildlife habitat will draw which birds occur in your yard and community overmore species into the neighborhood and, thus, more time. If you are a property owner who is landscapingto your yard. Many wildlife species prefer large to attract birds, you can monitor which landscapingpatches of their preferred habitat (such as open strategies and management techniques worked best.meadow, shrubs, or mixed forest). Some species By participating in this bird monitoring program, youprimarily respond to one type of habitat. Other can see how these techniques affected birds in yourspecies like a mixture of different habitats. For yard. You can also monitor the quantity and types of
Landscaping Backyards for Wildlife: Top Ten Tips for Success 9birds that visit any area throughout the state from Minno, M.C., M. Minno, D. Pierce, and T.C.month to month or year to year. For more information Emmel. 1999. Florida Butterfly Gardening: Aon how to join, visit our website at Complete Guide to Attracting, Identifying, andhttp://bird.ifas.ufl.edu. Enjoying Butterflies of the Lower South. University Press of Florida:Gainesville. More Resources Osorio, R. 2001. A Gardeners Guide to Barnett, M.R. and D.W. Crewz. 1997. Common Floridas Native Plants. University Press ofCoastal Plants in Florida: A Guide to Planting and Florida:Gainesville.Maintenance. University Press of Florida:Gainesville. Schaefer, J. and G. Tanner. 1998. Landscaping Beriault, J.G. 1995. Planning and Planting a for Floridas Wildlife. University Press ofNative Yard. Florida Native Plant Society:Vero Florida:Gainesville.Beach, FL. website: http://www.fnps.org, Phone:(772) 462-0000, Email address: email@example.com. Traas, P.F. 1999. Gardening for Floridas Butterflies. Great Outdoors Publishing Company:St. Bowman, S., Inc., Suncoast Native Plant Society. Petersburg, FL. website:1997. The Right Plants for Dry Places: Native Plant http://www.floridabooks.com/contact.htmlLandscaping in Central Florida. Great OutdoorsPublishing Company:St. Petersburg, FL. website: Watkins, J.V. and T.J. Sheehan. 1986. Floridahttp://www.floridabooks.com/contact.html Landscape Plants: Native and Exotic. University Press of Florida:Gainesville. Daniels, J.C. 2000. Your Florida Guide toButterfly Gardening: A Guide for the Deep South.University Press of Florida:Gainesville. Gilman, E.F. and R.J. Black. 1999. YourFlorida Guide to Shrubs: Selection, Establishmentand Maintenance. University Press ofFlorida:Gainesville. Huegel, C.N. Butterfly Gardening withFloridas Native Plants. Florida Native PlantSociety:Vero Beach, FL. website:http://www.fnps.org, Phone: (772) 462-0000, Emailaddress: firstname.lastname@example.org. Huegel, C.N. 1995. Florida Plants for Wildlife:A Selection Guide to Native Trees and Shrubs.Florida Native Plant Society:Vero Beach, FL.website: http://www.fnps.org, Phone: (772)462-0000, Email address: email@example.com. Langeland, K.A. and K.C. Burks. 1998.Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants inFloridas Natural Areas. University of Florida,Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.Publication # SP257. Available from IFAS Bookstoreonline at:http://ifasbooks.ufl.edu/merchant2/merchant.mv