Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
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Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide

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Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide

Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide

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Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide Document Transcript

  • Teacher’s Guide for Second Edition 2008
  • About the Teacher’s Guide and Activity BookThis Teacher’s Guide was created to be used in conjunction with the Cherry Creek ValleyEcological Park Activity Book (or Activity Book). Each page of the Teacher’s Guide: • graphically shows two pages of the Activity Book, • includes the Activity Book narrative for the two Activity Book pages, • provides information that expands upon the Activity Book narrative, • provides sources of the additional information, and • lists additional activities that coincide with the Activity Book pages.The Activity Book was designed with flexibility in mind. It is divided into five sections:history, seasons, animals, plants, and water. Educators may decide to go through each sectionin order or choose an order that is more in line with their curriculum.The Teacher’s Guide and the Activity Book are tools to help educators and studentsunderstand and appreciate the Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park. These books helpeducators integrate the Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park into their curriculum. Many ofthe activities can be taught at the park as well as in the classroom. Educators are encouragedto visit the Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park with their students so that each student canexperience first hand what they learn in the Activity Book.It is our hope that these books will not only bring people in touch with the beauty of theCherry Creek Valley Ecological Park, but that they will also make people aware of ouressential role in protecting our riparian environments from destruction. Education is the firststep. With tools like this Teacher’s Guide and the Activity Book, we can prepare the cominggenerations to be good stewards of our life-giving creeks, streams, and rivers.The Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book and accompanying Teacher’s Guidewere designed for Parker Jordan Metropolitan District by Valerian llc. Booklets are being paidfor by the Parker Jordan Metropolitan District with public funds. Please contactR.S. Wells LLC, District Manager, phone 303-779-4525 if there are any questions or concerns.This book is intended to be used for educational purposes only and may be reproduced ordisseminated only with the prior written consent of the Board of Directors for the Parker JordanMetropolitan District, Arapahoe County, Colorado.Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park is owned and managed byArapahoe County Open Space Park and Trails in cooperation withParker Jordan Metropolitan District.Copyright © 2008 Parker Jordan Metropolitan District
  • Table of ContentsSeasons in the Park 2Fall Equinox/ Colors of Fall 3Winter Solstice/ Measuring Your Shadow 4Spring Equinox/ I Spy! 5Summer Solstice/ Maze 6Water in the Park 7The Water Cycle 8Water Cycle Experiment/ Different Water Bodies 9Did You Know/ What Needs Water 10Wildlife in the Park 11Know Your Animals 12Match the Tracks/ Where Do They Go? 14Animal Homes/Draw Your Home 15Plants in the Park 16Plant Types/Deciduous Tree Parts 17Evergreen Tree Parts/My Tree 18History 19Long Before People 19Native Americans 20Settlers 21What is Here Today/Biotic or Abiotic 22Now you Know Your Park!/Eco Word Search 24Make a Difference/ You Make a Difference 25Appendix A: Additional ActivitiesAppendix B: Internet Resources for Supplemental InformationPhotocopy-friendly Park Map
  • What is Available in the Park?Development of the Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park is an ongoing effort. At the time ofthe development of this Teacher’s Guide, the following amenities had been added to the park: • A man-made pond and dock • An interpretive building • Interpretive stations around the park • Picnic tables • Paved parking lots • Boardwalks and trails connecting all park elements • Happy Canyon Trail • Bridge Crossing • Entry signage and crossing • Creek-side outdoor classroom • Council ring • Trail connection to Red Hawk Ridge Elementary School • RestroomsFurther development of the park is underway. In the near future, the following amenities willbe added to the park: • Trail connection to the regional trail systemRestoration work occurs in the park as funding allows. Ongoing projects includeirradication of Russian Olive trees and reseeding of native grasses and forbs. Please beaware of restoration efforts when visiting the park. While these areas provide educationalopportunities, they are also areas sensitive to foot traffic. Please stay on designated trails andboardwalks unless posted signs allow visitors to do otherwise. Park Rules and RegulationsPlease keep the following rules and regulations in mind when bringing groups of students tothe park. 1. Do not litter in the park. If you come with a large group, please bring extra trash bags. Use park trash cans or take your trash with you. 2. Collection of plant material, animals, rocks, or soil is not allowed in the park. 3. Do not feed the animals in the park. Their digestive systems are not designed to handle human food. 4. Vehicles must stay in the parking lot. Motorized vehicles are not allowed in the park. 5. Pets must be kept on a leash at all times in the park. 6. Stay on designated trails and boardwalks unless posted signs allow visitors to do otherwise or you are with an experienced field guide.
  • Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Map CHERRY CREEK REGIONAL TRAIL MAP CHERRY CREEK REGIONAL TRAIL FLOAT DOCK AND MAN-MADE POND OUTDOOR CLASSROOM GATHERING COUNCIL RING RED HAWK RIDGE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL RED HAWK RIDGE TRAIL CONNECTION CHE RRY CRE S. EK LA R CREEKVIEW AT ED RIVER RUN BOARDWALK O COMMUNITY ST PICNIC TABLES . BENCH AND EDUCATIONAL SIGNAGE BUS PARKING LOT INTERPRETATIVE CHERRY CREEK ACCESS POINT BUILDING BENCH AND EDUCATIONAL SIGNAGE RESTROOMS ENTRY MONUMENT BRIDGE CROSSING PAVED PARKING LOT COURTNEY DOWNS CHERRY CREEK TRAIL CONNECTION COMMUNITY OURT PROPOSED TAGAWA ACCESS ER C BRONCOS PA RK W ASP AY S J E JAMISON DRIV EHAPPY CANYON TRAIL
  • Activity You Are Part of Nature, page 1: Do you know what a seed is? Of course you do. And you Book also know that every seed needs to be planted and nurtured to grow up and be a healthy plant. Well, the same is true for you and everything else in nature. Nature is made up Narrative of all living things. The universe, earth, plants, and animals are all a part of nature. All living things are divided into two kingdoms: animals and plants. All animals need food, water, shelter, and habitat to survive. All plants need light, water, soil, and habitat to survive. Come explore the Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park and be sure to show respect for the park and the creatures that live here. Your Activity Book, page 2: This is your Activity Book. It will help you learn more about the Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park (Eco Park). The Eco Park is a place where animals and plants share a place that provides energy, water, shelter, and space. This place is something called an ecosystem. What is an ecosystem? An ecosystem is a group of plants and animals that live together in one place. These are special groups that have adapted to live together. You are part of the ecosystem. To enjoy this park safely, please take a few simple steps to be prepared: • Hat • Whistle • Water • Snack • Notebook • Pen/Crayon Stay on the trail unless you are with an adult guide. You Are Part of Nature Your Activity Book Do you know what a seed is? Of course you do. And you also This is your Activity Book. It will help you learn more about know that every seed needs to be planted and nurtured to the Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park (Eco Park). grow up and be a healthy plant. Well, the same is true for you and everything else in nature. Nature is made up of all The Eco Park is a place where animals and plants share a living things. The universe, earth, plants, and animals are place that provides energy, water, shelter and space. This all a part of nature. All living things are divided into two place is something called an ecosystem. kingdoms; animals and plants. All animals need food, water, shelter, and habitat to survive. All plants need light, water, What is an ecosystem? An ecosystem is a group of plants soil, and habitat to survive. Come explore the Cherry Creek and animals that live together in one place. These are special Valley Ecological Park and be sure to show respect for the groups that have adapted to live together. You are part of park and the creatures that live here. the ecosystem. To enjoy this park safely please take a few simple steps to be prepared: • Hat • Whistle • Water • Snack • Notebook • Pen/Crayon Stay on the trail unless you are with an adult guide. 1 21
  • Activity Seasons in the Park, page 4: The Earth is always moving and changing. The Earth Book travels in a circle around the sun. Each trip around the sun takes one year. One way that we can tell the Earth is spinning is by observing day and night. As the earth takes Narrative its path around the sun, sometimes we get more energy from the sun (summer) and sometimes we get less (winter). In Colorado we have four seasons: fall, winter, spring, and summer. Circle the answer that best fits each question. 1. Which season is it now? A. Fall B. Winter C. Spring D. Summer 2. The sun is... A. Shining. B. Covered by clouds. 3. The sun is... A. high in the sky and warm. B. low in the sky and cool. 4. What do the clouds look like? (Draw a picture below of what you see.) Teacher This section of the Activity Book gives an overview of the seasons. Students willInformation learn about all four seasons and do activities to reinforce events that happen during each season. Today is: Seasons in the Park The Earth is always moving and changing. The Earth travels in a circle around the sun. Each trip around the sun takes one year. One way that we can tell the Earth is spinning is by observing day and night. As the earth takes its path around the sun, sometimes we get more energy from the sun (summer) and sometimes we get less (winter). In Colorado we have four seasons: fall, winter, spring and summer. Circle the answer that best fits each question. 1. Which season is it now? A. Fall B. Winter C. Spring D. Summer 2. The sun is... A. Shining. B. Covered by clouds. 3. The sun is... A. high in the sky and warm. B. low in the sky and cool. 4. What do the clouds look like? (Draw a picture below of what you see.) 3 4 2
  • Fall Equinox, page 5: Around September 20th days and nights are of equal length. Activity Days are getting shorter and soon there won’t be enough sunlight to keep the leaves Book green. Trunks, branches, and roots will stay alive and grow new leaves when there is more light in the spring. Trees and plants adapt to the energy shortage by dropping Narrative their leaves. How do you save energy? Colors of Fall, page 6: One of the first signs of fall is that the leaves start to change color and drop to the ground. Find a leaf and trace the shape. Use crayons to show the color of fall. Fall is the time for animals and plants to get ready for winter. Animals like Teacher squirrels store food, while others like bears eat as much as they can in order Information to store fat for hibernation. Shorter days tell trees to store energy for winter, which causes some trees to stop sending nutrients to their leaves. The end result is that leaves change colors in the fall. Trees that lose their leaves are called deciduous trees. Trees that keep their leaves throughout the year and stay green are called evergreen. Weather during the fall is usually pleasant with temperatures ranging from the 70s around the end of summer to the 40s when winter rolls around. In general, the climate of the Denver area is semi-arid with precipitation gradually increasing as you go eastward into Kansas and Nebraska (due to the rain shadow from the mountains). Winters are dry with some very cold temperatures alternating with some surprisingly warm days. Spring and summer weather is wetter (70 to 80 percent of the annual total) with highly changeable weather, often windy, and some occasional thunderstorms. Across Colorado, climates can vary greatly due to elevation changes. The difference (35 degrees F) in annual mean temperature between Pikes Peak and Las Animas, 90 miles to the southeast, is about the same as that between southern Florida and Iceland. Sources • http://ccc.atmos.colostate. edu/climateofcolorado.php • http://www.learninghaven. Fall Equinox Colors of Fall Around September 20th days and nights are of equal length. Days are getting shorter and soon there won’t be enough One of the first signs of fall is that the leaves start to change color and drop to the ground. Find a leaf and trace com/science/articles/ sunlight to keep the leaves green. Trunks, branches, and roots will stay alive and grow new leaves when there is more light in the spring. Trees and plants adapt to the energy the shape. Use crayons to show the color of fall. seasons.htm • http://www.cloudsrus.com/ shortage by dropping their leaves. How do you save energy? • http://www.cet.edu/ete/ modules/k4/ Additional Activities in Appendix A 6. Seeing Eye Buddies (ongoing throughout the year) 5 6 7. Pine Cone Bird Feeder3
  • Activity Winter Solistice, page 7: Around December 20th days are short and nights are the longest of the year. How do you know when winter is here? The nights are long and Book the days are short. The sun is low in the sky. Are we getting much energy from the Narrative sun? Many trees have no leaves. Instead of rain there is snow! When you are outside on a winter day blow in the air and see your breath! How do other animals adapt to the winter weather? How do you adapt to winter weather? Measuring Your Shadow, page 8: Materials: pen or pencil, yard stick or measuring tape, a friend. You shadow varies in its size and length depending on the time of the day. Procedure: 1. The first measurement you take of your shadow should be early in the morning. With the help of a friend, stand in a place where it is easy to measure your shadow. 2. Record the measurement in your notebook and note the time you took the measurement and the direction your shadow was going. 3. Mid-day take a second measurement of your shadow and record the results in your notebook. 4. At the end of the day take a third measurement of your shadow and record the results in your notebook. Conclusion: What are the difference of the 3 recordings? Why do you think they are different? Teacher Winter is a result of Earth’s tilt away from the sun. This causes the days toInformation become shorter and the temperatures to be colder because we are farther away from the sun. During the winter, plants and animals need to save energy and stay warm. The snow makes a blanket that insulates the ground, protecting it from extreme cold. Some animals, such as bears and bats, hibernate during the winter to save energy. Hibernation is when an animal slows its metabolism to a very low level, with body temperature and breathing rates lowered, gradually using up the body fat reserves stored during the warmer months. Before entering hibernation, most animals eat a large amount of food and store energy in fat deposits in order to survive the winter. Some animals, such as birds, even migrate south in the winter in search of warmer weather and food.Sources • http://www.zoomschool.com/coloring/Hibernate.shtml Winter Solstice Measuring Your ShadowAdditional Activities in Around December 20th days are short and nights are the longest of the year. How do you know when winter is here? Materials: pen or pencilAppendix A The nights are long and the days are short. The sun is low in yard stick or measuring tape the sky. Are we getting much energy from the sun? Many a friend trees have no leaves. Instead of rain there is snow! When Your shadow varies in its size and direction depending on the you are outside on a winter day blow in the air and see your 8. The Night Tree time of the day. breath! How do other animals adapt to the winter weather? How do you adapt to winter weather? Procedure: 1. The first measurement you take of your shadow should 9. The Earth is Tilted be early in the morning. With the help of a friend, stand in a place where it is easy to measure your shadow. 2. Record the measurement in your notebook and note the time you took the measurement and the direction your10. How the Earth Moves Around shadow was going. 3. Mid-day take a second measurement of your shadow and record the results in your notebook. the Sun 4. At the end of the day take a third measurement of your shadow and record the results in your notebook. Stand in the same place and face the same direction each time.11. Direct Light Produces More Conclusion: What are the differences of the 3 recordings? Why do you think they are different? Heat Time Length of Shadow Direction of Shadow 7 8 4
  • Spring Equinox, page 9: Around March 20th days and nights are of equal length. Activity Spring, leaf, flower, here come the rain showers! In the spring (the Vernal Equinox) days Book get longer and trees and plants turn green and grow new leaves! The days get warmer and the creek fills with water from rain and snow melt. Song birds and water birds Narrative return to the park and many start to prepare for new babies. Spring is a great time to visit the park to see everything begin to bloom and grow! Have fun when you visit the Eco Park but it is also important to follow these important rules: • Be careful around the open water. • Stay on the trails. • Try not to disturb animal families, they need their privacy. I Spy!, page 10: Time to explore new places and things. See how many of these things you can find. Cross out the items with an “X” as you find them. Spring is the time of year when everything seems to come back to life. The Teacher days are longer so plants begin to come out of dormancy. The trees bud, the Information grass turns green, and the flowers bloom. Animals come out of hibernation and start foraging for food, birds return and begin making new nests, the fish make visits to the surface of the water, and people come to the park to enjoy the warm weather. Spring is a great time to observe the web of life and to see how everything in our environment is connected. Within each ecosystem, organisms can be grouped into trophic (feeding) levels. Species at one level provide life energy (food) for the species in the next level. Producers produce their own food and serve mostly as food for others. Consumers mostly eat or consume animals and plants, and decomposers help break down, or decompose, all dead materials. Plants are producers. Consumers include large animals like deer and mountain lions, or smaller species such as lizards and mice. Decomposers are mostly small microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria. It is important to realize that while one species might be a consumer some of the time, it may itself be food at another time. The biggest predator may someday be food for the smallest decomposer. The relationships are not simple and direct because they continuously evolve. Sources Spring Equinox I Spy! • http://www.vtaide.com/ Around March 20th days and nights are of equal length. Spring, leaf, flower, here come the rain showers! In the spring (the Vernal Equinox) days get longer and trees and Time to explore new places and things. See how many of these things you can find. Cross out the items with an “X” as you find them. png/foodchains.htm • http://www.stoller-eser. plants turn green and grow new leaves! The days get warmer and the creek fills with water from rain and snow melt. Song birds and water birds return to the park and many start to prepare for new babies. Spring is a great time to visit the park to see everything begin to bloom and grow! Have fun when you visit the Eco Park com/trial/colorbook/food_ web.html but it is also important to follow these important rules: • Be careful around the open water. Gazebo Flower Bridge • Stay on the trails. • Try not to disturb animal families, they need their privacy. Additional Activities in Insect Creek Animal Tracks Appendix A 12. Food Chain and Webs Bird Leaves Boardwalk 13. Create a Food Web 9 10 14. All Connected5
  • Activity Summer Solstice, page 11: After spring comes summer! Around June 20th days are the longest of the year and the nights are the shortest. One sign that summer is here is Book that days are long and hot because the sun is high in the sky. All energy comes from Narrative the sun. Plants get energy from the sun. Animals get energy from the plants and other animals they eat. Summer is a good time to bring your energy to the Eco Park. Bee Maze, page 12: Bees are very important to our ecosystem because they pollinate trees, flowers, and other plants which produce food for us to eat. Without bees and other pollinators, there would be no food available for us to eat. Other pollinators are flies, wasps, butterflies, moths, birds, and bats. Help the bee find his way to the Wild Plum blossom. Teacher Summer is the hottest time of year and when everything in the environment Information is in full swing. This is a good time of year to explore the outdoors and see how humans fit in. Our environment provides us with the most basic human needs such as food, shelter, medicine, fresh air, and water. In addition, humans have used a wide variety of plant and animal species to produce forms of transportation, musical instruments, tools, weapons, food holders, and many other products. In general, people enjoy spending time outdoors and many feel that each species in our environment should be respected and protected simply because it exists. For these reasons we should do what we can to protect our environment. Everything (animals, plants, weather, seasons, food cycles, etc.) works together and humans are a big part of it. With a little care we can make a big difference and protect places like the Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park for people in the future to enjoy, just like we have. Aside from what they have learned from the book and the activities, here are some things that the children can do to make a difference in improving the environment: - Save electricity – turn off the lights, the television, and other electronic devices when you are through with them. - If possible bike, bus, or walk to where you are going instead of taking a car. - Recycle cans, bottles, plastic bags, and newspapers. - Conserve water – turn off the water when you’re not using it and tell an adult if you see a leak somewhere. - Put litter in garbage cans. If you see trash on the ground, pick it up and toss it in the nearest trash can. Summer Solstice After spring comes summer! Around June 20th days are the longest of the year and the nights are the shortest. One sign that summer is here is that days are long and hot because the sun is high in the sky. All energy comes fromSources the sun. Plants get energy from the sun. Animals get energy from the plants and other animals they eat. Summer is a good time to bring your energy to the Eco Park. • http://www.epa.gov/kids/Additional Activities inAppendix A15. Elementary Ecosystems16. Bug Study Bees are very important to our ecosystem because they pollinate trees, flowers, and other plants which produce food for us to eat. Without bees and other pollinators, there would be no food available for us to eat. Other pollinators17. Just Turn it Off are flies, wasps, butterflies, moths, birds, and bats. Help the bee find his way to the Wild Plum blossom. 11 12 6
  • Water in the Park, page 14: Water is very important to all forms of life. Without Activity water, plants and animals would not be able to live. In this section, you will learn about Book the Water Cycle and how water moves around the Earth. You will also learn about watersheds and some of the neat things that make water so special. Narrative Put a check mark by the statements that are true. Water is... ___ wet (when it falls as rain) ___ cold (when it is ice) ___ hot ( when it is boiling) ___ hard to see (when it is vapor) Water can be found... ___ in the ground ___ in the sky ___ in lakes and streams ___ in the oceans ___ in water fountains ___ in glaciers Water is used by... ___ farmers ___ businesses ___ wildlife ___ plants This section of the Activity Book teaches students about the water cycle, Teacher bodies of water, shapes of water, and what lives in the water. Several Information activities reinforce these topics. Water in the Park Water in the Park Water is very important to all forms of life. Without water, plants and animals would not be able to live. In this section, you will learn about the Water Cycle and how water moves around the Earth. You will also learn about watersheds and some of the neat things that make water so special. Put a check mark by the statements that are true. Water is... ___ wet (when it falls as rain) ___ cold (when it is ice) ___ hot ( when it is boiling) ___ hard to see (when it is vapor) Water can be found... ___ in the ground ___ in the sky ___ in lakes and streams ___ in the oceans ___ in water fountains ___ in glaciers Water is used by... ___ farmers ___ businesses ___ wildlife ___ plants 13 147
  • Activity The Water Cycle, page 15 &16: The sun’s energy heats liquid water in the oceans, lakes, and rivers. The heated water turns into vapor (gas). When water vapor is warmer Book than the air it rises into the sky where you see it as clouds. This is called evaporation. Narrative Plants release water vapor into the air. This is called transpiration. As water vapor cools it turns back into a liquid. This is called condensation. Liquid water is heavy and cool. Sometimes it is cold, so cold that it turns to ice (solid) and falls back to the Earth as snow, hail, or sleet. Teacher The water we use in the Denver area comes mostly from snow melt and rainInformation showers that fill up man-made reservoirs during the spring. Because the amount of precipitation naturally varies, we must be conservative with our water so that we will still have some during dry periods. Because our water is always moving around, as shown in the water cycle, we must also be careful of the types of pollutants we put in our water. These pollutants may contaminate the water we drink, the water animals and plants use, or even the water from rain. Some facts about snowfall in Colorado: • The record for the maximum 24-hour snowfall in the United States is 75.8 inches at Silver Lake in the mountains west of Boulder. This was the result of a storm which occurred on April 14-15, 1921. • Denver has an average annual snowfall of 60.7 inches. The snowiest season on record occurred in 1908-1909, with 118.7 inches of snow.Sources • http://waterknowledge.colostate.edu/ • http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/Additional Activities in As water vapor cools it turns back into a liquid. This is calledAppendix A The Water Cycle condensation. Liquid water is heavy and cool. Sometimes it is cold, so cold that it turns to ice (solid) and falls back to the Earth as snow, hail or sleet.18. Three States of Water The sun’s energy heats liquid water in the oceans, lakes, and rivers. The heated water turns into vapor (gas). When water vapor is warmer than the air it rises into the sky where you see it as clouds. This is called evaporation. Plants release water vapor into the air.19. The Water Cycle This is called transpirtation.20. Oil Pollution Clouds (Condensation) Snow (Precipitation) Rain (Precipitation) Mountain Plants Vapor Creek Creek Vapor Lake Plants River Ocean Plants River Lake Ground Water 15 Ground Water 16 8
  • Water Cycle Experiment, page 17: Please see instructions in the activity book for this Activity experiment. Book Different Water Bodies, page 18: Water covers most of the Earth’s surface. These areas Narrative of water on the ground are called water bodies. An area of land where water drains into the same water body is called a watershed. Which water body below does Cherry Creek look like? Facts about Colorado water bodies: Teacher Information • South Platte River Basin - The South Platte River Basin drains 19,020 square miles. - Major reservoirs in the South Platte Basin include Lake Granby, Grand Lake, Carter Lake, Horsetooth Reservoir, Chatfield Reservoir, Cherry Creek Reservoir, Barr Lake, Riverside Reservoir, Empire Reservoir, Sterling Reservoir, and Julesburg Reservoir. - Major tributaries to the South Platte include the Poudre, Big Thompson, St. Vrain, Boulder Creek, Clear Creek, and Cherry Creek. • Blue Mesa is the largest reservoir in Colorado. • The Colorado River used to be called the Grand River. • 87 percent of the water leaving Colorado flows out of the Colorado River basin toward the Pacific Ocean. The remaining 13 percent of the water leaving Colorado flows out of the Missouri, Arkansas, and Rio Grande river basins toward the Atlantic Ocean. • The Platte River, whose name means flat, was named by early French trappers and explorers. The Native Americans in the region called it Nibraskier, a similar word for flat. • Grand Lake is 265 feet deep - the deepest natural lake in Colorado. Sources • http://waterknowledge.colostate.edu/ Water Cycle Experiment Different Water Bodies Materials: Water fills many different holes on the Earth’s surface. handful of soil These areas of water on the ground are called water water bodies. All water bodies are part of a watershed. An area plastic zip-top bag of land where water drains into the same place is called a strong tape watershed. Which water body below does Cherry Creek sunny window belong to? Procedure: 1. Put the soil in the zip-top bag. 2. Sprinkle a little water on the dirt, just enough to make it moist. 3. Close the bag tight and tape it to the sunny window. 4. Watch what happens in the bag. Creek River What do you think will happen? What happened? Pond Puddle Do you know why? Lake Ocean 17 18 Teacher’s Guide: Page 9 Teacher’s Guide: Page 99
  • Activity Did You Know?, page 19: Please see instructions in the activity book Book for this experiment. Narrative Pond Water Experiment, page 20: Please see instructions in the activity book for this experiment. Teacher Answers for page 19.Information 1. A; 2. C; 3. B; 4. A; 5. B; 6. A; 7. C Page 20: When you look at fresh water with a microscope you will likely see a variety of tiny living things. Sources of fresh water samples can include ponds, lakes, rivers, aquarium tanks, or even an old rain puddle. You might see bacteria which belongs to the Kingdom Monera. You likely will see tiny animals like rotifers, which belong to the Kingdom Animalia and of course there are the Protozoans and Algae, which belong to the Kingdom Protista. The algae are single celled plant-like protists and the protozoans are single celled animal-like protists. Remember, the Protists are neither animals or plants but are in a kingdom of their own! Protozoans are further classified according to how they move, and there are four types. The phyla Mastigophora move with a long whip-like extension called a flagella. The Ciliophora have hundreds of tiny little hairs which beat in unison like little oars to move them through the water. The Sarcodina includes the Amoebas and they move like a flowing blob of jelly using what is called a pseudopod, or false foot. The last type of protozoan is the Sporazoans. They are very small spore-like with no apparent means of locomotion. Some are harmful like those that cause malaria. Scientists estimate that there are more than 50,000 different species of protozoans. Even at that, there are many new protists yet to be found as new species are identified regularly.Sources Did you Know? What Needs Water • http://www.microscope- Circle the correct answer for each question. Look around the Eco Park. Make a list of things that need water to live and need water microscope.org/ 1. How much water does a person use daily? to be made. A. 50 gallons B. 10 gallons C. 125 gallons HINT: A shirt is made of cotton. applications/pond-critters/ 2. How much of a tree is water? Cotton comes from a plant. A. 1/4 B. 1/2 C. 3/4 The plant drinks water. What else do you see that uses cotton? pond-critters.htm 3. How much water is used to flush a toilet? Wood comes from trees. A. 1-2 gallons B. 2-7 gallons C. 7-10 gallons Trees need water to grow. What do you see that is made of wood? 4. How much has the amount of water decreased over the past million years? 1.________________________________________ A. None B. 10,000 gallons C. 1,000,000 gallons 2.________________________________________ 5. How long can a person live without water? 3.________________________________________ A. 1 day B. 7 days C. 2 weeks 4.________________________________________ 6. Where does the water from the Cherry Creek flow to? 5.________________________________________ A. Gulf of Mexico B. Pacific Ocean C. Atlantic Ocean 6.________________________________________ 7. How much of an elephant is water? 7.________________________________________ A. 1/4 B. 1/2 C. 3/4 8.________________________________________ (Answers can be found on page 23 of the Teacher’s Guide.) 19 20 10
  • Wildlife in the Park, page 22: The Eco Park is home to wildlife. Wildlife is another name Activity for animals and insects. Deer, beavers, snakes, and dragonflies are all wildlife. They can Book all live without the care of people. Dogs, cows, and parakeets do not count as wildlife. They need regular care from people. In this section, you will learn about many animals Narrative and insects that can be seen at the park. When you are completing the activities for this section remember that all the animals and insects are connected as part of the ecosystem and that they depend on each other and Cherry Creek to survive. How to watch wildlife: • Wear clothing that is not brightly colored • Keep still. Wait for animals to find you. Do not follow them. • Do not stand where you are fully visible. Crouch down low to disguise yourself. • Move slowly and quietly when you do move. • Freeze if an animal you are watching looks your way. • Listen for animal noises like buzzing and plopping. • Sniff out unusual smells. • Use your senses to explore the Eco Park just like an animal would. • Do not feed or bother the wildlife. This section of the Activity Book gives an overview of the animals that can Teacher be found in the ecological park. Students will learn about the animals, what Information color they are, and their habits. Wildlife in the Park Wildlife in the Park The Eco Park is home to wildlife. Wildlife is another name for animals and insects. Deer, beavers, snakes, and dragonfly are all wildlife. They can all live without care of people. Dogs, cows, and parakeets do not count as wildlife. They need regular care from people. In this section, you will learn about many animals and insects that can be seen at the park. When you are completing the activities for this section remember that all the animals and insects are connected as part of the ecosystem and that they depend on each other and Cherry Creek to survive. How to watch wildlife: • Wear clothing that is not brightly colored • Keep still. Wait for animals to find you. Do not follow them. • Do not stand where you are fully visible. Crouch down low to disguise yourself. • Move slowly and quietly when you do move. • Freeze if an animal you are watching looks your way. • Listen for animal noises like buzzing and plopping. • Sniff out unusual smells. • Use your senses to explore the Eco Park just like an animal would. • Do not feed or bother the wildlife. 21 2211
  • Activity Know the Wildlife, page 23: There are many different animals and insects in the park. You may not see these animals when you are exploring the Eco Park but they are here. Book Look for clues! What colors are these animals? Narrative Know the Wildlife, pages 24 & 25: There are no narratives for these pages of the activity book. Teacher Fox: Weight: from 3 to 6 lbs. Physical characteristics: long ears, long bushy tail, reddish-brown fur.Information Diet: rodents, eggs, birds, insects, amphibians, reptiles, fish, grass, berries, nuts, and dead carcasses. Shelter: dens. Other: They hunt at night. Beaver: Size/weight: 3’ long, up to 55 lbs. Physical description: broad, nearly naked, flat tail; webbed feet. Shelter: dens. Diet: tender upper leaves, branches, and bark of trees. Other: Largest of the rodents. Besides humans, no other animal has such influence on its surroundings. They can drop a 5-inch diameter tree in 30 minutes. Raccoon: Size/weight: 2 to 3’ long, 8 to 22 lbs (heaviest in the fall). Diet: nearly anything. Shelter: tree cavities, abandoned burrows. Other. Raccoons can be found anywhere today, but once lived only in the riparian areas of the eastern plains. Active at night. Fish: Types of fish that have been found in Cherry Creek include minnows and trout. Sizes and colors vary. Fish eat insects and plant matter. Cottontail Rabbit: Size/weight: about 16” long, about 2 lbs. Physical characteristics: brownish-gray, white tail. Shelter: shallow depression within brushy areas. Diet: vegetation, herbaceous and woody. Other: Feed in the morning and late afternoon. Deer: Size/weight: 4 to 6 feet long, around 3’ tall at the shoulder; bucks around 400 lbs, does around 200 lbs. Other: Two species in Colorado - mule deer and white-tailed deer. Western Rattlesnake: Size: up to 48” long. Diet: prairie dog young, other rodents, birds, lizards, and frogs. Shelter: abandoned burrows. Other: has a rattle on the end of the tail that it shakes to warn creatures to stay away. They do most of their hunting at night. Frog: Frogs are amphibians, animals that spend part of their lives under water and the rest on land. Most frogs have teeth. Diet: Insects, sometimes small fish and worms. Shelter/Habitat: Near water. In really cold weather, frogs may bury themselves in the sand/mud and hibernate through winter. Turtle: Turtles of the area include snapping turtles, box turtles, yellow mud turtles, spiny softshells, and painted turtles. They all have relatively hard shells and small heads and legs. They spend a lot of time in the water, but they also like to sun themselves on logs and rocks. Diet: plants, insects, snails, slugs, crayfish, leeches, mussels, tadpoles, frogs, fish eggs, small fish, and dead animals. Know the Wildlife Mammals Reptiles, Amphibians, and Fish There are many different animals and insects in the park. You may not see these animals when you are exploring the Eco Park but they are here. Look for clues! What colors are these animals? Mammals Beaver Beaver Tracks Turtle Turtle Tracks Rabbit Rabbit Tracks Fish Fox Fox Tracks Frog Frog Tracks Deer Deer Tracks Snake Snake Tracks 23 Raccoon Raccoon Tracks 24 25 12
  • Know the Wildlife, page 26, 27 & 28: Bugs are wildlife. They are an important part of Activity an ecosystem. There are many colorful bugs at the Eco Park. Bugs have no backbones. Book They wear their skeletons on the outside of their bodies. They have at least 3 pairs of legs; sometimes as many as 15 pairs of legs. How many pairs of legs do you have? Narrative Answers for page 27 & 28. Teacher Ant- Insect; Bumble Bee- Insect; Dragonfly- Insect; Tick- Arthropod; Mosquito- Insect; Grasshopper- Insect; Spider- Arthropod Information Heron: Size: 38” tall, wingspan is 70” wide. They have a white crown and face with a blue-gray body. Diet: Mostly fish, some small mammals, reptiles, and amphibians. They live in large nests within dense tree cover. Red-tailed Hawk: Size/weight: about 19-23” long, about 2.5 lbs. Physical characteristics: back, head, and wings are brown with paler markings; white chest; tail feathers are reddish-brown. Diet: rodents, reptiles, amphibians, and small birds. Shelter: nests of bark, sticks, and leaves high in the trees. Other: Often catch food while in flight. Ant: Ants range in color from red to black, and they can range in size from 1/4” for a worker carpenter ant to 3/4” for a queen carpenter ant. Although ants are frustrating when they get in homes, ants do help the environment. They help control the population of damaging pests such as termites. Honey Bee: Honey bees eat nectar from flowers. They can fly about 15 mph. While eating, they also collect pollen in the pollen baskets attached to their legs. Some of the pollen lands on other flowers, pollinating them. Bees use the pollen to make honey, which is fed to newborn bee larvae. There are three types of bees: the queen (lays eggs), workers (females who gather food, build honeycomb, tend to eggs, guard the hive), and drones (males who mate with the queen). Dragonfly: Dragonflies eat other insects that they catch in mid air. There are many kinds of dragonflies with most found near water. They have long, thin bodies and with two pairs of long, delicate wings. Tick: Ticks are more closely related to spiders and scorpions than insects. Like a spider, a tick has one main body section; while, an insect has three separate body sections. There are two main types of ticks: hard and soft. Hard ticks are most commonly found in the woods and on pets. Soft ticks have tough, leathery skin with no apparent head. They can be found in caves, cabins and on birds. Grasshopper: Grasshoppers can hop, walk, and fly. There are thousands of different kinds of grasshoppers and they come in browns, greens, and olive greens. They eat plants while holding them between their small front legs. Mosquito: There are thousands of different kinds of mosquitoes. They can fly 1 to 1.5 mph. Females drink blood and plant nectar, males drink only nectar. Interestingly, not all mosquitoes bite humans. Spider: There are many types of spiders that live all over the earth. They come in all shapes and colors. Most spiders live for about one year. They produce silk from silk glands to make webs, traps, shelters, cocoons, and diving bells (for those spiders that hunt under water). Birds Insects Insects Bugs are wildlife. They are an important part of an ecosystem. There are many colorful bugs at the Eco Park. Bugs have no backbones. They wear their skeletons on the outside of their bodies. They have at least 3 pairs of legs; sometimes as many as 15 pairs of legs. How many pairs of legs do you have? Tick Grasshopper Hawk Tracks Hawk Daddy Long Legs Ant Bumble Bee Heron Tracks Dragonfly Mosquito Spider Heron 26 27 2813
  • Activity Match the Tracks, page 29: Can you match which tracks are made by each animal? Book Draw a line from the animal to the tracks they each make. Narrative Make Your Own Animal, page 30: The Eco Park is home to wildlife. Wildlife is another name for animals and insects. Deer, beavers, snakes, and dragonfly are all wildlife. They can all live without care of people. Dogs, cows, and parakeets do not count as wildlife. They need regular care from people. In this section, you will learn about many animals and insects that can be seen at the park. When you are completing the activities for this section remember that all the animals and insects are connected as part of the ecosystem and that they depend on each other and Cherry Creek to survive. How to watch wildlife: • Wear clothing that is not brightly colored • Keep still. Wait for animals to find you. Do not follow them. • Do not stand where you are fully visible. Crouch down low to disguise yourself. • Move slowly and quietly when you do move. • Freeze if an animal you are watching looks your way. • Listen for animal noises like buzzing and plopping. • Sniff out unusual smells. • Use your senses to explore the Eco Park just like an animal would. • Do not feed or bother the wildlife. Teacher No additional information for these pages.Information Match the Tracks Where Do They Go? Can you match which tracks are made by each animal? Draw Do you have a favorite animal that you can find in the a line from the animal to the tracks that each makes. summer, but it is not around in the winter? Some animals move from one place to another when the weather gets cold. This is called migration. Other animals sleep through the winter months. This is called hibernation. Some animals live in the Eco Park all winter long. Extra-thick fur or down feathers help to keep these animals warm. Fun Fact: • Birds hide in dense bushes to stay dry during rain storms. • Great horned owls pant to keep cool from the hot sun. • Bears’ teeth keep growing so they have to chew on trees to keep them in their mouths. • During rain showers, butterflies use leaves as if they were umbrellas. • Cold-blooded animals, like snakes, will sun themselves to keep their bodies warm. 29 30 14
  • Animal Homes, page 31: Wildlife in the park live in all kinds of shelters. Do you know Activity what kind of homes these animals live in? Write the correct letter next to the animal Book type. Narrative Draw Your Own Home, page 32: What does your home look like? Draw your home here! Look for homes in the Eco Park. What does a wild animal use to build a home? How is your wild animal home different from your actual home? How is it the same? Answers for page 31. Teacher 1. B; 2. D; 3. H; 4. D; 5. E; 6. A; 7. G; 8. E; 9. G; 10. C; 11. G; 12. G; 13. H; Information 14. F Caves: A cave is a natural opening in the ground extending beyond the zone of light and large enough to permit the entry of an average human. Some bears, bats, spiders, and other small bugs live in caves. Nests: A nest is a structure usually made of organic materials (leaves, twigs, branches, animal fur) in which animals lay eggs or give birth to their young. Some birds and squirrels use nests. Burrows: Burrows are like dens except that burrows are usually deeper. Burrows sometimes have numerous tunnels. Prairie dogs, snakes, burrowing owls, ground squirrels, rabbits, chipmunks, groundhogs, woodchucks, and some tarantulas live in burrows. Webs: Webs are intricately woven structures. Some spiders, worms, and mites weave webs. Spiders use their webs to trap insects whereas the worms and mites that weave webs use them as home structures. Dens: Dens can be described as shallow cave-like burrows. Beavers live in bank dens with entrances underwater. Foxes live in burrow-like dens on dry land. Grassland: Grasslands are areas where either low total annual rainfall (10-20 inches) or uneven seasonal rainfall favor grasses and herbaceous plants over the growth of trees. Most grasslands lie between desert shrub and forest lands. Streams: A stream is a body of water with a current, confined within a bed and stream- banks. Streams are important as conduits in the water cycle, instruments in groundwater recharge, and corridors for fish and wildlife migration. Often support a large variety of animal and plant life. Wind and streams can carry in eggs, seeds, and organisms that develop into various life forms. Animal Homes Wildlife in the park live in all kinds of shelters. Do you know Draw Your Home What does your home look like? Draw your home here! Sources what kind of homes these animals live in? Write the correct letter next to the animal type. A. Den E. Stream 1. Spider 2. Prairie Dog • http://websters-online-dictionary.org/ • http://www.enchantedlearning.com/ 3. Cat B. Web F. Nest 4. Beaver 5. Frog 6. Bear subjects/ C. Grass G. Burrow 7. Deer 8. Fish Look for homes in the Eco Park. What does a wild animal use to build a home? How is your wild animal home different from your actual home? How is it the same? • http://wildlife.state.co.us/ 9. Rabbit WildlifeSpecies/Profiles/ • http://www.hsus.org/ 10. Grasshopper 11. Snake D. Lodge H. House • http://www.usgs.gov/ 12. Fox 13. Ant 14. Sparrow 31 3215
  • Activity Plants in the Park, page 34: Plants are a part of the ecosystem of the Eco Park. They help create the oxygen that we breathe, and they are food for people and animals. In Book this section, you will learn about what makes different types of plants unique and how Narrative to identify them in the park. There are also some fun activities for you to complete! Teacher This section of the Activity Book teaches students about plant types andInformation plant parts. It also has activities that will hone observation skills, building on the seasonal changes of plants. Plants in the Park Plants in the Park Plants are a part of the ecosystem of the Eco Park. They help create the oxygen that we breathe, and they are food for people and animals. In this section, you will learn about what makes different types of plants unique and how to identify them in the park. There are also some fun activities for you to complete! 33 34 Teacher’s Guide: Page 16 16
  • Plant Types, page 35: There are four main types of plants in the park. How many of Activity each type can you find? Book Deciduous Tree Parts, page 36: There are some kinds of trees that we call deciduous Narrative trees because they lose their leaves in winter and grow new leaves in the spring. Plains Cottonwood (Populus deltoides): This Teacher deciduous tree gets 80’ to 100’ tall and 40’ to 60’ Information wide. These trees have yellow fall color. They live along stream banks. Sandbar Willow (Salix exigua): This shrub can get from 3’ to 20’ tall and wide. It is thicket-forming and spreads by suckers. Saskatoon Serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia): This shrub gets 15’ tall and half as wide. Creamy- white flowers appear in the spring. Red berries that are an important food source for birds. Sedges (Carex spp.): There are many different species of sedge. These grasses grow in wet soil near stream banks alongside reeds and rushes. Yarrow (Achillea millefolium): This is a perennial little flowering plant that reaches 1’ to 1.5’ tall. It spreads like a groundcover and has very soft leaves. White, yellow, or pink flowers appear in summer. Sources Plant Types Deciduous Tree Parts • http://plants.usda. gov/ There are four main types of plants in the park. How many There are some kinds of trees that we call deciduous trees of each type can you find in the park? because they drop their leaves in fall and sprout new leaves in spring. The tree canopy is made up of many, many flat leaves. The leaves transform energy from the sun into food. This is a branch. Branches move This is the trunk. water up to the It has bark which leaves and twigs protects the tree. Trees and down to the roots. This is the root of the tree. The roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil. Shrubs Grasses Flowering Plants Leaves on a Cottonwood trees have cottonwood branch seeds like this one. 35 36 Teacher’s Guide: Page 1717
  • Activity Evergreen Tree Parts, page 37: There are some kinds of trees that we call evergreen Book trees because they do not lose their leaves. They stay green all winter. Narrative My Tree, page 38: Please see instructions in the activity book on how to make a tree book. Teacher Russian Olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia): This treeInformation is considered a noxious weed in Colorado! Students should know that this tree has a tendency to replace native species along stream banks. It was once used for windbreaks and wildlife habitat. It is no longer sold as nursery stock in Colorado. Russian olive has a pungent smell when blooming, later producing olive-like fruit. It reaches heights of 30’ and is just about as wide. Rubber Rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus): This shrub blooms in autumn. It gets up to 4-6’ wide and 6’ tall. It has silvery leaves that are soft to the touch. It typically likes well-draining soils and is drought tolerant.Sources • http://plants.usda.gov/ Evergreen Tree Parts My Tree There are some kinds of trees that we call evergreen trees Materials: because they do not lose their leaves. They stay green all notebook winter. pen or pencil adult to take you to the park You can adopt a tree in the park and The tree canopy is observe and record the changes that it goes This is a branch. made up of many, through during the year. Evergreen branches many needles. The can sometimes be needles transform Procedure: hard to see through energy from the 1. In the Eco Park find a specail tree that is the needles. Branch- sun into food. along the trail that you like. es move water up to 2. If you think you might not be able to find your tree next the leaves and twigs time you visit, tie a piece of string onto one of its and down to the branches. roots. 3. Make a rubbing of a section of its bark. Use this as a This is the picture for the front of your book. trunk. It has 4. On the first day, also write what you see in your book. This is the root bark which You might write, “My tree is very tall. It has yellow of the tree. The protects the leaves and it has a big chunk of bark taken off of it.” roots absorb water tree. Draw a picture of it. and nutrients from 5. If your tree is a deciduous tree, dry and press one of the soil. its leaves to add to a page in your book. If it is an evergreen tree, paste some of its needles in the book. 6. Go to the park at least once a month. Write the date, something about the tree that has changed, and draw another picture. 7. Do some research on your tree. Find out its name, other areas it grows in, what animals live in it or eat it, and Needles Some trees have seeds like other information. Include these facts in your book. (Needles are a type of leaf) this one. This seed came 8. At the end of the year, have an adult help you bind all of from a cone. the pages together. 37 38 Teacher’s Guide: Page 18 18
  • Long Before People, page 39: A long, long time ago Cherry Creek looked different than Activity it does today. The land was full of animal life but very few of the animals were people. Book Animals came in many different body shapes and sizes. Are you an animal? Buffalo, page 40: There were many animals that lived in the wild. Connect the Narrative dots and find out what kind of animal this is! Colorado’s landscape can be divided into three major geologic zones: Teacher Eastern Plains, Rocky Mountains, and the Colorado Plateau. The eastern Information plains cover the eastern portion of the state including the Denver area and consist of rolling grasslands and shrublands. Buffalo once roamed these lands as wild animals. The buffalo that Americans refer to are actually bison. It is also called the American Buffalo. It is the heaviest land animal in North America. The bison has a large head with relatively small, curving horns. It has a shaggy coat of brown hair on its shoulders and legs, while its body has shorter, finer hair. It lives in parks and reserves, inhabiting flat grasslands. Bison can run at speeds up to 30 mph (48 kph). Although bison almost went extinct in the late 1800s due to over-hunting, it is now recovering. A bison can grow up to 6 feet (1.8 meters) tall and weigh up to a ton (900 kg). Bulls (males) are larger than cows (females). Both bulls and cows have horns. Buffalo have a life span of 12 to 15 years. These herbivores (plant eaters) graze on grass, twigs, and shrubs. They swallow their food without chewing it and later regurgitate a cud and chew it, similar to what cows do. Sources - http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/mammals/bison/Bisoncoloring.html - http://www.kidsplanet.org/factsheets/bison.html Additional Activities in Long Before People Long Before People A long, long time ago Cherry Creek was a lot different than it is today. There were lots of animals before there were There were many animals that lived in the wild. Connect the dots and find out what kind of animal this is! Appendix A lots of people and more land for the animals to build shel- ters and find food. The animals came in many different body shapes and sizes and roamed around freely. 1. My Buffalo Coloring Activity 2. Natural Figures 39 40 Teacher’s Guide: Page 19 Teacher’s Guide: Page 1919
  • Activity Native Americans, page 41: A long time ago, there were people who lived here in groups Book called tribes. Each tribe had a name. Some tribes were called Arapaho and others were called Cheyenne. The people lived off the land. They hunted bison, gathered roots, Narrative berries, and plants to eat. They used bones, stones, and plants to make toys, tools, and decorations. They made clothes and made their own shelter using bison skins. Native Americans, page 42: Native Americans had very colorful clothes and some lived in teepees. The color and patterns they put on their clothes and teepees communicated to others who they were. How do you communicate to others about who you are? Draw colorful patterns and designs on the teepee that represent you. Teacher The Plains Indians were one of the first inhabitants of the area. They wereInformation nomadic people living in temporary and mobile settlements made up of teepees. Tribes primarily hunted buffalo and followed herds across the Great Plains. Every part of a hunted buffalo was typically used, from the hides, which were used for teepees; to the stomachs, which were used for water containers. Before European settlers, eastern Colorado was inhabited by Arapaho and Cheyenne Indians. The Arapaho Indians lived much like their ancestors, tracking buffalo in small, mobile settlements. The word Arapaho is believed to mean trader. They are thought to have moved into Colorado from Minnesota and North Dakota. In the mid-1800s, the tribe split into the Northern Arapaho tribe and the Southern Arapaho tribe. Today, the tribes live on reservations in Wyoming and Oklahoma. The Cheyenne Indians were widely spread with bands reaching across the Great Plains. A unique feature of the Cheyenne was that all the bands were unified under a complex political system. Unlike the Arapaho, the Cheyenne Indians were primarily an agricultural based society throughout their history. Native Americans established a trail along Cherry Creek that was used by trappers, gold seekers, and traders. It was known by several names, the most popular being the Cherokee Trail and the South Branch of the Smoky Hill Trail. Native Americans Native AmericansSources A long time ago, there were people who lived here in groups called tribes. Each tribe had a name. Some tribes were Native Americans had very colorful clothes and some lived in teepees. The color and patterns they put on their clothes • http://www.accessgenealogy. called Arapaho and others were called Cheyenne. The people and teepees communicated to others who they were. lived off the land. They hunted bison, gathered roots, berries, and plants to eat. They used bones, stones, and How do you communicate to others about who you are? plants to make toys, tools, and decorations. They made Draw colorful patterns and com/native/colorado/ clothes and made their own shelter using bison skins. designs on the teepee that represent you. 41 42 20
  • Settlers, page 43: Almost 200 years ago, more people moved here from Europe and the Activity Eastern United States. Settlers from the East traveled West along rivers, creek, and Book streams. The settlers followed Cherry Creek as they made their way to new homes in Colorado. Why would they follow the Cherry Creek? Look around the park. If you Narrative were settling here, what would you use for food, water, and shelter? Settlers, page 44: Settlers used wagons and pack animals to move all of their belongings. What do you think the settlers brought with them? What do you think the settlers ate? The gold rush of 1858-59 brought settlers to Colorado from the eastern U.S. Teacher William Green Russell found gold at the confluence of Cherry Creek and the South Information Platte River and constructed the Pine Grove Post Office. The post office handled mail and provisions, as well as provided refuge for travelers seeking gold in the area. Cherry Creek is thought to have received its name from the wild choke cherry shrubs that grew along its banks. As more people came, General William Larimer, Jr. founded the settlement in November 1858 as Denver City in honor of then Kansas governor James W. Denver (Colorado was not a state at this point and still part of Kansas). The name was eventually shortened to Denver and, with its central location, the city became a hub for several railroads in the late 1800s. Denver was on its way to becoming the major metropolitan area that it is today. The pioneers depended on their guns as well as the spade in order to eat. Agriculture was difficult in spite of the good soil. After clearing land and tilling there where still stumps and boulders and roots that made cultivation difficult. Later, plows were was used to work the land. The plow was pulled by oxen or horses. It took a lot of hard work to produce a small crop. Wheat, barley, rye, and oats were planted. There had to be enough to feed the animals in the winter. Cows were raised for meat and for milk which was churned into butter or made into cheese. Chickens provided eggs and meat. Ducks, geese, and pigs were also raised. Oxen or horses pulled plows and wagons. Settlers also hunted deer, rabbits, wild ducks, and prairie chickens, or caught fish. Hogs and sheep were precious animals. They were brought to this vicinity at great expense. The sheep furnished meat for the table and wool for clothing. The hogs furnished a welcome relief to the diet, and supplied the cupboard with lard and hides for shoe soles. Settlers Settlers Sources Almost 200 years ago, more people moved here from Settlers used wagons and pack animals to move all of their • http://www.denvergov.org/ Europe and the Eastern United States. Settlers from the belongings. What do you think the settlers brought with East traveled West along rivers, creek, and streams. The them? What do you think the settlers ate? settlers followed Cherry Creek as they made their way to new homes in Colorado. Why would they follow the Cherry aboutdenver/history.asp Creek? Look around the park. If you were settling here, what would you use for food, water, and shelter? • http://www.saskschools.ca/ ~gregory/settlers3.html • http://cuyahogafallshistory. Bison Deer com/Beginnings/settlers_food. Corn Berries Oats htm 43 Pig Chicken 4421
  • Activity What is Here Today, page 45: The Eco Park is a very special place where plants and animals and their homes are protected. It is a place for people to have fun and a place Book to explore nature. There are many living and non-living things that can be found in the Narrative Eco Park. Living things such as grass, leaves, and butterflies are called biotic. Non- living things such as rocks, a sign, or a bench are abiotic. What is in the park now? What is it Like Now, page 46: Circle the abiotic things found in this picture. These are the things that are not alive. Have you seen any other abiotic or biotic things on your visit to the Eco Park today? Teacher Colorado’s location and natural features make it home for a wide variety ofInformation animals and plants. Ecosystems (the combination of all the living and non- living elements of an area) around the Denver area include grasslands, sage shrublands, and montane shrublands. Grasslands are dominated by buffalo grass and blue grama. They are typically very dry due to the rain shadow of the Rockies. Bison once roamed these areas but today they have been domesticated. The remaining wildlife includes pronghorns, prairie dogs, golden eagles, burrowing owls, and the lark bunting (the state bird). You can also find tarantulas, grasshoppers, yucca plants, and prickly-pears. Other names for grassland are prairie, plain, steppe, pampa, savannah, and veld. Sage shrublands, located above the grasslands in elevation, are dominated by sagebrush, which are easily found with their distinct sage odor (they are not the same species as the culinary sage). The shrubland is the driest and hottest of Colorado’s ecosystems and is a harsh environment for animals and plants. However, many animals thrive including the golden eagle, jackrabbit, coyote, prairie dog, and several lizards and snakes, and many plants including the greasewood, juniper, and pinon pine. Montane shrublands are located between the grasslands and the forests of the Rocky Mountains. They are dominated by ponderosa pine and gambelSources • http://www.wildlife.state.co.us/education • http://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/ecoregions/ecoregions.htmAdditional Activities In What is Here Today? Biotic or Abiotic?Appendix A The Eco Park is a very special place where plants and animals and their homes are protected. It is a place for people to Circle the abiotic things found in this picture. These are the things that are not alive. Have you seen any other abiotic or3. Wetland Field Study Scavenger have fun and a place to explore nature. There are many biotic things on your visit to the Eco Park today? living and non-living things that can be found in the Eco Park. Living things such as grass, leaves, and butterflies are called biotic. Non-living things such as rocks, a sign, or a bench are Hunt abiotic. What is in the park now?4. Critter Scope5. Animal Diversity 45 46 22
  • No student narrative. Teacher information continues from the previous Activity page. Book Narrative oak. Wildlife varies greatly compared to the grasslands and shrublands. Teacher Common wildlife includes the magpie, great horned owl, wild turkey, Information chipmunk, squirrel, and mountain lion. Riparian areas (lands bordered by streams, rivers, and ponds) can be found in all of Colorado’s ecosystems. They are rare areas making up less than three percent of the land in Colorado but used by over 90 percent of the wildlife. Some unique wildlife found in riparian areas includes: blue herons, river otters, beavers, salamanders, frogs, trout, bass, and perch. Riparian areas are usually dominated by cottonwood and willow trees and are also home to many aquatic insects. Riparian areas provide several functions such as wildlife habitat, water quality improvement, recreation, tourism areas, and flood control. In Denver and the surrounding communities, nature no longer conforms to these natural ecosystems. Urbanization, agriculture, and other activities by man have altered the environment and created a different man-made ecosystem. We have brought in new plants, replaced the grasslands with concrete and farm fields, and controlled water for drinking and irrigation. It is important that we learn how we fit into the natural environment that was acting as a functioning system long before we arrived, while still providing for our human needs. In the Eco Park today, there are many kinds of animals that call the park home, including several species of hawks, mallard ducks, horned owls, cottontail rabbits, coyotes, foxes, prairie dogs, as well as several types of small birds. It is a unique haven for these animals within Colorado. Sources Continued • http://www.enchantedlearning.com • http://www.earthlife.net- http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html • http://www.zoomschool.com/subjects/plants/ What is Here Today? Biotic or Abiotic? The Eco Park is a very special place where plants and animals Circle the abiotic things found in this picture. These are the and their homes are protected. It is a place for people to things that are not alive. Have you seen any other abiotic or have fun and a place to explore nature. There are many biotic things on your visit to the Eco Park today? living and non-living things that can be found in the Eco Park. Living things such as grass, leaves, and butterflies are called biotic. Non-living things such as rocks, a sign, or a bench are abiotic. What is in the park now? 45 4623
  • Now You Know Your Park, page 47: Well, you have almost completed the book. On Activitythe next page is a fun word search to help you remember some of the things Bookyou learned from completing the previous activities. Complete the Eco Word NarrativeSearch and you will have completed the book! What do you think of when youthink of the Eco Park? TeacherNo additional information for these pages. Information Now You Know Your Park Well, you have almost completed the book. On the next page is a fun word search to help you remember some of the things you learned from completing the previous activities. Complete the Eco Word Search and you will have completed the book! What do you think of when you think of the Eco Park? 47 48 24
  • Activity You Make a Difference, page 50: You have completed your Activity Book. You can make a difference and keep nature and the Eco Park a special place for everyone. There is Book much more you can learn about ecosystems. Always remember the seed and what it Narrative needs to grow, just like you. You can make a difference! Teacher Here are some things that students can do to help the park when they visit. Information See if your students can think of other things to add to this list: • Pick up trash lying on the ground and put it in the trash cans. • Remind people with dogs to pick up after them and always pick up after your own dog. • Stay on the trails when walking through sensitive areas. • Never take home any animals, plants, or other things found in the park. Take pictures instead. • Never move baby animals that you find in the park. They might look hurt or lost, but you might do more damage if you touch them than if you leave them alone. • Read the interpretive signs and have fun knowing that you are a protector of the park! Make A Difference! You Make a Difference You have completed your Activity Book. You can make a difference and keep nature and the Eco Park a special place for everyone. There is much more you can learn about ecosystems. Always remember the seed and what it needs to grow, just like you. You can make a difference! Energy, Water, Soil, and Place 49 5025
  • Appendix A:Additional Activities
  • Activity 1 - My Buffalo Coloring Page Source: Valerian llc.27
  • Activity 2 - Natural FiguresDescriptionHave students look for geometrical shapes in nature to help them appreciate the diversity ofthe natural environment.Curriculum FrameworkTopic: Characteristics and Needs of Living ThingsStrand: Life SystemsSpecific Lesson Goals: • Classify characteristics of animals and plants by using the senses. • Describe patterns that they have observed in living things. • Use appropriate vocabulary in describing their investigations, explorations, and observations. • Record relevant observations, findings, and measurements, using written language, drawings, charts, and concrete materials. • Identify a familiar animal or plant from seeing only a part of it.Topic: Everyday StructuresStrand: Structures and MechanismsSpecific Lesson Goals: • Identify ways in which various structures are similar to and different from others in form and function. • Classify various structures in their environment according to specific features and functions. • Identify geometric shapes in ordinary structures. • Describe patterns that are produced by the repetition of specific shapes or motifs in various materials and objects. • Use appropriate vocabulary in describing their investigations, explorations, and observations. • Record relevant observations, findings, and measurements, using written language, drawings, charts, and concrete materials.PreparationLength of Lesson: Outdoors - 1 hourResources Required: Shape sheetSource http://www.evergreen.ca/en/lg/lessons/figures.html 28
  • Activity 2 - Natural Figures Procedure Prior to going outside, have the students brainstorm examples of shapes that can be found in nature. Provide each student with a shape sheet and explain that they are to find corresponding shapes (i.e. triangle) in nature to match those on the sheet. Explain each shape and descriptive picture on the sheet so that the students have a complete understanding of what they are looking for. Take the students out to the playground and have them search for objects that are similar to the shapes that appear on their sheet. Once they have found an object that matches the description, instruct them to draw a picture of the object in the area provided. Once the children have finished drawing at least one natural object in relation to each shape (more if time permits), have the students gather together as a group and discuss the shapes that they have found. Student Evaluation Students can be rated on group participation and cooperation. Educator Notes This is an excellent hands-on activity for students in first grade. Source http://www.evergreen.ca/en/lg/lessons/figures.html29
  • Activity 2 - Natural FiguresSource http://www.evergreen.ca/en/lg/lessons/figures.html 30
  • Activity 3 - Wetland Field Study Scavenger Hunt Take this list with you on your wetland walk. When you find something on the list, put an X on the park map where you found it and the name of what you found next to the X. You can also draw pictures or describe with words the things you see, feel, hear and smell. NAME__________________________ DATE___________________________ WETLANDS VISITED_______________________________________________________ WEATHER ________________________________________________________________ THINGS TO SEE THINGS TO FEEL __ A lilypad floating on a pond __ Slime or scum __ A spider’s web __ Rotten wood __ A Water Strider skating __ A fuzzy plant __ A bird’s nest (just look) __ A thistle (gently) __ A cloud moving __ Wet mud __ A cattail __ A mosquito bite __ A pollywog or frog __ Shade __ A bird flying overhead __ A tree trunk __ A flowering plant __ A slug or insect crawling over your hand ___Other:_____________________ __ Other:____________________ THINGS TO HEAR THINGS TO WATCH FOR __ A mosquito buzzing __ A slug moving __ Wind blowing through grass __ An animal trail __ Animal jumping into water __ A bird getting food __ Water sounds __ A seed traveling __ The call of a red-winged blackbird __ An animal eating another one __ The whirr of a dragonfly’s wings __ An animal swimming __ Tree leaves rustling __ A spider with a bug __ Birds talking to each other __ A plant growing in the water __ Other: _____________________ __ Other:____________________ THINGS TO SMELL Notes: __ Fresh air __ A garter snake __ Crushed green leaves __ Two kinds of flowers __ Water in a marsh __ Damp soil __ A wild rose __ Wild mint __ Other: _____________________ Source http://vathena.arc.nasa.gov/curric/land/wetland/scavhunt.html31
  • Activity 4 - Critter ScopeDid you ever wonder what life is like under water? Well now is your chance to find outwhere different insects and their larvae or nymphs live in a stream. The critter scope is anexploring tool that can peek into the lifestyles of the wet and wiggly world.Materials • A can opener • A clean coffee can or large juice can • Waterproof tape or duct tape • Clear plastic wrap • A large and strong rubber band • ScissorsProcedure 1. Carefully remove both ends of the can and cover sharp edges with tape. 2. Place plastic wrap around one end of the can, leaving about one inch extra around the edge. 3. Put a rubber band around the can and plastic to keep the plastic wrap tight. 4. Cut excess plastic wrap away and put tape over the rubber band and plastic wrap. 5. Take your critter scope for a test run in a sink. Look through the open end and place the closed end (the one with the plastic on it) in the water. 6. Now you are able to visit the wet and wiggly world of a stream.Note: You can also try using a clear plastic cover from a fast food salad container as a critterscope too!Source http://www.epa.gov/nps/kids/CRITTER.HTM 32
  • Activity 5 - Animal Diversity Purpose To motivate and guide student observations of animal and plant similarities, diversity, and appropriateness to live in different environments. To show that stories sometimes give plants and animals attributes that they don’t really have. Context This lesson exposes children to a wide range of animals and guides them through observation of animal similarities, differences, and environmental adaptations. This lesson can be used as part of a study of plants and animals. Before doing the lesson, students should know the meanings of the terms plant, animal, and living. As “Benchmarks for Science Literacy” points out, “Observing is not enough. The students should have reasons for their observations—reasons that prompt them to do something with the information they collect.” Students should be encouraged to ask questions, to find answers by careful observation, and to compare their findings with those of other students. They can use their findings to create exhibits with photos, drawings, and even live specimens. (“Benchmarks for Science Literacy,” p. 102.) Research shows that lower elementary students tend to consider only vertebrates as animals, or they tend to group animals by similarities in external appearance, behavior, or habitat. Young students also define plants in a narrow way, failing to classify grass, trees, and vegetables as plants. In addition, these students “typically use criteria such as movement, breath, reproduction, and death to decide whether things are alive. Thus, some believe fire, clouds, and the sun are alive, but others think plants and certain animals are nonliving.” (Benchmarks for Science Literacy, pp. 340–341.) In their study of plants and animals, students should be guided to an understanding that internal structures and processes can be more significant than external features in classification. Because this lesson includes only online observations, students also will need ongoing opportunities for hands-on observation (using hand lenses, if appropriate) with many kinds of living plants and animals in as many environments as possible. Also, because the main lesson concentrates only on animals, students will need similar lessons that deal with plants. Ideas in this lesson are also related to concepts found in the following benchmark: • 5A The Living Environment: Diversity of Life (K-2) #3 Source http://www.sciencelinks.com/lessons_printable.cfm?DocID=39533 Note: Go the Web site to access the links underlined in this activity.
  • Activity 5 - Animal DiversityPlanning AheadMaterials: • Animal Diversity student E-Sheet (Note: This student E-Sheet helps students access the Where Can Animals Live? online book, which is used in the Development section.) • Where Can Animals Live? teacher sheet • “The Adventures of Marco and Polo,” by Dieter WiesmullerMotivationTo introduce the lesson, present a living animal or plant as a hands-on classroom example.Ask students to talk about, or draw things, that they observe. Then, have them share theirobservations with the class.Ask students: • What do you see, hear, smell, or feel as you observe this plant/or animal? • How can plants/or animals be like each other? • How can they be different from each other?Explain to students that they’re about to see an online book with pictures of many animals.Their job is to observe things about these animals and to figure out how they are alike anddifferent from each other. Another thing students will study is where these animals live andwhy they can live there successfully.DevelopmentUsing the Animal Diversity student E-Sheet, present the Where Can Animals Live? onlinebook to the class. Pause as each graphic is displayed and ask students the questions shownwith the pictures one at a time. Encourage independent questions and discussion.Stimulate students’ thinking about the animals they’re observing and why they live in certainplaces by asking questions such as: • Where does this [animal] live? • Do you think it could live in [somewhere different]? Why or why not? • Do you think [something else] also could live in this [animal’s] environment? Why or why not?Source http://www.sciencelinks.com/lessons_printable.cfm?DocID=395 Note: Go the Web site to access the links underlined in this activity. 34
  • Activity 5 - Animal Diversity As the class goes through the online book, students’ answers will vary. Encourage them to focus on true similarities of the animals in relation to their environments. See the Where Can Animals Live? teacher sheet for sample student responses. Assessment Ask a series of questions to tie together student observations during the lesson. Ask students: • What are some ways in which all of these animals are alike? • How are they different? • What are some features that help animals live in cold environments? In hot environments? In forests or in the water? To illustrate the main concepts of the lesson, read the book titled “The Adventures of Marco and Polo” by Dieter Wiesmuller. This story explores the life of a monkey (Marco) and penguin (Polo) that become friends. They visit each other’s homes and decide that they’d like to live together. However, when they try to do that, they realize that they each have their own needs and need to live in their own environments. Use this story (or another one like it) to illustrate ideas in the related benchmark for this lesson: “Stories sometimes give plants and animals attributes they really do not have.” Extensions Younger students can study animal features more closely through the Friends of the National Zoo Coloring Pages. These pages offer outlined images of eight animals (lion, flamingo, giant panda, giraffe, komodo dragon, orangutan, sea lion, and toucan) that can be printed out for coloring. If your computer’s browser is relatively recent (Netscape 6.0 and Internet Explorer 5.0 and later), use the Animal Gallery of the Smithsonian National Zoological Park to extend student learning about animal attributes, similarities, differences, and environments. Choose the option View Slide Show and page through the photos. Since there are more than 30 photos in the slide show, you may want to limit the number of pictures viewed, depending upon the capabilities of the class. Ask questions about each animal and encourage students to offer their own questions and observations. Encourage students to choose a favorite animal from this lesson and to conduct further research about it, using the sites listed above as well as books, videos, and Web-cams. The Wildlife Facts section of the National Parks Conservation Association website can be used by older students to gather information about more than 25 wild animals. Students can report about their animals to the class. Source http://www.sciencelinks.com/lessons_printable.cfm?DocID=39535 Note: Go the Web site to access the links underlined in this activity.
  • Activity 5 - Animal Diversity Where Can Animals Live? Teacher SheetSlide 1 (two polar bears):Here are two polar bears.What do you observe about them? (They are two polar bears playing in the snow. Studentsmay also notice their heavy fur, big paws, etc.)Slide 2 (polar bear cubs):What do you think the weather is like in this place? (Snow and ice show that it’s cold.)What features do these polar bears have that help them to live in this cold place? (Focus onfeatures such as the bears’ heavy fur, large paws for walking, and their white color that helpsprotect them from their enemies because they blend into their white environment.)Slide 3 (penguin and chick):How are these penguins like the polar bears you just saw? (The penguins have young, too,and live in a cold environment.)How are they different? (Encourage students to point out features that show the penguins arebirds rather than mammals.)Slide 4 (great egret):What do you notice about these birds? (Encourage students to point out the adult bird andtwo chicks as well as the birds’ feathers, beaks, wings, and other physical features.)How are they like the penguins you just saw? (Encourage students to notice that both arebirds, and recognize their similar physical features.)How are they different from the penguins? (Answers will vary. Encourage students to noticephysical features such as size, feathers, etc.)Slide 5 (repeat egrets):What kinds of places do these birds live in? (It appears to be warm and they’re near water.)Source http://www.sciencelinks.com/lessons_printable.cfm?DocID=395 36
  • Activity 5 - Animal Diversity Where Can Animals Live? Teacher Sheet What do you notice about the birds that helps them to live in this place? (These birds have long legs that help them walk in water and light feathers that help keep them cool.) Slide 6 (two lions): What kind of place do you think these lions live in? (It looks warm and it’s a land environment.) What features do the lions have that help them live in this place? (They’re light colored like the grass around them, which helps protect them from their enemies, and their fur is short, which helps keep them cool.) Slide 7 (elephants): What kind of place do these elephants live in? (It looks hot and dry. It’s a land environment.) How are the elephants like the lions? (They live in a hot, dry, land environment.) Slide 8 (dolphins swimming): Where do these dolphins live? (They live in a water environment.) What do you notice about the dolphins that helps them to live there? (Their shapes, fins, and tails help them move easily through the water.) Slide 9 (otter): How is this otter like the dolphins? (It also lives in or near a water environment. It also has a smooth shape that helps it swim easily.) How is it different from them? (It has fur and it lives on land.) Source http://www.sciencelinks.com/lessons_printable.cfm?DocID=39537
  • Activity 6 - Seeing Eye BuddiesDescriptionHave students observe a variety of sights within their schoolyard habitat by sitting quietlyback-to-back with a partner and describing something unusual. The partner will sketch theobservations. Students will then change places and repeat the observation and sketching.Curriculum FrameworkTopic: LanguageStrand: Oral and Visual Communication 3e50 3e56Specific Lesson Goals: • Students will observe a natural phenomenon in their schoolyard habitat, describing it in accurate and interesting detail so that a partner can sketch the scene without seeing it. • Students will compose a digital photo of their chosen phenomenon to present to the class with their sketch. • Students will share their work with the class.PreparationPreparation Time: 10 minutesLength of Lesson: 40 minutesResources Required: • Outdoor habitat locations where students can sit undisturbed for a short period of time • Clip boards • Postcard-sized sheets of paper • Pencils • Pencil crayons • Digital cameraProcedure 1. To encourage students to describe similarities and differences seen in an outdoor environment and to provide an opportunity for students to practice the skill of direct observation, be prepared to deliver the activity from the Sound Portraits lesson plan (Procedure, part 1 #3) from the Teacher’s Corner. This activity encourages participants to look in a broad sense of the word - seeing, touching, listening, and smelling.Source http://www.evergreen.ca /en/lg/lessons/seeingeye-lott.pdf 38
  • Activity 6 - Seeing Eye Buddies 2. Now, divide the class into groups of two. Each group will need pencils, paper, a clip board and access to the school’s digital camera or a regular camera. Students will compose a postcard of a piece of their habitat. 3. Select a portion of the schoolyard habitat area that has trees or other interesting items to look at. Students are instructed to look for something unusual which they have not noticed before, such as the shape of a branch, a collection of plants, or the shape of a flower that they can describe to their partner. This will become their postcard. 4. Partners sit back to back. One partner chooses their postcard view and proceeds to describe it in great detail while the other partner begins to sketch it without being able to see it (no peeking permitted!). 5. After five minutes, partners exchange roles. The sketching partner now becomes the observer, choosing a different view for a postcard 6. After five minutes, the two partners share their drawings and find their postcards in the schoolyard habitat. 7. Students use the digital camera to record their postcard to share with the class. Discussion and Questions • What did you communicate best to your partner? • Were you able to describe your postcard adequately? • Why might it be important to develop your skills of actively looking? Student Evaluation With the students, develop a rating scale for student participation. Use the rating scale as a self-evaluation tool. Enrichment and Extension Activities Have students visit an aquatic area and use their new observation skills to create a postcard which will describe what they see. Write the description on one side of the postcard, and illustrate the front of the card. Use the digital photos to develop a slide show of the schoolyard habitat area. Combine the slide show with appropriate sound (see Sound Portraits lesson plan from Teacher’s Corner) to produce a multi-media show. Connections to the Outdoor Environment Questions to ask: 1. How important is it for us to be able to see the sights of nature, even if we live in the middle of the city? Source http://www.evergreen.ca /en/lg/lessons/seeingeye-lott.pdf39
  • Activity 6 - Seeing Eye Buddies 2. How can we help to prevent eye pollution in our homes, neighborhoods, and schools? Sensing more in our surroundings can help up detect changes in our environment and can help us to become more curious and better aware of these changes. Awareness leads to better decision making.ReferencesWild Education - Project Wild. http://www.wildeducation.org.Source http://www.evergreen.ca /en/lg/lessons/seeingeye-lott.pdf 40
  • Activity 7 - Pine Cone Bird Feeder An easy-to-make Pine Cone Bird Feeder. This is a simple project that even young children can help make. For each Pine Cone Bird Feeder you will need: • A large, open pine cone • Vegetable shortening, lard or suet • Oats or corn meal • Bird seed • A few feet of string Tie a few feet of string to a pine cone. Cover the pine cone with the mixture below. Roll the pinecone in birdseed and then suspend it from a tree branch outside. Food mixture: Mix 1/2 cup vegetable shortening, lard or suet with 2 1/2 cups cornmeal or uncooked oats until well blended. Optional: add dried fruit (chopped up), chopped nuts, seeds (especially sunflower and millet), and/or suet, which are high-energy bird foods. Source http://www.enchantedlearning.com/crafts/birdfeeders/pineconefeeder.shtml41
  • Activity 8 - The Night TreeDescriptionUsing a Christmas book about feeding animals, students learn how to shareChristmas with the animals.Curriculum FrameworkTopic: Growth and Change in AnimalsStrand: Life SystemsSpecific Lesson Goals:Compare ways in which animals eat their food. Identify the needs of animals.Identify and compare the effects of the seasons on animals.Topic: LanguageStrand: ReadingSpecific Lesson Goals: • Read the book and discuss the content.PreparationPreparation Time: 30 minutesLength of Lesson: 60 minutesResources Required: • The book, “Night Tree” by Eve Bunting (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1994). • Food - cranberries, popcorn, lard, bread and oranges. • Cookie cutters. • Pine cones. • Hot chocolate for students (optional).Procedure 1. Read the story “Night Tree” to the class. 2. Identify what the children did for the animals. 3. Make the food and hang it on a tree outside. 4. After tree is decorated gather around the tree and sing carols and drink hot chocolate.Source http://www.evergreen.ca/en/lg/lessons/night-tree.pdf 42
  • Activity 8 - The Night Tree Discussion and Questions Run a class discussion with the following questions: • What animals will come to our tree? • Where will you hang your food for the mice, the birds? Student Evaluation Develop a rating scale for students to determine how well they have completed the goals of the lesson. Enrichment and Extension Activities Have the students make a list of which animals they think will visit the tree (must be based on observations and logic). Educator Notes This is an excellent activity in which to demonstrate the spirit of helping. Source http://www.evergreen.ca/en/lg/lessons/night-tree.pdf43
  • Activity 9 - The Earth is TiltedThe Earth is a sphere. It can be divided into two hemispheres, the Northern and SouthernHemispheres.The best way to understand this is to make a model. You will need an orange, or any otherspherical object that you can pierce, a marker and a knitting needle skewer or sharp, thinstick.Take the needle, stick or skewer, and pass it right through the center of the orange, from topto bottom. Where it enters the orange at the top is the North Pole, and where it comes out atthe bottom is the South Pole.Use the marker to draw a line around the middle of the orange, dividing it into a top andbottom half. The line represents the Equator, the top half is the Northern Hemisphere, and thebottom half is the Southern Hemisphere.Now your orange should look like this:The stick represents the Earth’s axis. The axis is an imaginary line running from the North toSouth Poles. The Earth spins on this axis all the time, turning around completely once every24 hours. Take your orange, hold it by both ends of your stick, and turn the stick betweenyour fingers. Notice how the orange turns around. That is what gives us night and day.However, it has nothing to do with the seasons, winter, spring, summer and fall. So far wehave only shown that the Earth has night and day. So what makes the seasons happen? At themoment you are holding your orange with the stick going straight up and down. That isn’thow it works. The whole Earth is actually tilted. Hold the orange in one hand and tip it soSource http://www.learninghaven.com/science/articles/earth_is_tilted.htm 44
  • Activity 9 - The Earth is Tilted that the top of the stick is nearer you than the bottom. Don’t tip it too far…we don’t want the stick pointing straight at you, about half way between upright (vertical) and flat (horizontal) will do nicely. THAT is how the Earth is in space. Now it should look like this: Notice how the top half, or Northern Hemisphere, is tipped toward you, with more of it showing than the Southern Hemisphere. Source http://www.learninghaven.com/science/articles/earth_is_tilted.htm45
  • Activity 10 -How the Earth Moves Around the SunRemember that the Earth is tilted all the time that it is moving around the sun. The Earthmoves around the sun once every year. It follows an elliptical orbit. This means that it goesalmost in a circle around the sun, but gets a little further away at some times. The path ittakes is like an oval.Now, take your orange again, tip it like before and hold it at arms length, keeping it tipped.Slowly turn around in a circle. Notice how the tilt stays the same. The Northern Hemisphereis always tipped toward you. This is NOT how the Earth moves.Put your orange down for a minute and walk around a chair. The way you would normallydo it, you would walk around with one side of you facing the chair the whole time. I wantyou to do it a different way. Place the chair between you and a window. Leave enoughspace between it and the window so you can walk around it. Start on the opposite side to thewindow, facing the chair AND the window. Now walk around the chair, all the way, but keepfacing the window. Don’t turn around (this means you will be walking backwards at somepoint, so be careful). THAT is how the Earth moves around the sun. Now do it again, holdingthe orange at your side, starting with the top of the orange facing towards the chair. As youwalk around, notice that the part of the orange facing the chair changes. First the NorthernHemisphere points to the chair (or sun), then the tilt is sideways, with neither hemispherepointing at the Sun, then the Southern Hemisphere points at the Sun (when you are walkingbackwards) and finally neither hemisphere points at the sun again. Then you are back to thebeginning and the Northern Hemisphere is pointing at the sun again.It is very difficult to make a model to show this. You can make a good model, but you wouldneed the Earth to follow a rectangular orbit in order to keep the tilt of the Earth correct. Ifyou let it follow an elliptical orbit you would need gears and all sorts of things to keep itright.Source http://www.learninghaven.com/science/articles/earth’s_orbit.htm 46
  • Activity 11 - Direct Light Produces More Heat For this, we will perform a very simple experiment. You need a flashlight and a piece of paper. First of all you need to experiment a little with the flashlight. Put your hand up against the light source. Feel that it is warm. Move your hand away just a little. Notice how the heat is less, but it is still warm. Move your hand further and nearer the light, tip it so it is at an angle. Can you feel any differences? Now you can show the way light produces heat using your paper. You will also need a watch and a ruler, or tape measure and a large book. First you need to make sure your paper is cold. Pop it in the freezer for a few minutes; try to keep it dry. Prop the book up at and angle and lay the piece of paper on it. Lay the flashlight on another book so that it shines onto the paper. Feel the paper and notice when it starts to get warm. Measure three inches from the light source and mark the spot on the paper. Keep feeling that bit. How long does it take to get warm? Write your findings down. Now repeat the whole thing. Cool your paper again. This time prop your book upright three inches away from the light. Fix your paper to it with a piece of tape. Check the area of the paper opposite the center of the flashlight. How long does it take the paper to get warm this time? Check the area to the top of the paper. Which is warmer, the top or the center? Source http://www.learninghaven.com/science/articles/light_produces_heat.htm47
  • Activity 11 - Direct Light Produces More HeatThe reason that it was quicker the second time is that the light was falling directly onto thepaper. The first time round it was striking the paper at an angle. Direct light produces moreheat than indirect light, or light striking something at an angle. This is also why the top of thepaper the second time around was not as warm as the center.Source http://www.learninghaven.com/science/articles/light_produces_heat.htm 48
  • Activity 12 - Food Chain and Webs Background Food Chain Every living thing needs energy to remain alive. A food chain is a simplified look at how that energy is transferred from one living thing to another. All energy comes directly or indirectly from the sun. Green plants convert solar energy to chemical, and are therefore called PRODUCERS. Animals that eat some form of plants are called Primary Consumers. Animals that eat such an animal are called Secondary Producers. Animals that eat these animals are called Tertiary Producers. The level an animal is on depends on the particular “chain.” Decomposers break down stored energy in once-living things. Food Pyramid A food pyramid is a model that demonstrates how much energy is needed to sustain a particular living thing. Red-tailed hawk gopher snake gopher snake gopher snake field mouse field mouse field mouse field mouse field mouse field mouse field mouse field mouse field mouse seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses seeds & grasses Food Web A food web demonstrates the complexity of the interdependence of living things within a habitat. It is based on the food pyramid, and the different plants and animals any particular animal may consume. It may demonstrate the role of decomposers. Concept An ecosystem consists of a community of living things interacting with each other and the environment. Most ecosystems derive their energy directly or indirectly from the sun. Source http://www.urbanedpartnership.org/uclasp/urban_science/food_chains/breeding.htm49
  • Activity 12 - Food Chain and WebsMaterials • Namecards of chaparral plants, animals, and sun (enough for your class) • Ball of yarnDirected Lesson 1. Pass out the namecards to the students. Give the sun the ball of yarn. 2. Review with them that the sun is the source of all energy on Earth. Ask the student portraying the sun to throw the ball of yarn to begin the food chain (green plant, or producer ). The sun holds onto the end of the yarn and tosses the ball of yarn to a student wearing the name of a plant. Ask the students why the first step of the food chain is plants. 3. Now ask the plant person who would get the ball of yarn next (plant eater, or herbivore). Have the plant toss the ball of yarn to a student wearing the namecard of a plant-eating animal. Be sure the “plant” holds onto the yarn before tossing the ball. 4. The plant eater now looks around for something that eats it, and tosses the yarn to that animal (carnivore or omnivore ). 5. The game progresses as each member of the food chain takes a turn while holding onto the yarn. The sequence stops at the top of the food chain, a predator that has no enemies, such as a hawk. 6. Snip off the yarn and give the ball back to the sun. Start the sequence again. Those who participated before can have another turn, thereby illustrating the growth of a food web. An animal usually has more than one source of food. For example, a bird can eat seeds and insects; or a hawk can eat a rabbit or snake. The coyote and possum eat nearly everything--plants, animals, and human foods.VariationHave one link in the chain drop the yarn indicating its death due to pesticide consumption.Students should hypothesize what happens to the other ends of that yarn. For example,the field mouse could have eaten some poisoned bait. The plants it eats would possibly gounchecked. The snake that normally would eat the mouse has to find another source of food,since it eats live prey. Also, if the snake eats a live contaminated mouse, it will accumulatethe same poison in its system, thereby affecting the hawk that eats the snake.ExtensionsStudents can make food web/chain mobiles using pictures from magazines, a hanger andstring.Outdoors, students can explore for signs of food chains in nature, such as finding owl pelletsSource http://www.urbanedpartnership.org/uclasp/urban_science/food_chains/breeding.htm 50
  • Activity 12 - Food Chain and Webs which are a good source of food chain information. Pellets can be purchased commercially and dissected to reveal what the owl has eaten. Other signs of food chains are insect marks on plants such as chewed leaves or aphid colonies. Buy praying mantis or lady bugs to place on the plants to rid them of insects. Sing the song, “I Know an Old Lady Who Swallowed a Fly” and discuss with students if the song represents a true food chain. If they agree it doesn’t, ask them how it could be changed to be more scientifically accurate. Source http://www.urbanedpartnership.org/uclasp/urban_science/food_chains/breeding.htm51
  • Activity 13 - Create a Food WebThis is a variation of a game called Web of Life. You need a fairly large area, some labels forherbivores, carnivores, omnivores, and one label for man, another for plant and several largeballs of yarn in different colors.The labels for the herbivores, carnivores and omnivores are broken down into specificspecies from different habitats to represent the creatures from smallest to largest on theparticular food chain. eg: shark > seal > large fish > small fish > crustacean > coral. Havegroups of children decide on the representatives of each chain and make the labels fromcards which can be hung around a player’s neck.Each player wears a card and the largest of each type has the ball of yarn. This player thenhas to catch his most likely food source from the remaining players based on size. So theshark might catch the seal. The shark holds one end of the yarn (leaving a couple of metersdangling) stays still and then passes the ball to the seal who then has to catch large fish whilestill being linked via the yarn to the shark. Don’t break this yarn link. Then, the large fish hasthe ball of yarn and catches small fish and so on down the food chain until all are linked bythe strand of yarn. (Creatures that get eaten by omnivores may hold more than one coloredlength of yarn so the interdependence is demonstrated.)When all the links have been established, man gathers up the ends of the yarn of those largecreatures that he eats (even if not in your culture, so that a lion may be food for people inAfrica) and plant gathers up the strands of all those that eat something derived from plants.What you should find is that man stands at one end with a number of strands of yarn, in themiddle are all the creatures with strands of yarn going every which way like a web, and plantat the other end holding all the strands. Picture a diamond shape with man and plant at thepoints.It really helps the kids understand the interdependence of all of us.Source http://www.teachnet.com/lesson/science/biology/foodchain111300.html 52
  • Activity 14 - All Connected A Little Bit More As the poster points out, it should be no surprise to anyone to be reminded that our actions affect the environment, often in ways we can’t predict. Who would have thought that acid rain would have this effect on songbirds? It makes one think about Rachel Carson’s book, “Silent Spring” when you learn about this problem! Acid rain occurs when moisture in the atmosphere combines mostly with oxides of sulfur and nitrogen from coal, oil, gasoline and other hydrocarbon uses. Probably the most widely Source http://www.enaturalist.org/unit/6853
  • Activity 14 - All Connectedrecognized result of acid rain has been the acidification of lakes in northeastern U.S. andCanada that are downwind of industrial centers. The Adirondacks alone, a huge state park inNew York State, has lost many of its lakes (some lakes can no longer support life) due to anincrease in acid levels of the water.The Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology pulled lots of data together to get a look at WoodThrush populations in North America. Wood Thrush populations between 1966 and 1999were found to have declined 56 percent over this period across their breeding range causingalarm among researchers. Although scientists could document the decline in population, theydidn’t know what was causing it.After looking at a variety of possibilities, scientists were able to determine that areas of highacid rain AND significant decreases in breeding success of Wood Thrushes were linked.Of course, knowing what the problem is, is only the first step - now researchers are tryingto determine how to reverse this trend. One especially interesting feature in this projecthas been the input from lay volunteers. Interested citizens, from all walks of life, wereinstrumental in providing much of the data the Ornithology Lab used to better understandpopulation dynamics of Wood Thrushes.Activity: Calcium ProviderObjective: Empower people to make changes, even if smallMaterials: EggshellsThis is a simple, easy-to-do activity, yet one that can make a difference for both the birds andthe participants. 1. Have your students bring in eggshells from home. It’s best if the shells are completely dry before they get stored anywhere so you may want to ask students to dry them at home before bringing to class (they can be left out on the counter overnight). As the eggshells arrive, they should be stored in a container that breathes (avoid plastic) so any residual moisture will dissipate. 2. Once you’ve accumulated enough eggshells (you be the judge of how many you want to deal with) they need to be crushed prior to being distributed to the birds. Don’t worry too much about the size of the pieces as long as you have a variety for birds to choose from (small birds will choose smaller sizes, etc). 3. The best time of the year to offer your shells is in the early spring when birds are beginning to build their nests and lay their eggs, but they often take them at other seasons in smaller quantities. Simply scatter the shells around your feeding areas. If you aren’t feeding the birds, you can still scatter shells in any areas you think birds will frequent.Source http://www.enaturalist.org/unit/68 54
  • Activity 14 - All Connected 4. If you can keep a general idea of how many shell fragments are lying around, you can approximate how attractive they are for the birds. As the females approach egg- laying, they’ll be more and more interested in these shells and will add them to their diet. Males too need calcium and may or may not take shells as their own calcium needs dictate. Keep in mind that in some areas, calcium will be easier to acquire so your shells will be more or less attractive to the birds based on this factor. Source http://www.enaturalist.org/unit/6855
  • Activity 15 - Elementary EcosystemsOverviewThis lesson teaches students the basics of species interdependency within an ecosystem orhabitat. Students will perform a simple simulation to see how one species can affect manyothers, and gain a basic understanding of the importance of biodiversity. For older students,you may want to define and use the word ecosystem in the lesson.Connections to the CurriculumGeography, biology, current events, zoologyConnections to the National Geography Standards:Standard 8: “The characteristics and spatial distribution of ecosystems on Earth’s surface”TimeTwo to three hoursMaterials Required • Computer with Internet access • Photographs of endangered animals (either online or in print) • Photographs of human activities that might affect animals’ habitats (either online or in print) • Drawing materialsObjectivesStudents will: • Describe the things animals need to survive and the ways in which animals depend on other animals and plants; • Perform a simulation to demonstrate the interdependencies within an ecosystem; • Look at pictures of endangered animals, and explain what they think might happen to other animals and plants if these animals became extinct; and • Draw pictures of animals in their natural habitats, and describe what these animals need to survive.Geographic SkillsAcquiring Geographic InformationOrganizing Geographic InformationAnalyzing Geographic InformationSource http://nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/lessons/08/gk2/ecosystem.html 56
  • Activity 15 - Elementary Ecosystems Suggested Procedure Opening Ask students to think of some animals that they are familiar with, such as their pets or animals that live outdoors near their homes. Ask them to state the things these animals need to survive, such as water, food, a place to make their home, and enough room to run and roam. Development Ask students to think more carefully about the animals they have described. Discuss the following questions with the class: • What do the animals eat? • Where do they live? • How do they depend on the plants and other animals around them? • What would happen to these animals if their main food source no longer existed? Assign each student the role of a local plant or animal (more than one student can play the same role). Ask everyone to stand on one side of the classroom. Then ask one “plant” or “animal” to step out of the picture. For example, you could say, “Will all the oak trees please sit down?” The children taking their seats would represent the dying out oak trees in your area. Ask students if any other species depend on the oak tree (or whatever local species you have asked to sit down). Give them hints if they are unsure (e.g., the squirrel eats acorns). If any species depends on the species you have asked to sit down, those students will have to sit as well. Continue until there are no (or very few) students left standing. Discuss the implications of the simulation with the class. What happens to the plants and animals in an area when one type of plant or animal dies out? Make sure students understand that all plants and animals in an area (an ecosystem) depend on one another. Can they think of other examples of dependence, such as in their families, with their friends, or at school? Have students look at pictures of the endangered animals at the Preserving Biodiversity family activity or at the Bagheera Web site. Explain that there are fewer of these animals in the wild than there used to be. Define the word extinct and ask students what they think might happen to other plants and animals if these animals become extinct. Source http://nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/lessons/08/gk2/ecosystem.html57
  • Activity 15 - Elementary EcosystemsClosingHave students look at pictures of animals living in their natural habitats. Choose somepictures beforehand, either from books or magazines, National Geographic’s Animals guideor Creature Feature archive, or the Bagheera Web site. Have students draw pictures of theseanimals and then describe, either in writing or out loud, the things these animals need toremain healthy and happy.Suggested Student AssessmentAsk students to brainstorm the reasons why they think some species might be in trouble,in addition to the ecosystem-related reasons they have discussed. Can they think of anyways in which human activities might affect the lives of animals? Show them pictures ofconstruction, recreation, and other human activities, and have them explain how the activitiesin each picture might affect animals. Ask them to draw pictures of a few of the animalsthey looked at in the closing, and draw them in their natural habitats. Then have them drawexamples of how human activities might cause problems for the animals.Extending the LessonHave students draw pictures of healthy ecosystems in which many plant and animal speciescoexist. They can get ideas from pictures of natural areas near their homes or other print orWeb materials you have available. Ask them to describe, either in writing or out loud, whatwould happen if the trees or another species were to die off.Related Links:Bagheera: A Web Site for Endangered Species • http://www.bagheera.com/inthewild/vanishing.htmNational Geographic: Animals Guide • http://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/National Geographic: Creature Feature • http://www.nationalgeographic.com/kids/creature_feature/archive/National Geographic: Geography Action! 2003—Habitats • http://www.nationalgeographic.com/geographyaction/habitats/World Wildlife Fund • http://www.worldwildlife.org/Source http://nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/lessons/08/gk2/ecosystem.html 58
  • Activity 16 - Bug Study Description Students will conduct a study on bugs and animals living in the naturalized area around their school. Curriculum Framework Characteristics and needs of Living Things; Daily and Seasonal Cycles Specific Lesson Goals At the end of the lesson, the students will be able to: • Describe the different ways in which animals move through the garden to meet their needs. • Classify characteristics of animals and plants by using the senses. Preparation Preparation Time: 3 hours Length of Lesson: 1.5 hours Resources Required: • Markers (i.e. hoops) • Magnifying glasses • Observation chart that includes criteria for classification (see below) (e.g. size, color, method of movement) to record sightings as well as a section for drawing what they noticed. (I saw, I listened, I heard, I smelled) Procedure Part I 1. Pre planning: send a letter home asking parents to dress students in suitable clothing. 2. Students should be put into groups before venturing into naturalized area. 3. Assign specific areas for each group. 4. Remind students to respect the naturalized area and its inhabitants. Source http://www.evergreen.ca/en/lg/lessons/bug_study.html59
  • Activity 16 - Bug StudyPart II 1. In order to become aware of the various forms of life that can be found in a naturalized area, students will visit the naturalized area to discover what types of animal life exist and will record their findings. 2. By placing the hoops on the ground the students will use magnifiers to observe existing animal life, only within their hoops, and fill in their checklist. 3. In the classroom they will enter their findings on a graph and order them in classifications that have been previously outlined.Discussion and QuestionsThrough discussion and brainstorming the students will predict what kind of animals theymight find in the naturalized area and how this information might be classified.Student Evaluation • Listening and following directions • Cooperative group skills • Proper use of tools and equipment • Application of knowledge and classification skillsEnrichment and Extension ActivitiesThis activity could be part of a larger unit on the basic needs of living things and lead to in-depth sensitization of the need to consider and respect our habitat.Educator NotesThis lesson can be used as an introductory lesson to teaching and learning in the naturalizedarea. Its format is especially appropriate for establishing these routines and basicsensitivities.References • “Science Everywhere 1” Harcourt Canada • “The Icky Bug Alphabet Book” by Gerry Pallotta • “The Best Bug Parade” by Stuart J. Murphy • “Spiders” by Gail Gibbons • “The Grouchy Ladybug” and “The Quiet Cricket” by Eric Carle • http://www.ecoschools.comSource http://www.evergreen.ca/en/lg/lessons/bug_study.html 60
  • Activity 17 - Just Turn It Off Purpose Energy is often expended when it need not be. Students will investigate the importance of turning off lights, toys, machines, and appliances. Context In this lesson, students will probe the problem of what happens to a battery-operated flashlight when it is not turned off. Students will extend this context to household items like lights, radios, televisions, and computers. This lesson is designed to teach students about conserving energy as consumers. At this age, the concept of energy can be very misleading to students. Young children think of energy as being used up. They do not readily understand conservation of energy. Also, they do not understand that once energy is converted it is not necessarily in a usable form. These are misconceptions that students develop early and hold through much of their school careers. Young children only tend to associate the word energy with moving around a lot. Therefore, it is important to help them understand the greater scope that energy encompasses. Students need to have a wide array of examples of forms of energy. It is important that they see energy-transforming devices like battery-operated toys, vacuum cleaners, cars, televisions, and flashlights. They should also begin to explore the inputs and outputs of these types of items. Planning Ahead Materials: • Battery-operated toy (something like a moving dog, cat, or other item that will be easy for young students to associate with energy) • Flashlight • Several batteries • Just Turn It Off student sheet Materials needed for the Extension activities include copies of the Energy-Saving Labels activity sheet from, “Poor Richard’s Energy Almanac,” carbon paper, potatoes, ink, self- adhesive notepapers, and plastic knives (or foam blocks, letters, and glue for the alternative activity). Source http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/lessons_printable.cfm?DocID=2361
  • Activity 17 - Just Turn It OffMotivationSet out the battery-operated toy. Turn it on.Ask students: • What makes it go? • How do we know that? • What would happen if I were to remove the batteries? • What do the batteries give the toy? • What would happen if we just let the toy keep running?Say to students, “The batteries in the toy give it energy.”Turn off the toy and show students the toy is switched off. Ask the students, “Is it usingenergy now? How do you know? What is energy being used to do?”DevelopmentSay to students, “Today we are going to think about energy. We need to think about what it is,where it is, and how we use it. You just saw an example of a toy that uses batteries to produceenergy.”Ask students: • Where do batteries come from? • Do your parents ever have to ask you to turn off your toys? • Why do they have to ask you to turn off your toys? • Do your parents ever get upset when you leave your toys on? Why? • What would happen if a flashlight were left on all night? • Do you think that the batteries would last longer if you only used the flashlight for a few minutes and turned it off? • What would happen if a flashlight were left on just while you used it and then turned off?Run a test as a class. Take two of the same type of flashlights. Label one as ON. Label theother as Five Minutes. Turn on both flashlights. After five minutes, turn the five-minuteflashlight off. Leave the other flashlight running. Do this three times each day: morning,afternoon, and end of school day. Have the class make detailed descriptions of eachflashlight. Record how long it takes before the flashlight left on no longer produces light.Source http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/lessons_printable.cfm?DocID=23 62
  • Activity 17 - Just Turn It Off Ask students: • Which batteries needed to be replaced first? Why? • Why is it important to turn off the flashlights to have longer use of the batteries? • Which would cost more, leaving a flashlight on or turning it off? Now as a class, discuss other types of energy in and around the house. Say to students, “We talked about what happens if a flashlight is left on. Now we need to think about other things we know of that use energy. Where would we find other things that use energy? Are batteries the only way we can get energy? What are some types of energy?” As a class, have students brainstorm a list of as many items as they are able to think of that use energy. Write the list so that they are able to think of new examples. After they have had 5-10 minutes to come up with a list, help students think about how each item gets the energy. Remind them of the examples of batteries, outlets, and fuel as some helpful hints to get their thoughts directed. Ask students: • What happens when the television or computer is left on? • What kind of energy does it use? • What does energy cause the computer to do? • Who has to pay for that energy? • What happens if you leave a lamp on? • What does energy cause the lamps to do? • Who has to pay for the energy to keep the light on? • What happens when a car runs out of gas? • Where do you get more gasoline? • Who has to pay for the gasoline? • What are some good ways to keep from having to buy a lot of new batteries, gasoline, or electricity? • Are there some things that can’t be turned off to save energy? • What are they? Why can’t they be turned off? Assessment Distribute copies of the SNL student sheet entitled Just Turn it Off, which depicts a room with many appliances. In order to familiarize students with the different objects in the picture, have students name and point to each one. Say to students, “Sometimes we all forget and leave things running that we should turn off. If we turn them off, we use less batteries, gasoline, or electricity. Look at the picture in front Source http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/lessons_printable.cfm?DocID=2363
  • Activity 17 - Just Turn It Offof you. I want you to color all of the things in the picture that use energy. You do not need tocolor the whole picture; only the things that use energy. When you have finished coloring,circle the things that you would turn off to save money. Be ready to explain you answers.”Have students share their different items and reasons for choosing them. Allow students tovoice differing opinions. (The fish tank, for instance, could lead to an interesting discussion,as some students will have familiarity with aquariums that have a plug-in filter while otherswill not.)Remember that it is not as important for students to find all the things that use energy asit is for them to have valid explanations and defenses of their choices. Make sure studentsunderstand that while machines may be turned off to save energy, sometimes they can’t forpractical purposes.ExtensionsDiscuss with students some energy-efficient appliances like irons, coffee makers, and lightsthat either shut themselves off or can be programmed to shut themselves off. Have thestudents go home and with their parents try to find if they have any of these types of devicesin their home. Allow a student discussion. Have students propose some new items that couldeasily be made to be energy efficient. Remember, it is not as important that it be an idea thatwould be easy to do, but it does need to be an idea that could have an impact on energy use,safety, or convenience.Separate the students into groups of four or five. Pass out the Energy-Saving Labels activitysheet, from “Poor Richard’s Almanac,” part of the Energy Quest Web site. Say to students,“Sometimes, we all forget and leave things running that we should turn off. If we turnthem off, we use less batteries, gasoline, or electricity. It is a good idea to give ourselvesreminders so that we get used to turning off our things when we are done with them. We aregoing to make one type of a reminder to help get in the practice of turning off things to savemoney and energy.”Hand out potatoes that are cut in half to each group. Have students follow the printedinstructions for the potato stamp. Make sure that you read all the instructions one at a timeto help students follow them. Allow students to print several stamps to take home. Remindthem that they are to use the stamps as a reminder to themselves to turn things off so thattheir household can save money. As an alternative to this activity, use foam blocks and softfoam letters to create the stamp. This allows younger children to safely assemble the stampswith little or no cutting.Source http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/lessons_printable.cfm?DocID=23 64
  • Activity 17 - Just Turn It Off Student Sheet Source http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/lessons_printable.cfm?DocID=2365
  • Activity 18 - Three States of WaterObjectivesStudents will: • Identify and describe three states of water; and • Observe and predict how water will change states.Materials • Water • 1 electric tea kettle • Crushed ice (about 1/3 liter) • Funnel • 1 plastic liter bottle • 1 small plastic baggie • 1 rubber band • 1 black permanent marker • 1 ruler • White paper: 1 sheet per student • Crayons or colored pencilsProcedures 1. To begin the lesson, fill an electric kettle with water and plug it in. Ask students to tell you what they think will happen when the kettle heats up. Have students watch the kettle as it heats, and ask them to tell you what they observe. Explain that steam is a form of water and that they are observing evaporation, the process by which a liquid becomes a gas. Write the words “steam” and “gas” on the board. 2. After watching the program, hold a class discussion about water. Ask students to tell you what they learned about water. Write their comments on the board for reinforcement. 3. Tell students that water has three states: liquid, solid, and gas. Show students the plastic liter bottle and tell them they will observe water changing into different states. Ask a volunteer to help you use the funnel to fill the bottle about one-third full with crushed ice. Have another volunteer help you place the baggie over the bottle top and seal it in place with a rubber band. 4. Have a student help you measure the level of ice in the bottle with a ruler. Move through this part quickly before the ice melts, and ask a few students to confirm the measurement. Make sure that the class agrees with the accuracy of the measurement, then ask a volunteer to help you draw a line on the bottle that indicates the level of ice. Write the words “ice” and “solid” next to this line.Source http://school.discovery.com/lessonplans/programs/earthsecology/ 66
  • Activity 18 - Three States of Water 5. Place the bottle in the sun or in a warm area of the classroom where students can observe it. Have students divide a sheet of paper in half. On the upper half, they will draw pictures predicting what they think will happen to the ice in the warmth. Encourage students who are able to write words or sentences that describe their pictures. 6. After about 30 minutes, ask students to look at the bottle and describe what they see. What has happened to the ice? What is happening in the bottle? 7. Ask volunteers to measure the water level. When the class is satisfied with the accuracy of the measurement, ask a volunteer to help you draw a line on the bottle that indicates the new water level. Write the words “water” and “liquid” next to this line. 8. Place the bottle in the warmth again and ask students to predict what they think will happen if the bottle stays there overnight. Have them draw pictures and, if able, write words or sentences on the lower half of the paper. 9. The following day have students observe the changes that occurred in the bottle. What has happened to the water level? Where did the water go? Point out the droplets of water that have formed in the baggie. How did the water get into the baggie? 10. Have students share their observations and talk about the accuracy of their predictions in a class discussion. Talk about temperature and how it helps water change states. Ask students to tell you about the different forms of water and to describe how water changes from one state to another. Adaptations For Grades 3-5 Instead of conducting the demonstration with a whole class, divide students into small groups. Give each group the materials needed to create their own demonstration (liter bottle, funnel, ice, marker, baggie, ruler). Have students write paragraphs describing their observations and predictions at each stage of the experiment. Evaluation Use the following three-point rubric to evaluate students’ work during this lesson. • Three points: Students actively participated in class discussions; correctly identified and described three states of water; and observed and accurately predicted both stages of the demonstration. • Two points: Students participated somewhat in class discussions; somewhat correctly identified and described three states of water; and observed and accurately predicted one of the demonstrations. Source http://school.discovery.com/lessonplans/programs/earthsecology/67
  • Activity 18 - Three States of Water • One point: Students did not participate in class discussions; did not identify and describe three states of water; and did not observe or accurately predict any stage of the demonstration.VocabularyevaporationDefinition: The process by which a liquid becomes a gas.Context: In the process of evaporation, heat from the sun causes some water from the oceanto turn into water vapor.gasDefinition: An air-like substance that expands to fill any space available.Context: Evaporated water becomes a gas.liquidDefinition: A substance that flows freely but remains at a constant volume, such as water oroil.oilDefinition: A liquid takes on the shape of its container.solidDefinition: Firm and stable in shape.Context: Ice is water in its solid state.temperatureDefinition: The degree of heat present in a substance, object, or place.Context: When the temperature plunges to 0º Celsius (32º Fahrenheit), water can become ice.StandardsNational Academy of SciencesThe National Science Education Standards provide guidelines for teaching science as wellas a coherent vision of what it means to be scientifically literate for students in grades K-12.To view the standards, visit http://books.nap.edu. This lesson plan addresses the followingnational standards: • Physical Science: Properties of objects and materialsSource http://school.discovery.com/lessonplans/programs/earthsecology/ 68
  • Activity 19 - The Water Cycle Objectives • Prepare terrariums for initial observations. • Use terrariums to connect concepts of precipitation, condensation, and evaporation into a unified water cycle concept. Materials • Have each student supply their own plastic salad container from a fast food restaurant or some similar clear plastic container. (A ziplock baggie will work if there is not enough salad containers available.) • Soil • Water • Spray bottle • Large sunny window or grow light • Fast and reliably germinating seeds (marigolds, herbs, lima beans, etc.) Introduction Ask “What are clouds? What are they made of? What is rain? What does the sky look like when it rains? Why does it rain? Where does the rain go after it falls? What happens to puddles after it rains?” Get a discussion going about the different parts of the water cycle: evaporation, precipitation, and condensation. Use as many questions as possible to determine which concepts the students may understand and where any misconceptions may be. Body 1. Assemble the terrariums: have each student build his/her own terrarium by putting about an inch of soil in the bottom of their plastic container, planting a seed according to the package instructions, and giving a thorough soaking of water. The initial watering should be all that is necessary since the plastic container will create a closed environment, which will not allow the water to escape into the atmosphere. Label the terrariums and put them in a sunny window or under a grow light. 2. Observing the terrariums: have the students make observations about their terrariums each day and record their observations in their weather journals. Try to do the observations about their terrariums each day and record their observations in their weather journals. Try to do the observations at different times each day. Have the students record what they see in writing and/or in pictures. Discuss as a class anything the students observe. Source http://faldo.atmos.uiuc.edu/w_unit/LESSONS/water.cycle.html69
  • Activity 19 - The Water CycleConclusionPossible questions to ask the students: “We only watered the soil in our terrariums once;how did the water get on the lid? Take your lid off of the terrarium and feel the soil. Why isthe soil still wet? Do you think that any water has evaporated from the soil? Why? If waterevaporated, where did the evaporated water go? Did it ever rain in your terrarium? How doyou know? Where did the rain come from? Is there anything in your terrarium that remindsyou of a cloud or cloud drops?”Teachers may want to make a connection between the water cycle in the terrarium and inthe real world with a discussion using the following: “If the terrarium is a model of the realworld, what do you see outside that reminds you of the plant in your terrarium? Reminds youof the soil in your terrarium? Reminds you of the small water droplets on the lid? The soil inyour terrarium stays moist, the ground outside never dries out completely. Why? What keepsit moist? Water collects on the lid of the terrarium, water also collects in the sky as clouds,where does the water in the clouds come from?”Vocabulary WordsevaporationDefinition: Evaporation is when the sun heats up water in rivers or lakes or the ocean andturns it into vapor or steam. The water vapor or steam leaves the river, lake or ocean and goesinto the air.condensationDefinition: Water vapor in the air gets cold and changes back into liquid, forming clouds.This is called condensation.precipitationDefinition: Precipitation occurs when so much water has condensed that the air cannot holdit anymore. The clouds get heavy and water falls back to the earth in the form of rain, hail,sleet or snow.EvaluationHave the students make a picture model that represents their terrariums. Have the studentsinclude all the parts of the terrarium such as the container, soil, water, lid, plants, etc. Also,have them draw and label the processes (evaporation, condensation, precipitation) they seehappening and their locations in the terrarium.Source http://faldo.atmos.uiuc.edu/w_unit/LESSONS/water.cycle.html 70
  • Activity 20 - Oil Pollution Subject: Science/Environmental Education Duration 45 minutes Description The lesson is part of a unit that deals with the topic of oil pollution. Through a hands-on activity, students learn how oil pollution can be harmful to animals. Goals To increase students’ awareness of how oil pollution can affect the environment, along with learning about the proper way to dispose of and recycle oil. Objectives 1. Students will compare differences in oil polluted water versus clear water. 2. Students will be able to describe the effects of oil pollution to wildlife. 3. Students will be able to suggest possible solutions to prevent oil pollution. 4. Each student will write a letter about oil pollution, thus increasing public awareness. Materials • Feathers • Paper towels • Cups of water • Motor oil • Microscope • Eyedroppers • Raincoat Procedure Introduction Begin the lesson by putting on a raincoat. Using the raincoat as an example of human water proofing, introduce students to the topic of birds and how their feathers are a water proofing tool also. The students will then examine bird feathers under a microscope to see the overlapping barbs. Source http://www.eduref.org/Virtual/Lessons/Science/Environmental_Education/71 ENV0206.html
  • Activity 20 - Oil PollutionMain ActivityStudents will have one cup of water, an eyedropper of oil, and paper towels on their desks.Students will submerge a feather into water and then dry it off, thereby illustrating a bird’sweather proofing system. Second, the students will place a drop of oil into the water.Students will then place the feather back into the water and try to dry the feather again. Thestudents will not be able to dry the feather, therefore demonstrating how oil spills affectbirds.ClosureThe students will discuss what resulted after feathers were placed in the oil. In groups,students will discuss how other wildlife can be impacted by oil pollution. In closing, discussthe proper technique for disposing of and recycling oil.Follow-up ActivityStudents will make a classroom bulletin board about oil pollution. The bulletin board caninclude pictures and articles collected from magazines, newspapers, and the Internet. Thebulletin board can also include a list of local area oil recycling centers.AssessmentEach student will write a letter about oil pollution and proper recycling and send it to theeditor of a local newspaper. In their letters, students may describe the hazards associated withoil spills and improper oil recycling. Assess the letters according to the students’ knowledgeof material and content, along with proper letter writing format.Source http://www.eduref.org/Virtual/Lessons/Science/Environmental_Education/ENV0206.html 72
  • Appendix B: Internet Resources forSupplemental Information
  • Internet Resources Animals Colorado is home to a variety of animals. For individual descriptions of many mammals, birds, and fish check out: http://wildlife.state.co.us/WildlifeSpecies/Profiles/. Enchanted Learning • Brief description and coloring drawing of a variety of animals from A-Z http://www.enchantedlearning.com/coloring/ • Brief description of hibernating and links to animals that hibernate http://www.zoomschool.com/coloring/Hibernate.shtml Earthlife • Everything you need to know about mammals http://www.earthlife.net/mammals/welcome.html • Everything you need to know about birds • http://www.earthlife.net/birds/intro.html Colorado Division of Wildlife • Colorado wildlife descriptions, sounds, videos, puzzles, and more. http://wildlife.state.co.us/Apps/kids/index.html Insects Enchanted Learning • Brief description and coloring drawing of a variety of insects from A-Z http://www.enchantedlearning.com/themes/insects.shtml Earthlife • Everything you need to know about insects http://www.earthlife.net/insects/six01.html Virginia Tech • Computer graphics of 3-D insects http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html Plants Enchanted Learning • Variety of plant information http://www.zoomschool.com/subjects/plants/75
  • Internet ResourcesColorado State University Herbarium • Information on all plants in Colorado (technical). Some info on ecosystems http://herbarium.biology.colostate.edu/index.htmOhio Public Library • Links to individual tree descriptions and descriptions of leafs and fruit http://www.oplin.org/tree/Botany Society of America • Pictures and overview of carnivorous plants http://www.botany.org/carnivorous_plants/Desert Plants • Links to individual plant descriptions and pictures http://www.desertusa.com/flora.htmlPoisonous Plants • Table of plants, their toxic parts, and symptoms http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/plantanswers/publications/poison/poison.htmlWaterU.S. Geological Survey • Information for kids on all things about Earth’s water http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/Colorado State University • Variety of information related to Colorado water http://waterknowledge.colostate.edu/Denver Water • Everything you would want to know about Denver’s water system http://www.denverwater.org/Seasons/WeatherLearning Haven • Description of the astronomy of seasons http://www.learninghaven.com/science/articles/seasons.htmClouds R Us • Basic information on a variety of topics related to weather http://www.cloudsrus.com/ 76
  • Internet Resources Exploring the Environment • Education modules and information on weather, seasons, Earth cycles, and biomes http://www.cet.edu/ete/modules/k4/ Colorado Climate Center • Description of Colorado’s climate patterns http://ccc.atmos.colostate.edu/climateofcolorado.php Sites With Links State of Colorado • Links to Colorado history and environment Web sites for kids http://www.colorado.gov/colorado-government-services-for/kids-students.html Discovery Channel • Links to a variety of science based Web sites for kids http://school.discovery.com/schrockguide/sci-tech/scibs.html The Science Spot • Information, lesson plans, and activities about science (for middle school) http://sciencespot.net/ U.S. Geological Survey • http://education.usgs.gov/common/primary.htm#water Colorado Department of Natural Resources • Contains a link to an educator’s guide to the ecosystems and wildlife of Colorado http://wildlife.state.co.us/Education/TeacherResources/WildColorado.htm77
  • Cherry Creek ValleyEcological Park Map 78
  • The Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book and accompanying Teacher’s Guide were designedfor Parker Jordan Metropolitan District by Valerian llc. Booklets are being paid for by the Parker JordanMetropolitan District with public funds. Please contact R.S. Wells LLC, District Manager, at 303-779-4525if there are any questions or concerns.This book is intended to be used for educational purposes only and may be reproduced or disseminatedonly with the prior written consent of the Board of Directors for the Parker Jordan Metropolitan District,Arapahoe County, Colorado.Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park is owned and managed by ArapahoeCounty Open Space Park and Trails in cooperation with Parker JordanMetropolitan District.Copyright © 2008 Parker Jordan Metropolitan District