Teacher’s Guide      for     Second Edition 2008
About the Teacher’s Guide and Activity BookThis Teacher’s Guide was created to be used in conjunction with the Cherry Cree...
Table of ContentsSeasons in the Park                               2Fall Equinox/ Colors of Fall                      3Win...
What is Available in the Park?Development of the Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park is an ongoing effort. At the time oft...
Cherry Creek Valley                                                                        Ecological Park Map            ...
Activity                                You Are Part of Nature, page 1: Do you know what a seed is? Of course you do. And ...
Activity   Seasons in the Park, page 4: The Earth is always moving and changing. The Earth      Book    travels in a circl...
Fall Equinox, page 5: Around September 20th days and nights are of equal length.                                          ...
Activity   Winter Solistice, page 7: Around December 20th days are short and nights are the               longest of the y...
Spring Equinox, page 9: Around March 20th days and nights are of equal length.                                            ...
Activity   Summer Solstice, page 11: After spring comes summer! Around June 20th days are the               longest of the...
Water in the Park, page 14: Water is very important to all forms of life. Without                          Activity    wat...
Activity    The Water Cycle, page 15 &16: The sun’s energy heats liquid water in the oceans, lakes,                and riv...
Water Cycle Experiment, page 17: Please see instructions in the activity book for this                                   A...
Activity    Did You Know?, page 19: Please see instructions in the activity book       Book     for this experiment.   Nar...
Wildlife in the Park, page 22: The Eco Park is home to wildlife. Wildlife is another name                     Activity    ...
Activity        Know the Wildlife, page 23: There are many different animals and insects in the park.                   Yo...
Know the Wildlife, page 26, 27 & 28: Bugs are wildlife. They are an important part of                                     ...
Activity   Match the Tracks, page 29: Can you match which tracks are made by each animal?      Book    Draw a line from th...
Animal Homes, page 31: Wildlife in the park live in all kinds of shelters. Do you know                                    ...
Activity   Plants in the Park, page 34: Plants are a part of the ecosystem of the Eco Park. They              help create ...
Plant Types, page 35: There are four main types of plants in the park. How many of                                        ...
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide
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Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book Teacher’s Guide

  1. 1. Teacher’s Guide for Second Edition 2008
  2. 2. About the Teacher’s Guide and Activity BookThis Teacher’s Guide was created to be used in conjunction with the Cherry Creek ValleyEcological Park Activity Book (or Activity Book). Each page of the Teacher’s Guide: • graphically shows two pages of the Activity Book, • includes the Activity Book narrative for the two Activity Book pages, • provides information that expands upon the Activity Book narrative, • provides sources of the additional information, and • lists additional activities that coincide with the Activity Book pages.The Activity Book was designed with flexibility in mind. It is divided into five sections:history, seasons, animals, plants, and water. Educators may decide to go through each sectionin order or choose an order that is more in line with their curriculum.The Teacher’s Guide and the Activity Book are tools to help educators and studentsunderstand and appreciate the Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park. These books helpeducators integrate the Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park into their curriculum. Many ofthe activities can be taught at the park as well as in the classroom. Educators are encouragedto visit the Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park with their students so that each student canexperience first hand what they learn in the Activity Book.It is our hope that these books will not only bring people in touch with the beauty of theCherry Creek Valley Ecological Park, but that they will also make people aware of ouressential role in protecting our riparian environments from destruction. Education is the firststep. With tools like this Teacher’s Guide and the Activity Book, we can prepare the cominggenerations to be good stewards of our life-giving creeks, streams, and rivers.The Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Activity Book and accompanying Teacher’s Guidewere designed for Parker Jordan Metropolitan District by Valerian llc. Booklets are being paidfor by the Parker Jordan Metropolitan District with public funds. Please contactR.S. Wells LLC, District Manager, phone 303-779-4525 if there are any questions or concerns.This book is intended to be used for educational purposes only and may be reproduced ordisseminated only with the prior written consent of the Board of Directors for the Parker JordanMetropolitan District, Arapahoe County, Colorado.Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park is owned and managed byArapahoe County Open Space Park and Trails in cooperation withParker Jordan Metropolitan District.Copyright © 2008 Parker Jordan Metropolitan District
  3. 3. Table of ContentsSeasons in the Park 2Fall Equinox/ Colors of Fall 3Winter Solstice/ Measuring Your Shadow 4Spring Equinox/ I Spy! 5Summer Solstice/ Maze 6Water in the Park 7The Water Cycle 8Water Cycle Experiment/ Different Water Bodies 9Did You Know/ What Needs Water 10Wildlife in the Park 11Know Your Animals 12Match the Tracks/ Where Do They Go? 14Animal Homes/Draw Your Home 15Plants in the Park 16Plant Types/Deciduous Tree Parts 17Evergreen Tree Parts/My Tree 18History 19Long Before People 19Native Americans 20Settlers 21What is Here Today/Biotic or Abiotic 22Now you Know Your Park!/Eco Word Search 24Make a Difference/ You Make a Difference 25Appendix A: Additional ActivitiesAppendix B: Internet Resources for Supplemental InformationPhotocopy-friendly Park Map
  4. 4. What is Available in the Park?Development of the Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park is an ongoing effort. At the time ofthe development of this Teacher’s Guide, the following amenities had been added to the park: • A man-made pond and dock • An interpretive building • Interpretive stations around the park • Picnic tables • Paved parking lots • Boardwalks and trails connecting all park elements • Happy Canyon Trail • Bridge Crossing • Entry signage and crossing • Creek-side outdoor classroom • Council ring • Trail connection to Red Hawk Ridge Elementary School • RestroomsFurther development of the park is underway. In the near future, the following amenities willbe added to the park: • Trail connection to the regional trail systemRestoration work occurs in the park as funding allows. Ongoing projects includeirradication of Russian Olive trees and reseeding of native grasses and forbs. Please beaware of restoration efforts when visiting the park. While these areas provide educationalopportunities, they are also areas sensitive to foot traffic. Please stay on designated trails andboardwalks unless posted signs allow visitors to do otherwise. Park Rules and RegulationsPlease keep the following rules and regulations in mind when bringing groups of students tothe park. 1. Do not litter in the park. If you come with a large group, please bring extra trash bags. Use park trash cans or take your trash with you. 2. Collection of plant material, animals, rocks, or soil is not allowed in the park. 3. Do not feed the animals in the park. Their digestive systems are not designed to handle human food. 4. Vehicles must stay in the parking lot. Motorized vehicles are not allowed in the park. 5. Pets must be kept on a leash at all times in the park. 6. Stay on designated trails and boardwalks unless posted signs allow visitors to do otherwise or you are with an experienced field guide.
  5. 5. Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park Map CHERRY CREEK REGIONAL TRAIL MAP CHERRY CREEK REGIONAL TRAIL FLOAT DOCK AND MAN-MADE POND OUTDOOR CLASSROOM GATHERING COUNCIL RING RED HAWK RIDGE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL RED HAWK RIDGE TRAIL CONNECTION CHE RRY CRE S. EK LA R CREEKVIEW AT ED RIVER RUN BOARDWALK O COMMUNITY ST PICNIC TABLES . BENCH AND EDUCATIONAL SIGNAGE BUS PARKING LOT INTERPRETATIVE CHERRY CREEK ACCESS POINT BUILDING BENCH AND EDUCATIONAL SIGNAGE RESTROOMS ENTRY MONUMENT BRIDGE CROSSING PAVED PARKING LOT COURTNEY DOWNS CHERRY CREEK TRAIL CONNECTION COMMUNITY OURT PROPOSED TAGAWA ACCESS ER C BRONCOS PA RK W ASP AY S J E JAMISON DRIV EHAPPY CANYON TRAIL
  6. 6. Activity You Are Part of Nature, page 1: Do you know what a seed is? Of course you do. And you Book also know that every seed needs to be planted and nurtured to grow up and be a healthy plant. Well, the same is true for you and everything else in nature. Nature is made up Narrative of all living things. The universe, earth, plants, and animals are all a part of nature. All living things are divided into two kingdoms: animals and plants. All animals need food, water, shelter, and habitat to survive. All plants need light, water, soil, and habitat to survive. Come explore the Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park and be sure to show respect for the park and the creatures that live here. Your Activity Book, page 2: This is your Activity Book. It will help you learn more about the Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park (Eco Park). The Eco Park is a place where animals and plants share a place that provides energy, water, shelter, and space. This place is something called an ecosystem. What is an ecosystem? An ecosystem is a group of plants and animals that live together in one place. These are special groups that have adapted to live together. You are part of the ecosystem. To enjoy this park safely, please take a few simple steps to be prepared: • Hat • Whistle • Water • Snack • Notebook • Pen/Crayon Stay on the trail unless you are with an adult guide. You Are Part of Nature Your Activity Book Do you know what a seed is? Of course you do. And you also This is your Activity Book. It will help you learn more about know that every seed needs to be planted and nurtured to the Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park (Eco Park). grow up and be a healthy plant. Well, the same is true for you and everything else in nature. Nature is made up of all The Eco Park is a place where animals and plants share a living things. The universe, earth, plants, and animals are place that provides energy, water, shelter and space. This all a part of nature. All living things are divided into two place is something called an ecosystem. kingdoms; animals and plants. All animals need food, water, shelter, and habitat to survive. All plants need light, water, What is an ecosystem? An ecosystem is a group of plants soil, and habitat to survive. Come explore the Cherry Creek and animals that live together in one place. These are special Valley Ecological Park and be sure to show respect for the groups that have adapted to live together. You are part of park and the creatures that live here. the ecosystem. To enjoy this park safely please take a few simple steps to be prepared: • Hat • Whistle • Water • Snack • Notebook • Pen/Crayon Stay on the trail unless you are with an adult guide. 1 21
  7. 7. Activity Seasons in the Park, page 4: The Earth is always moving and changing. The Earth Book travels in a circle around the sun. Each trip around the sun takes one year. One way that we can tell the Earth is spinning is by observing day and night. As the earth takes Narrative its path around the sun, sometimes we get more energy from the sun (summer) and sometimes we get less (winter). In Colorado we have four seasons: fall, winter, spring, and summer. Circle the answer that best fits each question. 1. Which season is it now? A. Fall B. Winter C. Spring D. Summer 2. The sun is... A. Shining. B. Covered by clouds. 3. The sun is... A. high in the sky and warm. B. low in the sky and cool. 4. What do the clouds look like? (Draw a picture below of what you see.) Teacher This section of the Activity Book gives an overview of the seasons. Students willInformation learn about all four seasons and do activities to reinforce events that happen during each season. Today is: Seasons in the Park The Earth is always moving and changing. The Earth travels in a circle around the sun. Each trip around the sun takes one year. One way that we can tell the Earth is spinning is by observing day and night. As the earth takes its path around the sun, sometimes we get more energy from the sun (summer) and sometimes we get less (winter). In Colorado we have four seasons: fall, winter, spring and summer. Circle the answer that best fits each question. 1. Which season is it now? A. Fall B. Winter C. Spring D. Summer 2. The sun is... A. Shining. B. Covered by clouds. 3. The sun is... A. high in the sky and warm. B. low in the sky and cool. 4. What do the clouds look like? (Draw a picture below of what you see.) 3 4 2
  8. 8. Fall Equinox, page 5: Around September 20th days and nights are of equal length. Activity Days are getting shorter and soon there won’t be enough sunlight to keep the leaves Book green. Trunks, branches, and roots will stay alive and grow new leaves when there is more light in the spring. Trees and plants adapt to the energy shortage by dropping Narrative their leaves. How do you save energy? Colors of Fall, page 6: One of the first signs of fall is that the leaves start to change color and drop to the ground. Find a leaf and trace the shape. Use crayons to show the color of fall. Fall is the time for animals and plants to get ready for winter. Animals like Teacher squirrels store food, while others like bears eat as much as they can in order Information to store fat for hibernation. Shorter days tell trees to store energy for winter, which causes some trees to stop sending nutrients to their leaves. The end result is that leaves change colors in the fall. Trees that lose their leaves are called deciduous trees. Trees that keep their leaves throughout the year and stay green are called evergreen. Weather during the fall is usually pleasant with temperatures ranging from the 70s around the end of summer to the 40s when winter rolls around. In general, the climate of the Denver area is semi-arid with precipitation gradually increasing as you go eastward into Kansas and Nebraska (due to the rain shadow from the mountains). Winters are dry with some very cold temperatures alternating with some surprisingly warm days. Spring and summer weather is wetter (70 to 80 percent of the annual total) with highly changeable weather, often windy, and some occasional thunderstorms. Across Colorado, climates can vary greatly due to elevation changes. The difference (35 degrees F) in annual mean temperature between Pikes Peak and Las Animas, 90 miles to the southeast, is about the same as that between southern Florida and Iceland. Sources • http://ccc.atmos.colostate. edu/climateofcolorado.php • http://www.learninghaven. Fall Equinox Colors of Fall Around September 20th days and nights are of equal length. Days are getting shorter and soon there won’t be enough One of the first signs of fall is that the leaves start to change color and drop to the ground. Find a leaf and trace com/science/articles/ sunlight to keep the leaves green. Trunks, branches, and roots will stay alive and grow new leaves when there is more light in the spring. Trees and plants adapt to the energy the shape. Use crayons to show the color of fall. seasons.htm • http://www.cloudsrus.com/ shortage by dropping their leaves. How do you save energy? • http://www.cet.edu/ete/ modules/k4/ Additional Activities in Appendix A 6. Seeing Eye Buddies (ongoing throughout the year) 5 6 7. Pine Cone Bird Feeder3
  9. 9. Activity Winter Solistice, page 7: Around December 20th days are short and nights are the longest of the year. How do you know when winter is here? The nights are long and Book the days are short. The sun is low in the sky. Are we getting much energy from the Narrative sun? Many trees have no leaves. Instead of rain there is snow! When you are outside on a winter day blow in the air and see your breath! How do other animals adapt to the winter weather? How do you adapt to winter weather? Measuring Your Shadow, page 8: Materials: pen or pencil, yard stick or measuring tape, a friend. You shadow varies in its size and length depending on the time of the day. Procedure: 1. The first measurement you take of your shadow should be early in the morning. With the help of a friend, stand in a place where it is easy to measure your shadow. 2. Record the measurement in your notebook and note the time you took the measurement and the direction your shadow was going. 3. Mid-day take a second measurement of your shadow and record the results in your notebook. 4. At the end of the day take a third measurement of your shadow and record the results in your notebook. Conclusion: What are the difference of the 3 recordings? Why do you think they are different? Teacher Winter is a result of Earth’s tilt away from the sun. This causes the days toInformation become shorter and the temperatures to be colder because we are farther away from the sun. During the winter, plants and animals need to save energy and stay warm. The snow makes a blanket that insulates the ground, protecting it from extreme cold. Some animals, such as bears and bats, hibernate during the winter to save energy. Hibernation is when an animal slows its metabolism to a very low level, with body temperature and breathing rates lowered, gradually using up the body fat reserves stored during the warmer months. Before entering hibernation, most animals eat a large amount of food and store energy in fat deposits in order to survive the winter. Some animals, such as birds, even migrate south in the winter in search of warmer weather and food.Sources • http://www.zoomschool.com/coloring/Hibernate.shtml Winter Solstice Measuring Your ShadowAdditional Activities in Around December 20th days are short and nights are the longest of the year. How do you know when winter is here? Materials: pen or pencilAppendix A The nights are long and the days are short. The sun is low in yard stick or measuring tape the sky. Are we getting much energy from the sun? Many a friend trees have no leaves. Instead of rain there is snow! When Your shadow varies in its size and direction depending on the you are outside on a winter day blow in the air and see your 8. The Night Tree time of the day. breath! How do other animals adapt to the winter weather? How do you adapt to winter weather? Procedure: 1. The first measurement you take of your shadow should 9. The Earth is Tilted be early in the morning. With the help of a friend, stand in a place where it is easy to measure your shadow. 2. Record the measurement in your notebook and note the time you took the measurement and the direction your10. How the Earth Moves Around shadow was going. 3. Mid-day take a second measurement of your shadow and record the results in your notebook. the Sun 4. At the end of the day take a third measurement of your shadow and record the results in your notebook. Stand in the same place and face the same direction each time.11. Direct Light Produces More Conclusion: What are the differences of the 3 recordings? Why do you think they are different? Heat Time Length of Shadow Direction of Shadow 7 8 4
  10. 10. Spring Equinox, page 9: Around March 20th days and nights are of equal length. Activity Spring, leaf, flower, here come the rain showers! In the spring (the Vernal Equinox) days Book get longer and trees and plants turn green and grow new leaves! The days get warmer and the creek fills with water from rain and snow melt. Song birds and water birds Narrative return to the park and many start to prepare for new babies. Spring is a great time to visit the park to see everything begin to bloom and grow! Have fun when you visit the Eco Park but it is also important to follow these important rules: • Be careful around the open water. • Stay on the trails. • Try not to disturb animal families, they need their privacy. I Spy!, page 10: Time to explore new places and things. See how many of these things you can find. Cross out the items with an “X” as you find them. Spring is the time of year when everything seems to come back to life. The Teacher days are longer so plants begin to come out of dormancy. The trees bud, the Information grass turns green, and the flowers bloom. Animals come out of hibernation and start foraging for food, birds return and begin making new nests, the fish make visits to the surface of the water, and people come to the park to enjoy the warm weather. Spring is a great time to observe the web of life and to see how everything in our environment is connected. Within each ecosystem, organisms can be grouped into trophic (feeding) levels. Species at one level provide life energy (food) for the species in the next level. Producers produce their own food and serve mostly as food for others. Consumers mostly eat or consume animals and plants, and decomposers help break down, or decompose, all dead materials. Plants are producers. Consumers include large animals like deer and mountain lions, or smaller species such as lizards and mice. Decomposers are mostly small microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria. It is important to realize that while one species might be a consumer some of the time, it may itself be food at another time. The biggest predator may someday be food for the smallest decomposer. The relationships are not simple and direct because they continuously evolve. Sources Spring Equinox I Spy! • http://www.vtaide.com/ Around March 20th days and nights are of equal length. Spring, leaf, flower, here come the rain showers! In the spring (the Vernal Equinox) days get longer and trees and Time to explore new places and things. See how many of these things you can find. Cross out the items with an “X” as you find them. png/foodchains.htm • http://www.stoller-eser. plants turn green and grow new leaves! The days get warmer and the creek fills with water from rain and snow melt. Song birds and water birds return to the park and many start to prepare for new babies. Spring is a great time to visit the park to see everything begin to bloom and grow! Have fun when you visit the Eco Park com/trial/colorbook/food_ web.html but it is also important to follow these important rules: • Be careful around the open water. Gazebo Flower Bridge • Stay on the trails. • Try not to disturb animal families, they need their privacy. Additional Activities in Insect Creek Animal Tracks Appendix A 12. Food Chain and Webs Bird Leaves Boardwalk 13. Create a Food Web 9 10 14. All Connected5
  11. 11. Activity Summer Solstice, page 11: After spring comes summer! Around June 20th days are the longest of the year and the nights are the shortest. One sign that summer is here is Book that days are long and hot because the sun is high in the sky. All energy comes from Narrative the sun. Plants get energy from the sun. Animals get energy from the plants and other animals they eat. Summer is a good time to bring your energy to the Eco Park. Bee Maze, page 12: Bees are very important to our ecosystem because they pollinate trees, flowers, and other plants which produce food for us to eat. Without bees and other pollinators, there would be no food available for us to eat. Other pollinators are flies, wasps, butterflies, moths, birds, and bats. Help the bee find his way to the Wild Plum blossom. Teacher Summer is the hottest time of year and when everything in the environment Information is in full swing. This is a good time of year to explore the outdoors and see how humans fit in. Our environment provides us with the most basic human needs such as food, shelter, medicine, fresh air, and water. In addition, humans have used a wide variety of plant and animal species to produce forms of transportation, musical instruments, tools, weapons, food holders, and many other products. In general, people enjoy spending time outdoors and many feel that each species in our environment should be respected and protected simply because it exists. For these reasons we should do what we can to protect our environment. Everything (animals, plants, weather, seasons, food cycles, etc.) works together and humans are a big part of it. With a little care we can make a big difference and protect places like the Cherry Creek Valley Ecological Park for people in the future to enjoy, just like we have. Aside from what they have learned from the book and the activities, here are some things that the children can do to make a difference in improving the environment: - Save electricity – turn off the lights, the television, and other electronic devices when you are through with them. - If possible bike, bus, or walk to where you are going instead of taking a car. - Recycle cans, bottles, plastic bags, and newspapers. - Conserve water – turn off the water when you’re not using it and tell an adult if you see a leak somewhere. - Put litter in garbage cans. If you see trash on the ground, pick it up and toss it in the nearest trash can. Summer Solstice After spring comes summer! Around June 20th days are the longest of the year and the nights are the shortest. One sign that summer is here is that days are long and hot because the sun is high in the sky. All energy comes fromSources the sun. Plants get energy from the sun. Animals get energy from the plants and other animals they eat. Summer is a good time to bring your energy to the Eco Park. • http://www.epa.gov/kids/Additional Activities inAppendix A15. Elementary Ecosystems16. Bug Study Bees are very important to our ecosystem because they pollinate trees, flowers, and other plants which produce food for us to eat. Without bees and other pollinators, there would be no food available for us to eat. Other pollinators17. Just Turn it Off are flies, wasps, butterflies, moths, birds, and bats. Help the bee find his way to the Wild Plum blossom. 11 12 6
  12. 12. Water in the Park, page 14: Water is very important to all forms of life. Without Activity water, plants and animals would not be able to live. In this section, you will learn about Book the Water Cycle and how water moves around the Earth. You will also learn about watersheds and some of the neat things that make water so special. Narrative Put a check mark by the statements that are true. Water is... ___ wet (when it falls as rain) ___ cold (when it is ice) ___ hot ( when it is boiling) ___ hard to see (when it is vapor) Water can be found... ___ in the ground ___ in the sky ___ in lakes and streams ___ in the oceans ___ in water fountains ___ in glaciers Water is used by... ___ farmers ___ businesses ___ wildlife ___ plants This section of the Activity Book teaches students about the water cycle, Teacher bodies of water, shapes of water, and what lives in the water. Several Information activities reinforce these topics. Water in the Park Water in the Park Water is very important to all forms of life. Without water, plants and animals would not be able to live. In this section, you will learn about the Water Cycle and how water moves around the Earth. You will also learn about watersheds and some of the neat things that make water so special. Put a check mark by the statements that are true. Water is... ___ wet (when it falls as rain) ___ cold (when it is ice) ___ hot ( when it is boiling) ___ hard to see (when it is vapor) Water can be found... ___ in the ground ___ in the sky ___ in lakes and streams ___ in the oceans ___ in water fountains ___ in glaciers Water is used by... ___ farmers ___ businesses ___ wildlife ___ plants 13 147
  13. 13. Activity The Water Cycle, page 15 &16: The sun’s energy heats liquid water in the oceans, lakes, and rivers. The heated water turns into vapor (gas). When water vapor is warmer Book than the air it rises into the sky where you see it as clouds. This is called evaporation. Narrative Plants release water vapor into the air. This is called transpiration. As water vapor cools it turns back into a liquid. This is called condensation. Liquid water is heavy and cool. Sometimes it is cold, so cold that it turns to ice (solid) and falls back to the Earth as snow, hail, or sleet. Teacher The water we use in the Denver area comes mostly from snow melt and rainInformation showers that fill up man-made reservoirs during the spring. Because the amount of precipitation naturally varies, we must be conservative with our water so that we will still have some during dry periods. Because our water is always moving around, as shown in the water cycle, we must also be careful of the types of pollutants we put in our water. These pollutants may contaminate the water we drink, the water animals and plants use, or even the water from rain. Some facts about snowfall in Colorado: • The record for the maximum 24-hour snowfall in the United States is 75.8 inches at Silver Lake in the mountains west of Boulder. This was the result of a storm which occurred on April 14-15, 1921. • Denver has an average annual snowfall of 60.7 inches. The snowiest season on record occurred in 1908-1909, with 118.7 inches of snow.Sources • http://waterknowledge.colostate.edu/ • http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/Additional Activities in As water vapor cools it turns back into a liquid. This is calledAppendix A The Water Cycle condensation. Liquid water is heavy and cool. Sometimes it is cold, so cold that it turns to ice (solid) and falls back to the Earth as snow, hail or sleet.18. Three States of Water The sun’s energy heats liquid water in the oceans, lakes, and rivers. The heated water turns into vapor (gas). When water vapor is warmer than the air it rises into the sky where you see it as clouds. This is called evaporation. Plants release water vapor into the air.19. The Water Cycle This is called transpirtation.20. Oil Pollution Clouds (Condensation) Snow (Precipitation) Rain (Precipitation) Mountain Plants Vapor Creek Creek Vapor Lake Plants River Ocean Plants River Lake Ground Water 15 Ground Water 16 8
  14. 14. Water Cycle Experiment, page 17: Please see instructions in the activity book for this Activity experiment. Book Different Water Bodies, page 18: Water covers most of the Earth’s surface. These areas Narrative of water on the ground are called water bodies. An area of land where water drains into the same water body is called a watershed. Which water body below does Cherry Creek look like? Facts about Colorado water bodies: Teacher Information • South Platte River Basin - The South Platte River Basin drains 19,020 square miles. - Major reservoirs in the South Platte Basin include Lake Granby, Grand Lake, Carter Lake, Horsetooth Reservoir, Chatfield Reservoir, Cherry Creek Reservoir, Barr Lake, Riverside Reservoir, Empire Reservoir, Sterling Reservoir, and Julesburg Reservoir. - Major tributaries to the South Platte include the Poudre, Big Thompson, St. Vrain, Boulder Creek, Clear Creek, and Cherry Creek. • Blue Mesa is the largest reservoir in Colorado. • The Colorado River used to be called the Grand River. • 87 percent of the water leaving Colorado flows out of the Colorado River basin toward the Pacific Ocean. The remaining 13 percent of the water leaving Colorado flows out of the Missouri, Arkansas, and Rio Grande river basins toward the Atlantic Ocean. • The Platte River, whose name means flat, was named by early French trappers and explorers. The Native Americans in the region called it Nibraskier, a similar word for flat. • Grand Lake is 265 feet deep - the deepest natural lake in Colorado. Sources • http://waterknowledge.colostate.edu/ Water Cycle Experiment Different Water Bodies Materials: Water fills many different holes on the Earth’s surface. handful of soil These areas of water on the ground are called water water bodies. All water bodies are part of a watershed. An area plastic zip-top bag of land where water drains into the same place is called a strong tape watershed. Which water body below does Cherry Creek sunny window belong to? Procedure: 1. Put the soil in the zip-top bag. 2. Sprinkle a little water on the dirt, just enough to make it moist. 3. Close the bag tight and tape it to the sunny window. 4. Watch what happens in the bag. Creek River What do you think will happen? What happened? Pond Puddle Do you know why? Lake Ocean 17 18 Teacher’s Guide: Page 9 Teacher’s Guide: Page 99
  15. 15. Activity Did You Know?, page 19: Please see instructions in the activity book Book for this experiment. Narrative Pond Water Experiment, page 20: Please see instructions in the activity book for this experiment. Teacher Answers for page 19.Information 1. A; 2. C; 3. B; 4. A; 5. B; 6. A; 7. C Page 20: When you look at fresh water with a microscope you will likely see a variety of tiny living things. Sources of fresh water samples can include ponds, lakes, rivers, aquarium tanks, or even an old rain puddle. You might see bacteria which belongs to the Kingdom Monera. You likely will see tiny animals like rotifers, which belong to the Kingdom Animalia and of course there are the Protozoans and Algae, which belong to the Kingdom Protista. The algae are single celled plant-like protists and the protozoans are single celled animal-like protists. Remember, the Protists are neither animals or plants but are in a kingdom of their own! Protozoans are further classified according to how they move, and there are four types. The phyla Mastigophora move with a long whip-like extension called a flagella. The Ciliophora have hundreds of tiny little hairs which beat in unison like little oars to move them through the water. The Sarcodina includes the Amoebas and they move like a flowing blob of jelly using what is called a pseudopod, or false foot. The last type of protozoan is the Sporazoans. They are very small spore-like with no apparent means of locomotion. Some are harmful like those that cause malaria. Scientists estimate that there are more than 50,000 different species of protozoans. Even at that, there are many new protists yet to be found as new species are identified regularly.Sources Did you Know? What Needs Water • http://www.microscope- Circle the correct answer for each question. Look around the Eco Park. Make a list of things that need water to live and need water microscope.org/ 1. How much water does a person use daily? to be made. A. 50 gallons B. 10 gallons C. 125 gallons HINT: A shirt is made of cotton. applications/pond-critters/ 2. How much of a tree is water? Cotton comes from a plant. A. 1/4 B. 1/2 C. 3/4 The plant drinks water. What else do you see that uses cotton? pond-critters.htm 3. How much water is used to flush a toilet? Wood comes from trees. A. 1-2 gallons B. 2-7 gallons C. 7-10 gallons Trees need water to grow. What do you see that is made of wood? 4. How much has the amount of water decreased over the past million years? 1.________________________________________ A. None B. 10,000 gallons C. 1,000,000 gallons 2.________________________________________ 5. How long can a person live without water? 3.________________________________________ A. 1 day B. 7 days C. 2 weeks 4.________________________________________ 6. Where does the water from the Cherry Creek flow to? 5.________________________________________ A. Gulf of Mexico B. Pacific Ocean C. Atlantic Ocean 6.________________________________________ 7. How much of an elephant is water? 7.________________________________________ A. 1/4 B. 1/2 C. 3/4 8.________________________________________ (Answers can be found on page 23 of the Teacher’s Guide.) 19 20 10
  16. 16. Wildlife in the Park, page 22: The Eco Park is home to wildlife. Wildlife is another name Activity for animals and insects. Deer, beavers, snakes, and dragonflies are all wildlife. They can Book all live without the care of people. Dogs, cows, and parakeets do not count as wildlife. They need regular care from people. In this section, you will learn about many animals Narrative and insects that can be seen at the park. When you are completing the activities for this section remember that all the animals and insects are connected as part of the ecosystem and that they depend on each other and Cherry Creek to survive. How to watch wildlife: • Wear clothing that is not brightly colored • Keep still. Wait for animals to find you. Do not follow them. • Do not stand where you are fully visible. Crouch down low to disguise yourself. • Move slowly and quietly when you do move. • Freeze if an animal you are watching looks your way. • Listen for animal noises like buzzing and plopping. • Sniff out unusual smells. • Use your senses to explore the Eco Park just like an animal would. • Do not feed or bother the wildlife. This section of the Activity Book gives an overview of the animals that can Teacher be found in the ecological park. Students will learn about the animals, what Information color they are, and their habits. Wildlife in the Park Wildlife in the Park The Eco Park is home to wildlife. Wildlife is another name for animals and insects. Deer, beavers, snakes, and dragonfly are all wildlife. They can all live without care of people. Dogs, cows, and parakeets do not count as wildlife. They need regular care from people. In this section, you will learn about many animals and insects that can be seen at the park. When you are completing the activities for this section remember that all the animals and insects are connected as part of the ecosystem and that they depend on each other and Cherry Creek to survive. How to watch wildlife: • Wear clothing that is not brightly colored • Keep still. Wait for animals to find you. Do not follow them. • Do not stand where you are fully visible. Crouch down low to disguise yourself. • Move slowly and quietly when you do move. • Freeze if an animal you are watching looks your way. • Listen for animal noises like buzzing and plopping. • Sniff out unusual smells. • Use your senses to explore the Eco Park just like an animal would. • Do not feed or bother the wildlife. 21 2211
  17. 17. Activity Know the Wildlife, page 23: There are many different animals and insects in the park. You may not see these animals when you are exploring the Eco Park but they are here. Book Look for clues! What colors are these animals? Narrative Know the Wildlife, pages 24 & 25: There are no narratives for these pages of the activity book. Teacher Fox: Weight: from 3 to 6 lbs. Physical characteristics: long ears, long bushy tail, reddish-brown fur.Information Diet: rodents, eggs, birds, insects, amphibians, reptiles, fish, grass, berries, nuts, and dead carcasses. Shelter: dens. Other: They hunt at night. Beaver: Size/weight: 3’ long, up to 55 lbs. Physical description: broad, nearly naked, flat tail; webbed feet. Shelter: dens. Diet: tender upper leaves, branches, and bark of trees. Other: Largest of the rodents. Besides humans, no other animal has such influence on its surroundings. They can drop a 5-inch diameter tree in 30 minutes. Raccoon: Size/weight: 2 to 3’ long, 8 to 22 lbs (heaviest in the fall). Diet: nearly anything. Shelter: tree cavities, abandoned burrows. Other. Raccoons can be found anywhere today, but once lived only in the riparian areas of the eastern plains. Active at night. Fish: Types of fish that have been found in Cherry Creek include minnows and trout. Sizes and colors vary. Fish eat insects and plant matter. Cottontail Rabbit: Size/weight: about 16” long, about 2 lbs. Physical characteristics: brownish-gray, white tail. Shelter: shallow depression within brushy areas. Diet: vegetation, herbaceous and woody. Other: Feed in the morning and late afternoon. Deer: Size/weight: 4 to 6 feet long, around 3’ tall at the shoulder; bucks around 400 lbs, does around 200 lbs. Other: Two species in Colorado - mule deer and white-tailed deer. Western Rattlesnake: Size: up to 48” long. Diet: prairie dog young, other rodents, birds, lizards, and frogs. Shelter: abandoned burrows. Other: has a rattle on the end of the tail that it shakes to warn creatures to stay away. They do most of their hunting at night. Frog: Frogs are amphibians, animals that spend part of their lives under water and the rest on land. Most frogs have teeth. Diet: Insects, sometimes small fish and worms. Shelter/Habitat: Near water. In really cold weather, frogs may bury themselves in the sand/mud and hibernate through winter. Turtle: Turtles of the area include snapping turtles, box turtles, yellow mud turtles, spiny softshells, and painted turtles. They all have relatively hard shells and small heads and legs. They spend a lot of time in the water, but they also like to sun themselves on logs and rocks. Diet: plants, insects, snails, slugs, crayfish, leeches, mussels, tadpoles, frogs, fish eggs, small fish, and dead animals. Know the Wildlife Mammals Reptiles, Amphibians, and Fish There are many different animals and insects in the park. You may not see these animals when you are exploring the Eco Park but they are here. Look for clues! What colors are these animals? Mammals Beaver Beaver Tracks Turtle Turtle Tracks Rabbit Rabbit Tracks Fish Fox Fox Tracks Frog Frog Tracks Deer Deer Tracks Snake Snake Tracks 23 Raccoon Raccoon Tracks 24 25 12
  18. 18. Know the Wildlife, page 26, 27 & 28: Bugs are wildlife. They are an important part of Activity an ecosystem. There are many colorful bugs at the Eco Park. Bugs have no backbones. Book They wear their skeletons on the outside of their bodies. They have at least 3 pairs of legs; sometimes as many as 15 pairs of legs. How many pairs of legs do you have? Narrative Answers for page 27 & 28. Teacher Ant- Insect; Bumble Bee- Insect; Dragonfly- Insect; Tick- Arthropod; Mosquito- Insect; Grasshopper- Insect; Spider- Arthropod Information Heron: Size: 38” tall, wingspan is 70” wide. They have a white crown and face with a blue-gray body. Diet: Mostly fish, some small mammals, reptiles, and amphibians. They live in large nests within dense tree cover. Red-tailed Hawk: Size/weight: about 19-23” long, about 2.5 lbs. Physical characteristics: back, head, and wings are brown with paler markings; white chest; tail feathers are reddish-brown. Diet: rodents, reptiles, amphibians, and small birds. Shelter: nests of bark, sticks, and leaves high in the trees. Other: Often catch food while in flight. Ant: Ants range in color from red to black, and they can range in size from 1/4” for a worker carpenter ant to 3/4” for a queen carpenter ant. Although ants are frustrating when they get in homes, ants do help the environment. They help control the population of damaging pests such as termites. Honey Bee: Honey bees eat nectar from flowers. They can fly about 15 mph. While eating, they also collect pollen in the pollen baskets attached to their legs. Some of the pollen lands on other flowers, pollinating them. Bees use the pollen to make honey, which is fed to newborn bee larvae. There are three types of bees: the queen (lays eggs), workers (females who gather food, build honeycomb, tend to eggs, guard the hive), and drones (males who mate with the queen). Dragonfly: Dragonflies eat other insects that they catch in mid air. There are many kinds of dragonflies with most found near water. They have long, thin bodies and with two pairs of long, delicate wings. Tick: Ticks are more closely related to spiders and scorpions than insects. Like a spider, a tick has one main body section; while, an insect has three separate body sections. There are two main types of ticks: hard and soft. Hard ticks are most commonly found in the woods and on pets. Soft ticks have tough, leathery skin with no apparent head. They can be found in caves, cabins and on birds. Grasshopper: Grasshoppers can hop, walk, and fly. There are thousands of different kinds of grasshoppers and they come in browns, greens, and olive greens. They eat plants while holding them between their small front legs. Mosquito: There are thousands of different kinds of mosquitoes. They can fly 1 to 1.5 mph. Females drink blood and plant nectar, males drink only nectar. Interestingly, not all mosquitoes bite humans. Spider: There are many types of spiders that live all over the earth. They come in all shapes and colors. Most spiders live for about one year. They produce silk from silk glands to make webs, traps, shelters, cocoons, and diving bells (for those spiders that hunt under water). Birds Insects Insects Bugs are wildlife. They are an important part of an ecosystem. There are many colorful bugs at the Eco Park. Bugs have no backbones. They wear their skeletons on the outside of their bodies. They have at least 3 pairs of legs; sometimes as many as 15 pairs of legs. How many pairs of legs do you have? Tick Grasshopper Hawk Tracks Hawk Daddy Long Legs Ant Bumble Bee Heron Tracks Dragonfly Mosquito Spider Heron 26 27 2813
  19. 19. Activity Match the Tracks, page 29: Can you match which tracks are made by each animal? Book Draw a line from the animal to the tracks they each make. Narrative Make Your Own Animal, page 30: The Eco Park is home to wildlife. Wildlife is another name for animals and insects. Deer, beavers, snakes, and dragonfly are all wildlife. They can all live without care of people. Dogs, cows, and parakeets do not count as wildlife. They need regular care from people. In this section, you will learn about many animals and insects that can be seen at the park. When you are completing the activities for this section remember that all the animals and insects are connected as part of the ecosystem and that they depend on each other and Cherry Creek to survive. How to watch wildlife: • Wear clothing that is not brightly colored • Keep still. Wait for animals to find you. Do not follow them. • Do not stand where you are fully visible. Crouch down low to disguise yourself. • Move slowly and quietly when you do move. • Freeze if an animal you are watching looks your way. • Listen for animal noises like buzzing and plopping. • Sniff out unusual smells. • Use your senses to explore the Eco Park just like an animal would. • Do not feed or bother the wildlife. Teacher No additional information for these pages.Information Match the Tracks Where Do They Go? Can you match which tracks are made by each animal? Draw Do you have a favorite animal that you can find in the a line from the animal to the tracks that each makes. summer, but it is not around in the winter? Some animals move from one place to another when the weather gets cold. This is called migration. Other animals sleep through the winter months. This is called hibernation. Some animals live in the Eco Park all winter long. Extra-thick fur or down feathers help to keep these animals warm. Fun Fact: • Birds hide in dense bushes to stay dry during rain storms. • Great horned owls pant to keep cool from the hot sun. • Bears’ teeth keep growing so they have to chew on trees to keep them in their mouths. • During rain showers, butterflies use leaves as if they were umbrellas. • Cold-blooded animals, like snakes, will sun themselves to keep their bodies warm. 29 30 14
  20. 20. Animal Homes, page 31: Wildlife in the park live in all kinds of shelters. Do you know Activity what kind of homes these animals live in? Write the correct letter next to the animal Book type. Narrative Draw Your Own Home, page 32: What does your home look like? Draw your home here! Look for homes in the Eco Park. What does a wild animal use to build a home? How is your wild animal home different from your actual home? How is it the same? Answers for page 31. Teacher 1. B; 2. D; 3. H; 4. D; 5. E; 6. A; 7. G; 8. E; 9. G; 10. C; 11. G; 12. G; 13. H; Information 14. F Caves: A cave is a natural opening in the ground extending beyond the zone of light and large enough to permit the entry of an average human. Some bears, bats, spiders, and other small bugs live in caves. Nests: A nest is a structure usually made of organic materials (leaves, twigs, branches, animal fur) in which animals lay eggs or give birth to their young. Some birds and squirrels use nests. Burrows: Burrows are like dens except that burrows are usually deeper. Burrows sometimes have numerous tunnels. Prairie dogs, snakes, burrowing owls, ground squirrels, rabbits, chipmunks, groundhogs, woodchucks, and some tarantulas live in burrows. Webs: Webs are intricately woven structures. Some spiders, worms, and mites weave webs. Spiders use their webs to trap insects whereas the worms and mites that weave webs use them as home structures. Dens: Dens can be described as shallow cave-like burrows. Beavers live in bank dens with entrances underwater. Foxes live in burrow-like dens on dry land. Grassland: Grasslands are areas where either low total annual rainfall (10-20 inches) or uneven seasonal rainfall favor grasses and herbaceous plants over the growth of trees. Most grasslands lie between desert shrub and forest lands. Streams: A stream is a body of water with a current, confined within a bed and stream- banks. Streams are important as conduits in the water cycle, instruments in groundwater recharge, and corridors for fish and wildlife migration. Often support a large variety of animal and plant life. Wind and streams can carry in eggs, seeds, and organisms that develop into various life forms. Animal Homes Wildlife in the park live in all kinds of shelters. Do you know Draw Your Home What does your home look like? Draw your home here! Sources what kind of homes these animals live in? Write the correct letter next to the animal type. A. Den E. Stream 1. Spider 2. Prairie Dog • http://websters-online-dictionary.org/ • http://www.enchantedlearning.com/ 3. Cat B. Web F. Nest 4. Beaver 5. Frog 6. Bear subjects/ C. Grass G. Burrow 7. Deer 8. Fish Look for homes in the Eco Park. What does a wild animal use to build a home? How is your wild animal home different from your actual home? How is it the same? • http://wildlife.state.co.us/ 9. Rabbit WildlifeSpecies/Profiles/ • http://www.hsus.org/ 10. Grasshopper 11. Snake D. Lodge H. House • http://www.usgs.gov/ 12. Fox 13. Ant 14. Sparrow 31 3215
  21. 21. Activity Plants in the Park, page 34: Plants are a part of the ecosystem of the Eco Park. They help create the oxygen that we breathe, and they are food for people and animals. In Book this section, you will learn about what makes different types of plants unique and how Narrative to identify them in the park. There are also some fun activities for you to complete! Teacher This section of the Activity Book teaches students about plant types andInformation plant parts. It also has activities that will hone observation skills, building on the seasonal changes of plants. Plants in the Park Plants in the Park Plants are a part of the ecosystem of the Eco Park. They help create the oxygen that we breathe, and they are food for people and animals. In this section, you will learn about what makes different types of plants unique and how to identify them in the park. There are also some fun activities for you to complete! 33 34 Teacher’s Guide: Page 16 16
  22. 22. Plant Types, page 35: There are four main types of plants in the park. How many of Activity each type can you find? Book Deciduous Tree Parts, page 36: There are some kinds of trees that we call deciduous Narrative trees because they lose their leaves in winter and grow new leaves in the spring. Plains Cottonwood (Populus deltoides): This Teacher deciduous tree gets 80’ to 100’ tall and 40’ to 60’ Information wide. These trees have yellow fall color. They live along stream banks. Sandbar Willow (Salix exigua): This shrub can get from 3’ to 20’ tall and wide. It is thicket-forming and spreads by suckers. Saskatoon Serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia): This shrub gets 15’ tall and half as wide. Creamy- white flowers appear in the spring. Red berries that are an important food source for birds. Sedges (Carex spp.): There are many different species of sedge. These grasses grow in wet soil near stream banks alongside reeds and rushes. Yarrow (Achillea millefolium): This is a perennial little flowering plant that reaches 1’ to 1.5’ tall. It spreads like a groundcover and has very soft leaves. White, yellow, or pink flowers appear in summer. Sources Plant Types Deciduous Tree Parts • http://plants.usda. gov/ There are four main types of plants in the park. How many There are some kinds of trees that we call deciduous trees of each type can you find in the park? because they drop their leaves in fall and sprout new leaves in spring. The tree canopy is made up of many, many flat leaves. The leaves transform energy from the sun into food. This is a branch. Branches move This is the trunk. water up to the It has bark which leaves and twigs protects the tree. Trees and down to the roots. This is the root of the tree. The roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil. Shrubs Grasses Flowering Plants Leaves on a Cottonwood trees have cottonwood branch seeds like this one. 35 36 Teacher’s Guide: Page 1717

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