Introduction: Hausa is the Chadic language with the largest number of speakers, spoken in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan and Togo. Hausa spoken as a first language by about 25 million people and as a second language by about 18 million more. It belongs to the West Chadic languages subgroup of the Chadic languages group, which in turn is part of the Afro- Asiatic language family. Eastern Hausa dialects are Kananci, Bausanchi, Dauranchi, Gudduranci and Hadejanci.Western Hausa dialects are Sakkwatanci, Kutebanci, Katsinanci, Arewanci, and Kurhwayanci. Katsina is transitional between Eastern and Western dialects. Northern Hausa dialects are Arewa and Arawa. Then Zazzaganci in Zaria is the major Southern dialect. The Kano dialect is the standard variety of Hausa. The BBC, Deutsche Welle and Voice of America offer Hausa Services on its international news web site using Kananci as standard.(Wikipedia) From sociolinguistics prospective, there are a number of differences between Hausa dialects. Holmes, J. (2008) has claimed People often use a language to signal their membership of particular groups, social status, gender, age, ethnicity, and the kind of social networks people belong to turn out to be important dimensions of identity in many communities (p.123). Although there are many researches on the differences betweenHausa dialects, Liman Muhammad (1985). Kraft, G. Kraft (1973).There are no enough studies on some low prestigious dialects such assome sociolinguistic aspects Kabanci ( Sakkwatanci) dialect which lacksto be high prestigious as well as Kananci dialect. Philip J. Jaggaras(2001). In the contents of this paper there is an explanation for thedifferences between Hausa dialects in general and the high prestigiousdialect which called Kananci and the low prestigious one Kabanci(Sakkwatanci) on the other hand.
This paper shows some sociolinguistic factors cause such kind ofdifferences in Hausa dialects as:-The geographical factor.-The social factor and-The linguistic factor.And there are many other sociolinguistic factors participate inidentifying the important distinctions between Hausa (Kananci andKabanci) dialects. But in this paper the concentration will be on thesethree major ones.Map showing the linguistic groups of Nigeria in 1979
The method: The method adopted in this research is the mixed method(qualitative and quantitative methods).Because the nature of informationis mainly interviews transcription, word analysis, and search in thewebsites, references, and journals beside some statistical data.-The first informant information:Language: Hausa language.Dialect: kabanci dialect.Name: Idriss Abdallah Mohammed.Age: 22 years old. Sex: Male.Place of birth: Sudan, Aljazeera city, Al-Managil.Where did you grow up? Sudan, Aljazeera city, Al-Managil.What is your fathers language, and dialect? Hausa language, Kabancidialect.What is your mothers language and dialect? Hausa language, Kabancidialect.Place of interview: Sudan, Khartoum, University of Khartoum StudentsResidence.- The second informant information:Language: Hausa language.Dialect: Kananci dialect.Name: Musa Salih Musa.Age: 24. Sex: Male.Place of birth: Aljazeera city- Guiz Village.Where did you grow up? Aljazeera city- Guiz Village.What is your father and mother’s language and dialect? Hausa language-Kananci dialect.Place of interview: Sudan, Khartoum, University of Khartoum StudentsResidence.
Hausa dialects (Kananci and Kabanci dialects):Sociolinguistic differences. Hausa language total speakers has been supposed by Habibu Daba (1987) about 40 million speaks it as native or second language inWest Africa in addition to 4 million in Republic of Sudan and others indifferent areas. Daba provided us a percentage table of Hausa speakersin some countries as follows: The country Speakers percentage Niger 80% Nigeria 45% Ghana 15% Benin 10% Togo 10% Cameroon 10% Sudan 8% Hausa spoken as a native language by people found in Africacountry of Niger and in the north of Nigeria used as lingua franca(similar to Swahili in East Africa) in much larger part of West Africa,and central Africa particularly amongst Muslim. More than teninternational Radio stations broadcast in Hausa. It taught at universitiesin Africa and around the world. (Wikipedia-Hausa language)Hausa Dialects: The term dialect(from Greek language word dialektos) is used bylinguists to refer to a variety of a language that is characteristic of aparticular group of the languages speakers The term applied often toregional speech patterns, but dialect may also be defined by other factorssuch as social class.Hausa dialects are divided into,
(1)Traditional Hausa dialects: Include Kananci, Bausanci, Dauranci, Guddranci, andHadejanci, as Eastern dialects. Sakkawtanci, Kutebanci, Katsinanci,Arewanci, and Kurhwayanci, these are the Western dialects. NorthernHausa dialects include Arewa. Zazzaganci is the major southern dialect.(2)Ghananian Hausa dialect:Its only one dialect called Ghaananci.(3)Non-native Hausa dialects: Refer to Hausa language spoken by non-native speaker as Hausalanguage used as lingua franca in West Africa. (Wikipedia-Hausalanguage)Hausa dialect differences: There are many sociolinguistic factors contribute to the differentbetween the above mentioned dialects such as:1-The geographical factor: The geographical distribution of the different linguistic groupsaccounted for as one of the distinction between the dialects. Accordingto this factor the dialects are called regional dialects and termed asregionlect or topolect. This found in all the above Hausa dialects as anysingle dialect of them spoken in different geographical area. Such as theEastern dialect Kananci which spoken in Kano city (the old capital ofNigeria) which is considered as biggest commercial center in Hausaland. And the Western dialect Kabanci (sakkowtanci) spoken in Sokoto(major city in West Nigeria). (Hument-Hausa dialects info). Eachspeaker of these two areas is proud of his/her dialect especially whenthey are in their hometown. So we can identify the speakers of the twoareas trough their dialect.2-The social factor: A dialect can be associated with a particular social class. Thisfactor is termed as sociolect. (Wikipedia-Hausa language). For exampleKanawa (Kananci speakers) their dialect considered as the standardvariety (used in media, and education) so its high prestigious dialectused by certain class of the society such as the educated people, or theother high prestigious members of the society. In contrast, toKabanci(Sakkowtanci) dialect which spoken by people called Kabawa
its uses is limited as it compared with the other Kananci dialect we cansay its mostly used by its member group(kabawa) as means ofcommunication and other informal issues in Sokoto city. In additionthose who are educated in Kabawa ethnic group are not as those inKananwa ethic group. This fact is true amongst Hausa speakers in Sudan as most of theKanawa live in the big cities such as Khartoum and Aljazeera citieswhich are the most powerful cities in the country so the social classeswhich live there are actually as the educated people, but Kabawaspeakers are found in less powerful cities such as the White Nile Statenot in the level of those two cities society as most of them areuneducated.3-The linguistic factor: Its a major factor in the distinction between Hausa dialects. Itinvolves different levels as follows:(a) Level of pronunciation: We have for instance such different in Kananci and Kabancidialects as it appears in the following table: The pronunciation in, Meaning Kananci Kabanci Sauka Sabaka descend Zauna Zamana sit down The major feature characterizing Kananci dialect as it appears in saukadescend and zauna sit down where /u/is pronounced by Kanawaspeakers when it appears before another consonant rather thanpronouncing /b/, /f/, or/m/ for they don’t pronounce these consonantswhen they appear before another consonant. On the other hand, in theWestern Kabanci(Sakkowtanci) dialect these consonants are pronouncedwhen they come before another consonant as they say sabaka descend,and zamana sit down. (Hument-Hausa dialects info)(b) Level of grammar: Kananci dialect distinguishes between masculine and femininegender of all nouns, for example, giwa ne male elephant(where nemarks masculine gender) in contrast to giwa ce female elephant(wherece marks feminine gender). Kabanci dialect as well distinguishesbetween masculine and feminine nouns, but instead of masculine gender
marker ne , feminine gender marker ce , as in most of the Hausaspeaking area Western Hausa use na and ta respectively, e.g. giwa namale elephant(masculine noun), giwa ta female elephant(femininenoun). But we have to notice that this gender marker is just used with thingsand animals nouns not with people nouns.(c) Level of vocabulary: Its the largest level because there are many words in Hausalanguage can be described as belong to specific dialect although it canbe used by the speakers of the other dialect. Here we can consider thefollowing list of words form Kananci and Kabanci dialects which havesame meaning but different forms, The lexical Kananci Kabanci meaning categories form (Sakkowtanci) form Nouns Wasa Wragi play Manda Jishiri salt Gonah Daji farm Yarinya diah girl Kuliah Müsa cat Ido Ijiah eye Verbs Hingo Amshi take this… Tifi Je go Kalii Dubi look Dki Biji hit Preposition Smah Bisah on There are other sociolinguistic factors contributes to the differencesbetween Hausa dialects especially the Eastern Kananci and the WesternKabanci dialects. Because of the limitation of this paper I satisfiedmyself with these three factors.Conclusion:
As we have seen Hausa dialects vary from each other considerably asresult of a number of considerations combined together cause suchdistinction the dialects of Hausa. Kananci and Kabanci(Sakkowtanci) astwo dialects of one language but each one has its characteristics todeclare it as separate dialect spoken by different social class in differentgeographical areas, and with different linguistic features. There are otherfactors have role in this distinction between these dialects such as thedemographic, political, and economical factors, but all of them areassociated with these three ones in way or another. There are studiesmade in Hausa dialects such as Philip J Jaggaras(2001) who wrote aboutHausa dialects, but there is no enough comparative studies betweenthese dialects.Recommendation:In almost all the languages there are dialects which have very interestingdifference as we found in Hausa language. Because of the limitation ofthis paper further studies are required in order to discover the essencedistinction between these dialects in depth as comparing between two ormore dialects such as these two interesting ones (Kananci andKabanci(Sakkowtanci) dialects. As we find in the linguistic factor, thelevel of pronunciation. Such differences in pronunciation I referred to inthese words can’t be generalized for all the dialects’ words. That’s whatmake further studies in such questions essential.
References list:- Attahir M. Daud (2003) Hausa people the country and the language,Alfaisal Magazine, 319, 74_83.-Habibu A. Daba(1987), Sociolinguistic study of address terms inHausa, Ph.D. thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA, P.13.- Holmes, J. (2008). An Introduction to Sociolinguistics (3ed). London:Longman.- Kraft C. H. & Kraft M. G., (1973), Introductory to Hausa, Berkley,Los Angeles, London University of Californian press.- Muhammad, Liman (2009) Hausa language, Ahmadu BeloUniversity, Institute of Education 1985.-Philip J. Jaggaras, (2001), Kananci Hausa, Journal of Africa. -Wikipedia (2010)-Hausa language. Retrieved fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hausa_language.-Humnet(n.d), Hausa dialect info.Retrieved from:http://www.humnet.ucla.edu/humnet/aflang/hausa/Language/dialects.html.-Wikipedia-dialect.Retrieved from:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dialect In the name of Allah
Fourth level Research methodology 409Research on:Prepared by: Ahmed Sosal Altayeb M. Ali. 06-420Supervised by: Dr, Fatima idriss January 2011