Manfred nowak oct 11
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Presentation of Manfred Nowak at the international conference "Post Socialist Justice After Two Decades", October 11-12, 2012, in Riga More information www.lawandjustice.lv

Presentation of Manfred Nowak at the international conference "Post Socialist Justice After Two Decades", October 11-12, 2012, in Riga More information www.lawandjustice.lv

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    Manfred nowak oct 11 Manfred nowak oct 11 Presentation Transcript

    • The Post-Socialist Legal Space: Perceptions and Practices of JusticeAdministration of Criminal Justice:Conclusions from comparative statistics inthe OSCE regionConference: Post-Socialist Justice After Two DecadesStockholm School of Economics in Riga - Riga, 11 October 2012Manfred NowakProfessor of International Law and Human Rights, University of ViennaDirector, Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights, ViennaFormer UN Special Rapporteur on Torture (2004 – 2010)
    • Overview1. Maps & Statistics on the Prison Situation within the OSCE region2. Council of Europe – European Court of Human Rights3. United Nations – Human Rights Committee4. European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT)5. Death Penalty6. UN Special Rapporteur on Torture (2004 – 2010)7. Conclusion
    • 1. Maps & Statistics on the Prison Situation within the OSCE region - 10 out of the 25 States with the highest number of prisoners are OSCE States - 42% of the world prison population from OSCE countries (compared to 18 % of overall world population) - OSCE States (US, Russia, Georgia, …) among those with the highest prison population rates in the world - Overcrowding of prisons: only 8 OSCE States have a prison occupancy rate of less than 80% (e.g. Central Asian States)Sources:- World Prison Brief (http://www.prisonstudies.org/info/worldbrief/; retrieved 20/2/2012)- UN Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision 3
    • PRISON SITUATION
    • United States of America (1)* 2,266,832Russian Federation (3)* 755,600Ukraine (10)* 157,866Turkey (12)* 127,831United Kingdom (16)* 86,919Poland 81,382France 73,149Spain 70,414Germany 69,697Italy 68,047Kazakhstan 52,464Uzbekistan 42,000Canada 39,099Belarus 36,533Romania 30,810Georgia 24,187Czech Republic 23,435Azerbaijan 20,470Hungary 16,328Netherlands 14,488Portugal 12,918Serbia 12,000Greece 11,364Turkmenistan 10,935Belgium 10,561Slovakia 10,031Kyrgyzstan 9,828Tajikistan 9,317Lithuania 9,139Bulgaria 5 9,071
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    • United States of America 730Georgia 539Russian Federation 529Belarus 381Ukraine 347Greenland (Denmark) 340Kazakhstan 323Latvia 314Lithuania 276Estonia 252Azerbaijan 228Montenegro 227Turkmenistan 224Czech Republic 222Poland 213Slovakia 184Moldova (Republic of) 182Kyrgyzstan 181Turkey 171Serbia 164Hungary 163Uzbekistan c.153Spain 152Albania 147Armenia 146 7
    • United Kingdom 146Romania 144Malta 141Tajikistan 130Luxembourg 124Portugal 121Bulgaria 120Canada 117Croatia 117Macedonia (former Yugoslav Republic of) 114Italy 112France 111Cyprus (Republic of) 110Austria 104Greece 101Belgium 97Ireland, Republic of 95Netherlands 87Germany 86Switzerland 79Sweden 78Bosnia and Herzegovina: Republika Srpska 75Denmark 74Andorra 73Bosnia and Herzegovina: Federation 73Norway 73Monaco 70Slovenia 64Finland 59Iceland 47Liechtenstein 19 8
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    • 2. Council of Europe – European Court of Human Rights - Relating only to 47 member States of the Council of Europe (not US, Canada, Belarus, Central Asian States) - Statistics about relevant cases - Judgments in 2011 finding violations of Articles 2, 3, 5, 6, 13 ECHRSource: European Court of Human Rights, Annual Report 2011 and Facts and Figures 2011, 50 Years of Activity – The European Court of Human Righz(available at http://www.echr.coe.int/ECHR/Homepage_EN) 16
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    • ECtHR - Violations Judgments by States in 2011 (174) (133) (105) (73) 20
    • ECtHR - Violations by Article and by State in 2011 21
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    • 3. United Nations – Human Rights Committee- Out of 167 States parties to the CCPR 114 are parties to the 1st Optional Protocol (individual complaints procedure)- All OSCE countries are parties to the CCPR.- Within the OSCE region Monaco, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States of America have not ratified the 1st OP- Views finding violations of Articles 2, 6, 7, 10 and 14 CCPR Source: CPT, General Report 2011 (available at http://www.cpt.coe.int/en/annual/rep-21.pdf) 30
    • States Parties to CCPR and Optional Protocols Human Rights Committee Status of Country CCPR OP 1 OP 2 Lithuania 1991 1991 2002 ratification of Luxembourg 1983 1983 1992 CCPR within Albania 1991 2007 2007 Malta 1990 1990 1994 OSCE Andorra 2006 2006 2006 Monaco 1997 2000 Armenia 1993 1993 Montenegro 2006 2006 2006 CCPR 55* Austria 1978 1987 1993 Netherlands 1978 1978 1991 Azerbaijan 1992 2001 1999 Norway 1972 1972 1991 OP 1 51 Belarus 1973 1992 Poland 1977 1991 OP 2 47 Belgium 1983 1994 1998 Portugal 1978 1983 1990 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1993 1995 2001 Republic of Moldova 1993 2008 2006* Holy See did not ratify Bulgaria 1970 1992 1999 CCPR Romania 1974 1993 1991 Canada 1976 1976 2005 Russian Federation 1973 1991 Croatia 1992 1995 1995 San Marino 1985 1985 2004 Cyprus 1969 1992 1999 Serbia 2001 2001 2001 Czech Republic 1993 1993 2004 Slovakia 1993 1993 1999 Denmark 1972 1972 1994 Slovenia 1992 1993 1994 Estonia 1991 1991 2004 Spain 1977 1985 1991 Finland 1975 1975 1991 Sweden 1971 1971 1990 France 1980 1984 2007 Switzerland 1992 1994 Georgia 1994 1994 1999 Tajikistan 1999 1999 Germany 1973 1993 1992 The former Yugoslav Republic Greece 1997 1997 1997 of Macedonia 1994 1994 1995 Hungary 1974 1988 1994 Turkey 2003 2006 2006 Iceland 1979 1979 1991 Turkmenistan 1997 1997 2000 Ireland 1989 1989 1993 Ukraine 1973 1991 2007 Italy 1978 1978 1995 United Kingdom of Great Kazakhstan 2006 2009 Britain and Northern Ireland 1976 1999 Kyrgyzstan 1994 1994 2010 United States of America 1992 Latvia 1992 1994 Uzbekistan 1995 1995 2008 Liechtenstein 1998 1998 1998 31
    • CCPR Communications dealt with from 2003 to 2010 Human Rights Committee New cases Cases Pending cases at 31 Year registered concludeda December 2010 2010 96 83 444 2009 68 76 431 2008 87 88 439 2007 206 47 455 2006 96 109 296 2005 106 96 309 2004 100 78 299 2003 88 89 277 a Total number of cases decided (by the adoption of Views, inadmissibility decisions and decisions to discontinue consideration). 32
    • Views finding violations in relation to CCPR Articles Human Rights Committee 33
    • Views finding violations in relation to States Human Rights Committee 34
    • CCPR - Violations by Article and by State (2009 – 2011) Human Rights Committee Effective Remedy and Non- Discrimination (Art 2 CCPR) 35
    • CCPR - Violations by Article and by State (2009 – 2011) Human Rights Committee Right to Life (Art 6 CCPR) 36
    • CCPR - Violations by Article and by State (2009 – 2011) Human Rights Committee Prohibition of Torture or Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (Art 7 CCPR) 37
    • CCPR - Violations by Article and by State (2009 – 2011) Human Rights Committee Right to liberty and security of persons (Art 9 CCPR) 38
    • CCPR - Violations by Article and by State (2009 – 2011) Human Rights Committee Humane treatment of persons deprived of liberty (Art 10 CCPR) 39
    • CCPR - Violations by Article and by State (2009 – 2011) Human Rights Committee Administration of Justice (Art 14 CCPR) 40
    • 4. European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) - 1990-2011: 315 visits (191 periodic visits + 124 ad hoc visits) - 264 CPT reports published (Russian Federation: only 1 report published out of 18) Source: CPT, General Report 2011 (available at http://www.cpt.coe.int/en/annual/rep-21.pdf) 41
    • CPT 42
    • 5. Death Penalty- Europe as a death penalty free zone (except Belarus, Abkhazia, Transnistria)- Central Asia: recent abolition of capital punishment in Uzbekistan (for all crimes, 2008); Kyrgyzstan (for all crimes; 2007); Kazakhstan (for ordinary crimes, 2007); Turkmenistan (for all crimes, 1999); Tajikistan (abolitionist in practice: no execution in the past ten years)- USA: retentionist Source: Amnesty International, Death Sentences and Executions Report 2010 43
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    • 6. UN Special Rapporteur on Torture (2004 – 2010)- 18 Fact-Finding Missions- 5 Fact-Finding Missions to OSCE Countries (Georgia, Denmark & Greenland, Moldova, Kazakhstan,Greece)- Joint UN Reports on Guantanamo Bay and Secret Detention in the Context of Countering Terrorism 45
    • FACT-FINDING MISSIONS – OVERVIEW Denmark & Greenland Moldova Greece (Russia) Georgia Jordan May 08 July 08 Oct. 10 Oct. 06 Feb. 05 June 06 Kazakhstan May 09 (Cuba) Mongolia Autumn 10 June 05Guantanamo China Feb. 06 Nov. 05 Jamaica Nepal Feb. 10 Sept. 05 Paraguay Papua New Guinea Nov. 06 May 10 Uruguay Indonesia March 09 Nov. 07 Sri Lanka Oct. 07 Sudan Togo Nigeria Equatorial Guinea (Zimbabwe) Oct. 06 April 07 March 07 Nov. 08 Oct. 09
    • Special Rapporteur on Torture: FACT-FINDING MISSIONS IN OSCE COUNTRIES- Georgia (February 2005): routine practice of torture, bad prison conditions, deathpenalty in Abkhazia- Denmark and Greenland (May 2008): no torture, high standards of detention- Moldova (July 2008): widespread ill-treatment and isolated torture, bad prisonconditions, death penalty in Transnistria- Kazakhstan (May 2009): routine torture and ill-treatment, improved prisonconditions, extensive preparation for visit by Special Rapporteur- Greece (October 2010): isolated cases of torture, bad conditions of detention (inparticular migration detention facilities
    • 7. CONCLUSION‣ Prison crisis in the OSCE: disproportionally high number of prisoners, both in absolute and relative terms; overcrowding; in many countries continuing practice of torture and inhuman prison conditions‣ Strong reliance on retributive justice and malfunctioning of administration of justice (corruption, being „tough on crime“, excessive length of proceedings) as main reasons for torture and prison crisis‣ Undermining of the rule of law in the fight against terrorism (secret detention, torture, illegal rendition flights, unfair trials)‣ Significant disparities between best practice (e.g. Denmark) and serious violations of international human rights law‣ Unproportionally high percentage of violations of the CCPR found in relation to post-Soviet States 48
    • Thank you for your attention! 49