Birth Control Methods

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Birth Control Methods

  1. 1. Birth Control Methods Ms. Drew SOCES Health Fall 2012
  2. 2. Partner CommunicationIt takes two to have sex, and two todecide and talk about:•Whether or not to have sexAnd if YES then,•Birth Control•Getting Tested for STIs•Sexual History
  3. 3. Perfect vs. TypicalPerfect User: A person who uses the method correctly and consistentlyTypical User: A person who uses the method incorrectly or does not use it every time
  4. 4. Benefits of Playing it Safe… The only 100% method for preventing pregnancy and STIs is abstinence
  5. 5. Abstinence
  6. 6. AbstinenceWhat does abstinence mean? Everyone has a different definition on abstinence People can choose to be abstinent at different times in their lives I define abstinence as no: - oral sex, - vaginal sex, - anal sex, or - genital-to-genital rubbing with another person Effectiveness: 100%
  7. 7. AbstinencePros: No risk or worry about STI or pregnancy Allows relationship to develop without the pressure of sex No side effects or health risksCons: Can be hard to follow Many people fail to use protection when abstinence ends
  8. 8. Four Types of BC  Information-based  Barrier  Hormonal  Long-term
  9. 9. WithdrawalHow To Use: The man pulls out of his partner before he ejaculates He needs to ejaculate outside of his partner The man needs to know his body well in order to use this method Effectiveness: Perfect User: 96% Typical User: 73%
  10. 10. WithdrawalAdvantages: No health problems or side effects No supplies needed No STI ProtectionDisadvantages: Couple may feel it interrupts sex, the reason for its Latin name coitus interruptus The man must take responsibility for this method
  11. 11. Barrier Methods A barrier method is used during intercourse to keep sperm from traveling through the cervix and into the uterus
  12. 12. Male Condom Available everywhere!
  13. 13. Male CondomMade of latex, plastic, and sheepskin.Sheepskin condoms do not provide STI protectionHow To Use: Store at room temperature No exposure to heat or direct sunlight Only use water-based lubricants Allergy test can be done Effectiveness: Alternative to latex condom is polyurethane Perfect User: 98% Typical User: 85%
  14. 14. Male CondomPros: It protects against both pregnancy and STIs Available in most drug stores and is affordableCons: May reduce sensitivity and spontaneity during intercourse May cause skin irritation
  15. 15. Female Condom Advantages:  Offers extra STI protection  Can be inserted up to 8 hours before intercourse Disadvantages:  Some women do not feel comfortable with this method  They can be expensive
  16. 16. DiaphragmAdvantages: It can be put in up to 6 hours before sex, so it doesn’t affect spontaneity When taken care of, diaphragms last for a long timeDisadvantages: No STI Protection It is difficult for women to insert and remove Some couples are allergic to the contraceptive cream
  17. 17. Spermicides Available in foams, jellies, vaginal films, and suppositories How To Use:  Spermicides work by creating a chemical and physical barrier inside the vagina by doing two things: - contains Nonoxyl-9 which kills sperm or makes them immobile - forming a temporary plug around the cervix  Foams and gels can be used immediately.Vaginal films and suppositories requires a 15 minute wait Effectiveness: Perfect User: 85%* Typical User: 71%** Effectiveness rate increases when combined with a barrier method
  18. 18. Spermicides Each application is effective up to 1 hour, and needs to be reapplied for each act of sex Need to remain in cervix for the next 6 hours
  19. 19. SpermicidesAdvantages: They are affordable and available at most drug stores They provide lubrication during sex No STI ProtectionDisadvantages: May cause skin irritation which can increase risk of STIs They can be messy
  20. 20. HORMONAL METHODS  Only for women  Requires a doctor’s prescription
  21. 21. Hormonal MethodsContains hormones similar to estrogen and progesteroneand work in combination to do the following: 1 Prevents ovulation 2 Thins uterine lining to prevent implantation 3 Thickens cervical mucus
  22. 22. Possible Side Effects Side effects vary from woman to woman. Most side effects disappear after 3 months. Possible side effects include:  Changes in menstrual cycle  Nausea  Breast tenderness  Mood Changes  Drug interaction with certain medications If any of these bother you, talk to your clinician. You can switch to another brand with a lower dosage of hormones, or try a different type of birth control
  23. 23. Birth Control PillContains estrogen and progesterone How To Use:  Start as directed by your clinician  Use back-up method when starting  Pill must be taken orally, every day, at the same time  If miss taking 1 pill, follow instructions on package Missed pills may not only increase the risk of pregnancy Effectiveness: but may also increase your chance of experiencing some Perfect User: 99.7% side effects, such as bleeding between periods Typical User: 92%
  24. 24. Birth Control Pill Advantages:  The pill regulates a woman’s period  Periods are lighter with less cramps  It does not interrupt sex No STI Protection Disadvantages:  Some women have a hard time remembering to take the pill  Some women experience side effects
  25. 25. Birth Control Patch Also called Ortho-Patch Contains estrogen and progestin How To Use:  Wear on body (see next slide)  Use back-up method when starting  Change patch each week for 3 weeks No patch the fourth week and woman gets period  Do not wear in same spot twice Effectiveness: Perfect User: 99.7% Typical User: 92%
  26. 26. Birth Control Patch Only wear the Patch in the following areas of the body
  27. 27. Birth Control Patch Advantages:  Only have to remember birth control once a week  Periods are lighter with less cramps No STI Disadvantages: Protection  Can be noticed on body  Some women experience side effects, including skin irritation
  28. 28. Birth Control Ring Also called Nuva-Ring Contains estrogen and progestin How To Use:  Worn inside the vagina for 3 weeks  Fourth week the ring is removed and woman gets her period  Use back-up method when starting  Stays inside vagina, even during sex Effectiveness: Perfect User: 99.7% Typical User: 92%
  29. 29. Birth Control Ring Advantages:  Only have to remember birth control once a month  Periods are lighter with less cramps  Private No STI Protection Disadvantages:  Some women do not feel comfortable inserting this method  Some women experience side effects
  30. 30. Birth Control Shot Also called Depo-Provera Contains progestin only How To Use:  The injection is given in the arm or buttocks by a clinician  Use back-up method when starting  Each injection lasts 3 months (11-13 weeks). Must return to medical center for next injection Effectiveness: Perfect: 99.7% Typical: 97%
  31. 31. Birth Control Shot Important Guidelines:  Fertility may be delayed for up to 18 months  Users may experience irregular bleeding and spotting  After one year, 50% of users stop menstrual bleeding  This method is not recommended for more than 2 continuous years
  32. 32. Birth Control Shot Advantages:  Only have to remember birth control 4 times a year  Good method for smokers and women over 35  Very Private No STI Protection Disadvantages:  Some women do not like change in menstrual cycle  Some women experience side effects, including increased appetite
  33. 33. Progestin-Only MethodsContains the hormone progestin and are safe forwomen who have an increased risk for blood clotsand heart problemsFor women who:- Smoke- Over the age of 35 years old- Breastfeeding womenProgesterone only methods include:- Mini-Pill/ progesterone-only pills (POPs)- Depo-Provera- Mirena IUD
  34. 34. LONG – TERM METHODS There are three types: 1.) Implanon for women only 2.) IUD for women only 3.) Sterilization for men and women Long-term methods are recommended for men and women who want to wait at least 3 years before having children or do not want any children in the future
  35. 35. Implanon A thin match-stick size rod made of soft plastic. It is inserted beneath the skin of the arm, and a very small amount of the hormone progestingoes into the bloodstream all the time.How To Use: Consult with a clinician and have inserted at the medical center Lasts up to 3 years. Must be removed by a clinician Effectiveness: 99.2%
  36. 36. ImplanonAdvantages: Good long term method Very Private No STIDisadvantages: Protection May cause pain and/or a scar in the area of insertion It may cause irregular vaginal bleeding
  37. 37. IUD: Copper-TSmall, flexible device that is covered withcopper. The IUD is inserted into the uteruswith the strings outside the cervix How To Use:  Consult with a clinician and have inserted at the medical center  Must check strings regularly to make sure the IUD is in place  Lasts up to 12 years. Must be removed by a clinician Effectiveness: 99.2%
  38. 38. Hormonal IUDAlso called Mirena IUD. Similar to Copper-T, butis coated with the hormone, progestin Mirena releases progesterone and lasts up to 5 years Effectiveness: 99.9%
  39. 39. The IUDAdvantages: Good long term method Very Private No STIDisadvantages: Protection Can increase a woman’s risk of STIs Some women experience side effects, including vaginal bleeding
  40. 40. Tubal Ligation Procedure:  Out-patient surgery performed in a medical center  Requires general anesthesia  Fallopian tubes are blocked, preventing the egg from entering the uterus  Recovery time ranges from 2 days to a week  Effective immediately Effectiveness: 99.5%
  41. 41. Tubal Ligation – Types of Procedures There are many types of procedures and each type carries different risks and benefits. Fallopian tubes are either cut, burned, or blocked with rings, bands, or clips
  42. 42. Tubal LigationPros: Permanent method of birth control Cost effective in the long-runCons: No STI May not be reversible Protection Some health risks, including abnormal bleeding and ectopic pregnancy
  43. 43. VasectomyAvailable at Planned Parenthood Procedure:  Out-patient surgery performed in a medical center  Local anesthesia is used to numb the area  Vas deferens tubes are blocked, preventing the sperm from traveling out of the body  Recovery time ranges from 1 day to less than a week  Effective after 10-20 post-vasectomy ejaculations Effectiveness: and semen analysis 99.9%
  44. 44. Vasectomy – Types of Procedure In most procedures, the surgeon will make small incisions in the skin of the scrotum, cut the vas deferens and a small part may be removed. They are either sealed or left open-ended. No-scalpel vasectomy is also available, with little bleeding and no stitches needed.
  45. 45. VasectomyPros: Permanent method of birth control Simpler and less expensive than woman sterilization Fast recoveryCons: No STI May not be reversible Protection Some health risks, including swelling and earlyfailure
  46. 46. Emergency Contraception  Not a form of everyday contraception  Taken only in cases of birth control failure, rape, incest  Take up to five days after sexual contact  High dose of hormones Ella, Next Choice or Plan BFor more information go to ec.princeton.edu1-888-NOT-2-LATE
  47. 47. Emergency ContraceptionPros: Can be purchased ahead of time Avoid abortion or pregnancyAvailable at pharmacies and health clinics to 17 and olderUnder 17 need a prescription , no parental notification requiredCons: $40 Some side effects – nausea and cramping
  48. 48. local health clinics • Valley Community Clinic 888-763-4070 or 818-763-4070 www.teen411.com or www.jovenes411.com • Planned Parenthood Los Angeles Canoga Park and Van Nuys www.pplosangeles.org 1-800-576-5544 • Los Angeles Department of Health Services www.ladhs.org

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