Soraya Ghebleh - Selected Notes on Global Governance


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This is a presentation that looks at different issues, stakeholders, and challenges in global governance.

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Soraya Ghebleh - Selected Notes on Global Governance

  2. 2. PIECES OF SECURITY GOVERNANCE •  Global IGOs •  Norms on the use of force •  International Conventions •  Regional Collective Defense Treaties •  Enforcement Mechanisms •  Peaceful Settlement Mechanisms •  Peacekeeping •  Humanitarian Interventions •  Peacebuilding
  3. 3. GLOBAL AND REGIONAL SECURITY IGOS •  UN Security Council •  UN General Assembly •  Secretary-General •  International Court of Justice •  International Atomic Energy Agency •  Department of Peacekeeping Operations •  Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs •  High Commissioner for Refugees •  NATO, WEU, OSCE, CIS •  ASEAN, ARF •  Asian League, GCC •  AU, ECOWAS •  OAS
  4. 4. CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY •  Attack against or any effort to exterminate a civilian population •  Enslavement •  Deportation or forcible transfer of a population •  Imprisonment or other severe deprivation of a physical liberty •  Torture •  Rape, sexual slavery, forced prostitution, pregnancy, and sterilization •  Persecution of any group or collectivity based upon political, racial, ethnic, culture, religious, or gender grounds •  Enforced disappearance of persons
  5. 5. JUST WAR TRADITION AND USE OF FORCE •  Right authority •  Just cause •  Last resort •  Right intentions •  Proportionality •  Reasonable hope of achieving desired outcome •  Relatively rapid withdrawal of forces
  6. 6. MECHANISM FOR PEACEFUL SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES •  Preventive Diplomacy – Prevent disputes from arising between parties, prevent existing disputes from escalating into conflicts, and limit the spread of the latter when they occur •  Mediation – Mode of negotiation in which a third party helps the parties find a solution which they cannot find by themselves •  Adjudication and Arbitration – Referring a dispute to an impartial third-party tribunal for a binding decision
  7. 7. TYPES OF PEACEKEEPING TASKS •  Observation and monitoring •  Separation of combatant forces •  Limited use of force •  Humanitarian Assistance / Intervention •  Peacebuilding (Nation/State Building)
  8. 8. BRETTON WOODS INSTITUTION AND THE WASHINGTON CONSENSUS IMF provided short-term aid to compensate for balance-of- payment shortfalls but now role in development has grown beyond expanding currency convertibility to help countries with chronic balance-of-payment difficulties and heavy debt GATT – facilitate economic growth through reduced barries to international trade Washington Consensus was a liberal economic ideology that held only by following economic recommendations of IMF, GATT, and US could states achieve economic development
  9. 9. WORLD BANK & IMF Based on the notion that economic stability and development are best achieved when trade and financial flows occur with as few restrictions as possible
  10. 10. STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT PROGRAMS Restructure and diversify productive base of economy, achieve balance-of-payments and fiscal equilibrium, create a basis for noninflationary growth, improve public sector efficiency, and stimulate growth potential for the private sector
  11. 11. MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS •  Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger •  Achieve universal primary education •  Promote gender equality and empower women •  Reduce child mortality •  Improve maternal health •  Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases •  Ensure environmental stability •  Develop a global partnership for development
  12. 12. THE ROOTS OF HUMAN RIGHTS NORMS •  Religious traditions •  Philosophers and Political Theories •  Debate: Universal Human Rights or Cultural Relativism
  13. 13. HUMAN RIGHTS INSTITUTIONS AND MECHANISMS •  Nongovernmental Organizations and the Human Rights Movement •  League of Nations •  United Nations
  14. 14. PIECES OF GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE •  The Stockholm Conference – soft-law statement of twenty-six principles called on states and international organizations to coordinate activities and endorsed states’ obligations to protect the environment and responsibility not to damage the environment of other states •  Moving to sustainable development •  The Rio Conference – 1992, UN Conference on Environment and Development, convened in aftermath of scientific findings during the 1990s, larges of the UN-sponsored global conferences •  Right of sovereign states to exploit their resources, right of states to develop, priority to the needs of developing countries, more financial assistance to the poorer countries •  Deforestation, degradation of water supplies, atmospheric pollution, and desertification were threats to global security and states were responsible for exercising control over their own environmentally damaging activities
  15. 15. PIECES OF GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE •  Rio Plus 10 – Johannesburg Summit, 2002, means to build on the ambitious, yet poorly executed agenda of Rio •  Plan of Implementation, targets to be achieved: Access to clean water and proper sanitation and restoration of fisheries by 2015, reduction of biodiversity loss by 2010, and better use of chemicals by 2020, as well as more use of renewable energy •  Role of Epistemic Communities •  Environmental law is mostly soft law, critical because foreshadows future treaties, describes acceptable norms of behavior, and codifies developing rules of customary practice
  16. 16. GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL REGIMES AND INSTITUTIONS •  Principles of an Environmental Regime •  Global Environmental Agreements •  International Environmental Institutions •  United Nations Environment Programme •  Global Environmental Facility •  Commission on Sustainable Development •  World Bank is the largest multilateral donor for economic development and, as such, it has been under the most pressure to make its economic development policies compatible with environmental sustainability •  Ozone depletion and global warning present unique challenges for global governance, both are assessed from scientific viewpoints, both affect future generations, both involve necessity of imposing economic costs to protect environment against future danger
  17. 17. COLLECTIVE SECURITY Based on the conviction that peace is indivisible and that all states have a collective interest in countering aggression whenever and wherever it may appear
  18. 18. FUTURE CHALLENGES •  Legitimacy – Public polices require the endorsement of all affected, then global policymaking needs to rely on the broadest possible participating on a global scale •  Accountability – Accountability of those governing internationally needs to be built into the system: ex: IMF, WTO, monitoring, NGOs, MNCs •  Effectiveness – Needs to actually address and global governance problems, programs need to accomplish their objectives, increase human security and diminish inequality, encourage and improve learning, be responsible to the people Equality, Fairness, Justice