INTRODUCTION•Also called Natural Method, was established in Germany andFrance around 1900. Then it became widely known in theUnited States through its use by Sauveur and Maximilian Berlitzin successful commercial language schools.•It appeared as an answer to the shortcomings of the GrammarTranslation Method (GTM).•Also known as Natural Method, Anti-Grammatical Method andetc.•Direct Method argued that a L2 could be taught withouttranslation or the use of the learners native tongue if meaningwas conveyed directly through demonstration and action.
•DM believe L2 learning must be an imitation of L1learning, as this is the natural way humans learn anylanguage.•According to the German scholar F. Franke, a languagecould best be taught by using it actively in the classroom.•Rather than using analytical procedures that focus onexplanation of grammar rules, teachers must encouragedirect and spontaneous use of the L2 in the classroom.•These natural language learning principles provided thefoundation for what came to be known as the DirectMethod, which refers to the most widely known of thenatural methods.
Classroom was conducted exclusively in the target language.New teaching points were introduced orally.Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught.Concrete vocab taught through demonstration, realia.Abstract vocab was thought by association of idea.Grammar was taught inductively .
Speaking is taught first before reading or writing .Both speech and listening comprehension were taught.Oral communication skills were built up through Q&A-Ts/SsPrinted words should be kept away from the learner for as long aspossibleCorrect pronunciations & grammar were emphasized.
STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING USING DIRECT METHODQuestion & Answer Exercise• Teacher ask student using target language and student answer in full sentences.Reading Aloud• Student read sections of passages, plays or dialogs out loudDictation• Teacher reads passage aloud various amount of times at various tempos, students writing down what they hear
Student Self Correct• Teacher facilitates opportunities for students to self correct using follow-up questions, tone, etcParagraph Writing• Students write paragraphs in their own words using the target language and various modelsConversation Practice• Teacher asks students and students ask students questions using the target languageFill-In-The-Blank Exercise• Items use target language only and inductive rather than explicit grammar rules
Advantages & Disadvantages of Direct Method Advantages DisadvantagesStudents are encourage & motivated to use Lack of teachers that interested in usingL2 spontaneously. DM(not many teachers creative to create their own materials)Its emphasis on speech made it more DM ignores written work & readingattractive for those who have needs of real activities and sufficient attention is not paidcommunication in the target language to reading & writing skills.It make learning process interesting and fun In large class, DM is not properlybecause DM encourage using realia during applied.(not satisfy the needs of individual)learning process.Students are able to understand what they DM is not suitable for public school becauselearn.(it focus on meaning not the rules) it is costly.(realia, visual materials)