Informing in Participation: A one- ortwo-waystreet? Session ‘IN-FORM-LAND’ PECSRL, August 23-28 2010, Riga J. Sophie Visser LandZij/Utrecht University
Background M.Sc. Chemistry (includingInformatics) + 20 yearsCareer in InformationSystems (IS), Modeling & Management 2006 M.A. (Historical) Geography, Utrecht University (Dr. Hans Renes) Start PhDResearch on Information & CommunicationonCultural/Historical landscapes
I essentially agree with intention and content, but ………
(1) “Role of information is fundamental” => which information, by/from whom, how communicated and represented, for which goals? 2) “…. to make people aware of …… , starting up participatory practices” => participation mainly done in order to get information from people, making aware implies a lack of knowledge => positioning people’s knowledge => which perspective? (3) Is it about participation (systems) in landscape decision making, in landscape research, or both? => Essential concepts: Information, Communication, Expertise, Participation
Information: complex relations with data and knowledge Sharma, 2008: More common: Data Information Knowledge Basic (meaningful) Meaningful Reasoning, inferring, etc. ‘facts’ (related) data Disciplinary & personal: e.g. geologist, ecologist, landscape architect, citizen, ………. From: Scientific research, experience, impressions,
Communication : related to information, technology, people “(Social) interaction through messages “ => several lines of thought (Windahl, Fiske)
Transmission of information, ideas, attitudes or emotion (from … to …), primarily through symbols -Mutuality and shared perceptions A process in which the participants create and share information with one another in order to reach a mutual understanding -The production and exchange of meanings How messages (texts, images, …) interact with people (signification)
Essential differences => implications!
Information/knowledge types information technology (1) Information type representation tacit/ Implicit (‘embodied’) Explicit (‘narrative’) Formal (‘abstract’) codable Present in IS Present in GIS
Information/knowledge types information technology (2) Knowledge type representationRepresentation technology Non-IT ‘tools’ (‘media, representationdevices’) tacit/ Implicit (‘embodied’) Explicit (‘narrative’) IT tools Formal (‘abstract’) Internet codable Geospatial tools Present in IS Present in GIS GIS tools Data Bases Notrepresented in technology Informationsystemscanhold a lot of information, but ……
Expertise(s) ‘know what you are talking about’ => mix of expertise and experience (Collins & Evans, 2007) Expertise : Ubiquitous tacit knowledge Specialist tacit knowledge Beer-mat =>popular => primary => interactional => contributory knowledge understanding source knowl. expertise expertise Judging : From external Internal (relative to the expertise) ubiquitous => local => technical => downward => referred discrimination idem connaisseur discrimination expertise Based on : credentials experience track record
Expertises and judgements ‘know what you are talking about’ => mix of expertise and experience (Collins & Evans, 2007) Expertise : Ubiquitous tacit knowledge Specialist tacit knowledge Beer-mat =>popular => primary => interactional => contributory knowledge understanding source knowl. expertise expertise Judging : From external Internal (relative to the expertise) ubiquitous => local => technical => downward => referred discrimination idem connaisseur discrimination expertise Based on : credentials experience track record Makingaware, ---------------- Participation ----------------- Professionals ‘education’
Expertises and judgements: positioningpeople in projects
Participants: just stakeholders with certain interests?
- but: can be professionals/experts as well => known to the project professionals? => taken seriously by them? - ‘The public’/ ‘the people’: too easily judged?
(2) Participation and levels: ‘participation ladders’ Implicit perspective ‘citizen participation’ ‘government participation’ Adaptedfrom Van den Brink et, 2007, p 39
Participation and digital media requirements and power AfterStreich, 2004, from Van den Brink et al., 2007, p 41
(3) Participation (systems) in landscape information decision making Landscape/ historical research Future landscape Past/Present landscape Decision making, planning Agriculture Housing ……… InformationDivergingConverging ´multiple knowledges´ (Rydin)
Participation systems in landscape decision making, in research or both? Historical / Landscape research Past/Present landscape Future landscape Decision making, planning Agriculture Housing ……… Selections, Summaries ,combining ……… Participatory Planning GIS (PPGIS) Participatory (G)IS layer ……… ParticipatoryHistorical/ Landscape Research (S InformationDivergingConverging ´multiple knowledges´ (Rydin)
Information system as ‘communicative act’ (Habermas) -choices /selectivity in information content , presentation, etc: - which/whose -values -expertise/knowledge -information needs -perception, model -method /approach -technology -power to choose A system as a ‘communicative act’ is about What is said (expectations) what is done (dissatisfaction?!)
Participation and systems: what can professionals/officials do? ‘citizen participation’ ‘government participation’ 1. Making systems for own uses 2. Include other expertise & values 3. Adapting system to others/ co-development 4. Empowering others to get own system
Cat. 1 - Professionals’/governmental system and content Meaning: information model and content based on ‘official’ needs and values