Back to basics - cultural landscape analysis from an informational & perceptual perspective
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Back to basics - cultural landscape analysis from an informational & perceptual perspective Back to basics - cultural landscape analysis from an informational & perceptual perspective Presentation Transcript

  • Back to basics
    Cultural landscape analysis
    from an
    informational & perceptional perspective
    J. Sophie Visser ICHG
    LandZij August 2009
    PhD-research University Utrecht Kyoto
  • Background
    M.Sc. Chemistry (including Informatics)
    + 20 years Information Systems (IS), Modeling & Management
    2006 M.A. (Historical) Geography,
    Utrecht University (Dr. Hans Renes)
    2007 Start PhD Research, based on Master Research
  • Presentation Outline
    -Problems and insights from Master research
    -historic landscape analysis at a local level
    -use of existing information systems
    -e.g.: example
    • Concepts: knowledge, values, information
    • Perception and consequences
    • Conclusions
  • Master Research - 2004-2006
    Amsterdam
    “Green Heart of Holland”
    • (now) National Landscape
    • Peat area
    • Some natural rivers
    • Reclamation 1000-1300 AD
    • Digging for fuel >1600 AD
    ‘Characteristic landscape’
    -landscape structure
    -many canals
    -man-made lakes
    Study area
    -Reeuwijk + surroundings
    -’natural boundaries’
    Utrecht
    The Hague
    Rotterdam
  • Reeuwijk from the air:
  • Reeuwijk in higher government systems: usable information?
    National level (KICH)*:
    Aim:
    -(inter)national values, presented as knowledge
    Content in Reeuwijk area:
    - 0 element (2004) to 3 (in 2005) to 1 (in 2009):
    only canals
    -data per element:
    1 function (Defense line)
    1 period
    *excl. Archaeology & monuments
  • Reeuwijk in higher government systems: usable information?
    National level (KICH)*:
    Aim:
    -(inter)national values, presented as knowledge
    Content in Reeuwijk area:
    - 0 element (2004) to 3 (in 2005) to 1 (in 2009):
    only canals
    -data per element:
    1 function (Defense Line)
    1 period
    Provincial level (South Holland)*:
    Aim:
    • characteristic landscape elements
    • Values
    Content in Reeuwijk area:
    -selection of landscape structure, canals, etc
    -data in map legend: ‘type’ and “before 1950”
    • *excl. Archaeology & monuments
  • Reeuwijk in higher government system: usable information?
    -Value-driven => (too) selective
    -Values not transparant
    -hardly any data
    -implicit knowledge/information
    -Mainly ‘statements’
    -confusion knowledge <=> values
    -hardly usable at
    - a local level
    - other purposes
    (although pretentions)
  • Situation => solution:
    “Different values upon (more or less)
    shared landscape history knowledge”
    => start from knowledge!
    Example: Dubbele Wiericke
    - complex history
    • events => changes => ‘object versions’
    • e.g. in a record structure:
  • …… and keep values seperate!
    depends
    Selections: whatever purpose
    e.g. Spatial quality plan
    e.g. Heritage plan
  • Knowledge, values, information (1)
    Concept In information system
    knowledge ‘the base’
    Values derived from
    knowledge,
    by criteria
    Information view(s) on
    knowledge,
    values, …
    knowledge
    criteria
    values
    Enhanced transparency:
    making values, knowledge and criteria (more) explicit
  • Knowledge, values, information (2)
    ConceptsDefinitions In information system
    knowledge = body of meaningful concepts ‘the base’
    and associations
    Values = combined qualities (suitability, derived from
    need, knowledge), giving some knowledge
    things significance over others by criteria
    Information = communicated knowledge view(s) on
    (and values, ……………) knowledge,
    values, …
    (Data = elementary ‘facts’)
    knowledge
    criteria
    values
  • Perception => influence in many ways
    Perception mechanism
    (2) Perception of information needs
    (3) Perception of content => (landscape) concepts and associations
    (4) Perception of who (and what) to include
  • (1) Perception mechanism
    Criteria, purpose,
    Norms, standards, values
    Needs, interests
    Existing
    Knowledge
    Integration
    New CH landscape
    Knowledge
    Information processing
    In brain
    Perception
    Criteria applied
    on knowledge
    for values
    Criteria, etc
    CH Landscape
    Values
    landscape
    landscape
    documents
  • (1) Perception mechanism and what’s leading: knowledge, or ……
    Criteria, purpose,
    Norms, standards, values
    Needs, interests
    Existing
    Knowledge
    Integration
    New CH landscape
    Knowledge
    Information processing
    In brain
    Perception
    Criteria applied
    on knowledge
    for values
    Criteria, etc
    CH Landscape
    Values
    landscape
    landscape
    documents
  • (1) what’s leading in the perception: …. or values?
    Criteria, purpose,
    Norms, standards, values
    Needs, interests
    Existing
    Knowledge
    Information processing
    In brain
    New
    knowledge
    Perception
    Selection
    In knowledge
    Criteria, etc
    CH Landscape
    Values
  • To what did you set your mind ……?
  • (2) Perception of information needs of others ….
    Criteria, values
    Norms, standards
    Needs, interests
    Landscape study project
    Information,
    communication
    Perception
    Knowledge
    Values
    Landscape design
    Landscape study
  • (2) … meaning communication of information & needs …..
    Criteria, values
    Norms, standards
    Needs, interests
    Criteria, values
    Norms, standards
    Needs, interests
    Landscape design project
    Landscape study project
    Direct communication: talking, …
    Information needs
    Perception
    Knowledge
    Perception
    Knowledge
    Values
    Values
    Landscape design
    Landscape study
  • (2) … but time-delayed and multiple in information systems!
    Information system
    Criteria,
    Norms
    needs
    Criteria, values
    Norms, standards
    Needs, interests
    Knowledge,
    Landscape design project
    Values
    Landscape study Project
    Perception
    of own needs
    Perception
    of uses, users
    and
    their needs
    Information needs
    Perception
    Knowledge
    Perception
    Knowledge
    Values
    Values
    Landscape plan
    Landscape study
    ‘specifying in advance’ => - which needs, purposes, uses?
    - which ´content´?
  • (3) Perception of ´content`: which concepts and relations included?
    landscape
    objects
    Buildings
    composition
    Granddad
    Urban area
    structures
    Water
    structure
    Peat digging
    water
    Lakes
    shape
    settlement
    Historical geographer Landscape designer Local historian
    -Which concepts: ´conceptual information model´
    -Whose concepts: inclusion/exclusion?
    => ‘content’ not neutral or just technical!
  • (4) Perception of who to include ……
    NGO’s,
    Groups,
    People
    Local
    Farmers
    GIS Specialists
    Local
    Historians
    Nature club
    Landscape
    policy plan
    Landscape
    policy plan
    Project
    teams
    Web
    designers
    Spatial
    project
    Spatial
    project
    Decision makers: money, time
    University
    Government
    Heritage
    Institution
    Historical
    Geographers
    Planning/design
    bureau
  • Conclusions
    • Usable information is about much more than GIS, computers, websites, ….
    • Decisions by people
    • Perceptions of people
    • Concepts and associations
    • Knowledge, values => sharing, communicating, ….
    • Multi-usable systems: going beyond one’s own perceptions
    • Awareness of other perceptions and needs
    • Willingness to include other knowledge and values
    • Integration/attuning of multiple needs, views, knowledge, values
    • Sound ‘conceptual information modelling ‘
    • Knowledge versus values
  • Meant as programmer’s joke, but ……
    …. information systems are made by people!
  • Thank you!
    j.s.visser@planet.nl