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Bf tipping point 1970
Bf tipping point 1970
Bf tipping point 1970
Bf tipping point 1970
Bf tipping point 1970
Bf tipping point 1970
Bf tipping point 1970
Bf tipping point 1970
Bf tipping point 1970
Bf tipping point 1970
Bf tipping point 1970
Bf tipping point 1970
Bf tipping point 1970
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Bf tipping point 1970

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A presentation with the following purposes: 1) describe the importance of breastfeeding from an individual health and public health perspective and 2) explore the reasons for a rapid rise in …

A presentation with the following purposes: 1) describe the importance of breastfeeding from an individual health and public health perspective and 2) explore the reasons for a rapid rise in breastfeeding rates in the 1970's in order to inform future public health efforts.

Published in: Health & Medicine
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  • 1. THE RAPID RISE OF BREASTFEEDING IN THE U.S. IN THE 1970’S: ANALYSIS OF A TIPPING POINT IN PUBLIC HEALTH Sonja Ray December 1, 2010
  • 2. BREAST MILK & HEALTH Health Benefits of Breastfeeding (BF) Baby Mom Reduced Rate of: Reduced Rate of: Acute otits media Postpartum depression Gastroenteritis Type 2 diabetes Atopic dermatitis Breast cancer Severe lower respiratory infections Ovarian cancer Necrotizing enterocolitis Sudden infant death syndrome Obesity Type 1 and 2 diabetes Asthma Childhood leukemia Note: Adapted from Ip, Chung, Raman, Chew, Magula, DeVine, Trikalinos, & Lau, 2007.Bottle-fed infants are 14 times more likely to be hospitalized than breastfed infants (Baumslag & Michels, 1995).
  • 3. RECOMMENDATIONSAmerican Academy of Pediatrics (2005) recommendsexclusive breastfeeding for 6 monthsHealthy People 2010, Goals (Objective 16-9) 75% will breastfeed at least once 50% will breastfeed at 6 months 25% will breastfeed at 12 months 40% will breastfeed exclusively through 3 months 17% will breastfeed exclusively through 6 months
  • 4. BREASTFEEDING RATES Current Breastfeeding Rates Fall Short of Goals Actual Breastfeeding Rates in U.S. Healthy People 2010 Goals80 75 7560 Problem40 50 43 40 3320 22.4 25 13.3 170 Ever BF BF at 6 mos BF at 12 mos Exlusively at 3 mos Exclusively at 6 mosSource: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Immunization Survey, Provisional Data, 2007 births. http://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/data/NIS_data/index.htm
  • 5. EFFECT OF LOW BF ON PH Low breastfeeding rates in the black community could account for as much of the race difference between black and white infant mortality as low birth weight (Forste, Weiss, & Lippincott, 2001) If 90% of U.S. families exclusively breastfed for 6 months, the U.S. would save $13 billion in health care costs and 911 lives annually (Bartick & Reinhold, 2010)
  • 6. BF RATES: THE EARLY YEARS U.S. Breastfeeding Rates: 1931-1975 Long downward trend in BF rates after WWII Decline attributed to: Woman’s movement Increased number of women in workforce Changing roles of women Increased availability of 
 formula Adapted from: Hendershot, 1984
  • 7. BF RATES: THE TIPPING POINT U.S. Breastfeeding Rates: 1965-1995Between 1971 and 1981 BF Ross Mother’s Laboratory Survey (RMLS) 
rates more than doubled1971: 25% of infants BF in hospital 8% BF at 3 months1981: 58% of infants BF in hospital 28% BF at 3 months Adapted from: Ryan, 1997
  • 8. CONTEXT OF TIPPING POINT 1999 2010 Women allowed HHS Call to to BF on action Federal 2000 Employers Percent Breastfeeding at 6 months property HHS must provide 50 CDC starts Blueprint for break to 1990 tracking BF Action on express milk Breastfeeding rates Breastfeeding Promotion 2006 1984 37.5 Surgeon Consortium 1st Nat’l BF Formed Coalitions General’s BF 2001 Conference Workshop Healthy People USBC Strategic 1971 2000 BF goals Plan on BF 25 FDA publishes formed 1998 infant formula 1985 National BF Policy standards First follow up Conference report on Surgeon 199112.5 General’s workshop Second follow up US Breastfeeding report on Committee Surgeon General’s launched workshop 0 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 2011Adapted from Grummer-Strawn and Shealy, 2009
  • 9. WHAT HAPPENED IN THE SEVENTIES?Were there fundamental changes in the demographics of thewomen giving birth?Did formula companies give up?Did the government step up it’s public health efforts?Did a non profit organization take up the mission ofbreastfeeding promotion?
  • 10. WHAT HAPPENED IN THE SEVENTIES? Second-wave feminism Women encouraged to challenge medical power (Rothman, 2008) Science Research began to define benefits of breast milk Natural birth movement De-medicalized birth Lead to decrease in anesthesia use, allowing women to be alert after giving birth (Pitcock & Clark, 1992; Starbird, 1991).
  • 11. WHAT DOES IT MEAN?Cultural beliefs (i.e. feelings about the underlying nature ofchildbirth and womanhood) as well as knowledge wereintegral to the adoption of breastfeeding practices in the1970’s.In the future, efforts focused entirely on developingknowledge around breastfeeding will fall short of their goalsto improve breastfeeding rates.
  • 12. QUESTIONS? THANK YOU!
  • 13. REFERENCESAmerican Academy of Pediatrics. 2005. Policy Statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics, 115(2), 496-506. doi: 10.1542/peds.2004-2491Bartick, M., & Reinhold, A. (2010). The burden of suboptimal breastfeeding in the United States: A pediatric cost analysis. Pediatrics, 125(5), e1048-e1056. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-1616Baumslag, N., & Michels, D.L. (1995). Milk, money, and madness: The culture and politics of breastfeeding. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.Centers for Disease Control. (2010). Breastfeeding report card: United States, 2010.Forste, R., Weiss, J., & Lippincott, E. (2001). The decision to breastfeed in the United States: Does race matter? Pediatrics, 108(2), 291-296.Grummer-Strawn, L.M., & Shealy, K.R. (2009). Progress in protecting, promoting, and supporting breastfeeding: 1984-2009. Breastfeeding Medicine, 4, S31-S39. doi: 10.1089=bfm.2009.0049Hendershot, G. E. (1984). Trends in breast-feeding. Pediatrics, 74(4), 591-602.Ip S, Chung M, Raman G, et al. Breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes in developed countries. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 153. AHRQ Publication No. 07-E007. Rockville, Md.: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2007.Pitcock, C. D., & Clark, R. B. (1992). From fanny to fernand: The development of consumerism in pain control during the birth process. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 167(3), 581-587.Rothman, B. K. (2008). New breast milk in old bottles. International Breastfeeding Journal, 3, 9. doi: 10.1186/1746-4358-3-9Ryan, A. S. (1997). The resurgence of breastfeeding in the United States. Pediatrics, 99(4), E12.Starbird, E. H. (1991). Comparison of influences on breastfeeding initiation of firstborn children, 1960-69 vs 1970-79. Social Science & Medicine (1982), 33(5), 627-634.

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