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Experience and needs


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  • 1. Experience and Needs
  • 2. Content of today’s presentation
    • Motivations behind particular leisure activities
    • Types of motivations
    • Psychological theories and concepts
  • 3. Needs
    • Leisure behavior is aimed in realization of an optimal level of stimulation
    • The two opposite possible sides are:
    • Overdose stimulation: stressful, unpleasant
    • Under stimulation: boredom, apathy
  • 4. Needs: Introduction
    • Needs = inner motivations to act in order to go from the existing situation to a desired situation
    • Existing situation -> Desired situation
    • Thirsty? -> The need for a drink
    • Stressed? -> The need for a rest
    • Lonely? -> The need for company
    • Needs of people are important in marketing
  • 5. Relation between well-being and activation + Subjective well-being - Optimal range - Level of stimulation +
  • 6. Desired Level of Stimulation Low desired level high desired level Optimal Range Boredom Stress Level of Stimulation Wellbeing of a person
  • 7. Relation between well-being and activation
    • Desired level of stimulation:
    • Changes from moment to moment for a specific person
    • The impact of stimuli on the actual level of stimulation
    • Depends on the biography and state of mind of a person
    • Strongly differs from person to person
  • 8. Need?
    • When there is a discrepancy between factual and desirable level of stimulation the need arises
    • We try to compensate the shortage or the surplus of stimuli trying to achieve the optimal level of stimulation from leisure activities
  • 9. The optimal range
    • Varies from moment to moment
    • Varies with each individual
  • 10. When need arises?
    • When the factual and desired situation disagree
    • The wish that moves us to the desired situation is NEED (need for…something)
    • The need is what make us act
  • 11. Leisure Needs
    • Need – inner motivation act
    • Push and pull factors
    • The desire to escape and the appeal of the new situation
  • 12. Iso-Ahola
    • The escape and seek dimension of the need
    • Our leisure behavior is avoiding something (escape) as well as looking for something (seeking)
    • Factors that push people towards a holiday
      • Why did you travel?
    • Factors that pull them towards a particular destination
      • Why did you go to that destination?
  • 14. Think!
    • Write down the push and pull factors when you went on holiday. Discuss them.
  • 15. 4 aspects of the needs
    • Escaping personal environments
    • Escaping interpersonal environments
    • Seeking personal rewards
    • Seeking interpersonal rewards
  • 16. Iso-Ahola two-dimensional leisure motivation theory Seeking personal rewards Escaping personal environment Escaping interpersonal environment Seeking interpersonal rewards Trends: - Escaping from reality: fantasy stories, computer games, relaxing holidays - Seeking authentic experiences: adventurous sports, untouched holiday destinations
  • 17. Consider…
    • Need: an internal desire to be satisfied
    • Want: A means to fulfill a need
    • Motive: Energy arising from need, lacking or wanting of something, leading towards the satisfaction of need/ fulfillment of want.
    • Motivation: Goal directed behavior
    • Incentive: A stimulus that can influence the behavior
  • 18. Maslow hierarchy of needs
  • 19. Maslow theory
    • The needs are ranged hierarchically
    • Concerns human behavior in general
  • 20. Aerobics (example)
    • Need for physical strain (physiological need)
    • Health reasons
    • Social needs
    • Self-respect
    • Self-esteem
  • 21. Experience and needs are interrelated
    • The intensity of the experience depends on:
    • The number of needs to be satisfied
    • The importance the individual attaches to the various needs
  • 22. Ragheb and Beard motivation scale
    • The intellectual dimension
    • The social dimension
    • The competence mastery dimension
    • The stimulus avoidance dimension
  • 23. Leisure motivation scale (Ragheb and Beard)
    • Intellectual dimension : learn, discover, think imagine
    • Social dimension : friendships, relationships, appreciation
    • Competence mastery dimension : achievements, challenge, competition
    • Stimulus avoidance dimension : mental and physical relaxation, tranquil environment
  • 24. The intellectual dimension
    • The individual “will to know”, need to learn, explore, discover, think and imagine
    • Equivalent to what need from Maslow’s hierarchy of needs it is? Think.
    • Self-actualization
  • 25. The social dimension
    • The need for social contact – friendship, relationship, need for appreciation, sense of belonging
    • Equivalent to what need from Maslow’s hierarchy of needs it is? Think.
    • The social needs
  • 26. The competence mastery dimension
    • The need to achieve or master something- challenge, competition, based on need to prove oneself.
    • Equivalent to what need from Maslow’s hierarchy of needs it is? Think
    • The need of esteem
  • 27. The stimulus avoidance dimension
    • Need of escaping from too high level of stimulation
    • What is important is relaxation, tranquility
    • Equivalent to what need from Maslow’s hierarchy of needs it is? Think
    • Physiological need for esteem
  • 28. Think.
    • What in the theory of Ragheb and Beard is missing if compared to the Maslow’s five categories of needs?
    • The need of safety
  • 29. The most important results
    • Social dimension and competence mastery dimension are the strongest motivations factors for holidaymakers (UK)
  • 30. Type of travel motivation Description Business Travelling for work purposes MICE Culture Travelling to learn about: architecture, food and drink, lifestyle, religion To understand more about the culture and history of a destination Desire for adventure Experience a new activity that cannot be found at home Includes ‘active’ activities: extreme sports, safari
  • 31. Types of travel motivation Description Escape (escapism) Escape everyday life; have a change of scenery; usually involves relaxation on some level Education Learn a new skill (language, art, study etc) Love and romance Travel to romantic or exotic places Includes: honeymoons, weddings
  • 32. Types of motivation Description Physical reasons (R&R) Rest and relaxation; passive activities Social reasons VFR; meet new people (18-30 Club); social activities
  • 33. Experience and Physical and mental Capacities
    • The quality of the experience strongly depends on what we want or able to do (capacity)
    • Age (ability, knowledge)
    • Age category 4-5 years: incapable to make connections cause- effect, egocentric,
    • Age category 6-7 years: fantasy and reality are divided, strong own perception;
    • Age category 8-9 : understand the abstract, sense of regularities, right and wrong, individual interest
    • Age category 10-11 years: capable, responsible, moral position
  • 34. Satisfaction model of Goossens and Mazursky:
    • Pre-Exposure phase: Formation of expectations through experience, knowledge and environmental factors
    • Direct-Exposure phase: Factual participation in activity: use of the senses, raising emotions, the actual leisure experience
    • Post-Exposure phase: After the participation evaluating the activity. Compare actual experience (AE) with initial expectations (IE)
  • 35. Satisfaction model of Goossens and Mazursky (2)
    • Possible outcomes:
    • AE = IE (as expected) -> CONFIRMATION
    • AE > IE (better than expected) -> POSITIVE DISCONFIRMATION
    • AE < IE (disappointing) -> NEGATIVE DISCONFIRMATION
  • 36. High expectations, low expectations
    • High expectations can easily lead to disappointment
    • BUT:
    • Low expectations can lead to NO participation at all
    • High expectations lead to more commitment, which leads to more focus and a tendency to have a positive attitude towards an activity
    • The level of performance has to be in accordance with these high expectations
  • 37. Experience, expectations, satisfaction
    • 3 phases:
    • Pre-exposure – forming expectations
    • Direct exposure – factual participation (experience)
    • Post exposure – evaluation
    • Satisfaction – repeat visitors, word of mouth
  • 38. The Cultural definition of experience
    • The experience is largely culturally determined
    • The time, society and environment in which we live determine the experience and the way we evaluate it
  • 39. Universal experiences vs. cultural differences
    • The basic human emotions might be the same but experiences are ALSO culturally determined…
    • Time, society and direct environment (family, friends, subculture) partly determine how we judge and experience things…
  • 40. Thank you for attention. Q & A ?