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Experience and needs
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Experience and needs






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    Experience and needs Experience and needs Presentation Transcript

    • Experience and Needs
    • Content of today’s presentation
      • Motivations behind particular leisure activities
      • Types of motivations
      • Psychological theories and concepts
    • Needs
      • Leisure behavior is aimed in realization of an optimal level of stimulation
      • The two opposite possible sides are:
      • Overdose stimulation: stressful, unpleasant
      • Under stimulation: boredom, apathy
    • Needs: Introduction
      • Needs = inner motivations to act in order to go from the existing situation to a desired situation
      • Existing situation -> Desired situation
      • Thirsty? -> The need for a drink
      • Stressed? -> The need for a rest
      • Lonely? -> The need for company
      • Needs of people are important in marketing
    • Relation between well-being and activation + Subjective well-being - Optimal range - Level of stimulation +
    • Desired Level of Stimulation Low desired level high desired level Optimal Range Boredom Stress Level of Stimulation Wellbeing of a person
    • Relation between well-being and activation
      • Desired level of stimulation:
      • Changes from moment to moment for a specific person
      • The impact of stimuli on the actual level of stimulation
      • Depends on the biography and state of mind of a person
      • Strongly differs from person to person
    • Need?
      • When there is a discrepancy between factual and desirable level of stimulation the need arises
      • We try to compensate the shortage or the surplus of stimuli trying to achieve the optimal level of stimulation from leisure activities
    • The optimal range
      • Varies from moment to moment
      • Varies with each individual
    • When need arises?
      • When the factual and desired situation disagree
      • The wish that moves us to the desired situation is NEED (need for…something)
      • The need is what make us act
    • Leisure Needs
      • Need – inner motivation act
      • Push and pull factors
      • The desire to escape and the appeal of the new situation
    • Iso-Ahola
      • The escape and seek dimension of the need
      • Our leisure behavior is avoiding something (escape) as well as looking for something (seeking)
      • Factors that push people towards a holiday
        • Why did you travel?
      • Factors that pull them towards a particular destination
        • Why did you go to that destination?
    • Think!
      • Write down the push and pull factors when you went on holiday. Discuss them.
    • 4 aspects of the needs
      • Escaping personal environments
      • Escaping interpersonal environments
      • Seeking personal rewards
      • Seeking interpersonal rewards
    • Iso-Ahola two-dimensional leisure motivation theory Seeking personal rewards Escaping personal environment Escaping interpersonal environment Seeking interpersonal rewards Trends: - Escaping from reality: fantasy stories, computer games, relaxing holidays - Seeking authentic experiences: adventurous sports, untouched holiday destinations
    • Consider…
      • Need: an internal desire to be satisfied
      • Want: A means to fulfill a need
      • Motive: Energy arising from need, lacking or wanting of something, leading towards the satisfaction of need/ fulfillment of want.
      • Motivation: Goal directed behavior
      • Incentive: A stimulus that can influence the behavior
    • Maslow hierarchy of needs
    • Maslow theory
      • The needs are ranged hierarchically
      • Concerns human behavior in general
    • Aerobics (example)
      • Need for physical strain (physiological need)
      • Health reasons
      • Social needs
      • Self-respect
      • Self-esteem
    • Experience and needs are interrelated
      • The intensity of the experience depends on:
      • The number of needs to be satisfied
      • The importance the individual attaches to the various needs
    • Ragheb and Beard motivation scale
      • The intellectual dimension
      • The social dimension
      • The competence mastery dimension
      • The stimulus avoidance dimension
    • Leisure motivation scale (Ragheb and Beard)
      • Intellectual dimension : learn, discover, think imagine
      • Social dimension : friendships, relationships, appreciation
      • Competence mastery dimension : achievements, challenge, competition
      • Stimulus avoidance dimension : mental and physical relaxation, tranquil environment
    • The intellectual dimension
      • The individual “will to know”, need to learn, explore, discover, think and imagine
      • Equivalent to what need from Maslow’s hierarchy of needs it is? Think.
      • Self-actualization
    • The social dimension
      • The need for social contact – friendship, relationship, need for appreciation, sense of belonging
      • Equivalent to what need from Maslow’s hierarchy of needs it is? Think.
      • The social needs
    • The competence mastery dimension
      • The need to achieve or master something- challenge, competition, based on need to prove oneself.
      • Equivalent to what need from Maslow’s hierarchy of needs it is? Think
      • The need of esteem
    • The stimulus avoidance dimension
      • Need of escaping from too high level of stimulation
      • What is important is relaxation, tranquility
      • Equivalent to what need from Maslow’s hierarchy of needs it is? Think
      • Physiological need for esteem
    • Think.
      • What in the theory of Ragheb and Beard is missing if compared to the Maslow’s five categories of needs?
      • The need of safety
    • The most important results
      • Social dimension and competence mastery dimension are the strongest motivations factors for holidaymakers (UK)
    • Type of travel motivation Description Business Travelling for work purposes MICE Culture Travelling to learn about: architecture, food and drink, lifestyle, religion To understand more about the culture and history of a destination Desire for adventure Experience a new activity that cannot be found at home Includes ‘active’ activities: extreme sports, safari
    • Types of travel motivation Description Escape (escapism) Escape everyday life; have a change of scenery; usually involves relaxation on some level Education Learn a new skill (language, art, study etc) Love and romance Travel to romantic or exotic places Includes: honeymoons, weddings
    • Types of motivation Description Physical reasons (R&R) Rest and relaxation; passive activities Social reasons VFR; meet new people (18-30 Club); social activities
    • Experience and Physical and mental Capacities
      • The quality of the experience strongly depends on what we want or able to do (capacity)
      • Age (ability, knowledge)
      • Age category 4-5 years: incapable to make connections cause- effect, egocentric,
      • Age category 6-7 years: fantasy and reality are divided, strong own perception;
      • Age category 8-9 : understand the abstract, sense of regularities, right and wrong, individual interest
      • Age category 10-11 years: capable, responsible, moral position
    • Satisfaction model of Goossens and Mazursky:
      • Pre-Exposure phase: Formation of expectations through experience, knowledge and environmental factors
      • Direct-Exposure phase: Factual participation in activity: use of the senses, raising emotions, the actual leisure experience
      • Post-Exposure phase: After the participation evaluating the activity. Compare actual experience (AE) with initial expectations (IE)
    • Satisfaction model of Goossens and Mazursky (2)
      • Possible outcomes:
      • AE = IE (as expected) -> CONFIRMATION
      • AE > IE (better than expected) -> POSITIVE DISCONFIRMATION
      • AE < IE (disappointing) -> NEGATIVE DISCONFIRMATION
    • High expectations, low expectations
      • High expectations can easily lead to disappointment
      • BUT:
      • Low expectations can lead to NO participation at all
      • High expectations lead to more commitment, which leads to more focus and a tendency to have a positive attitude towards an activity
      • BEWARE THAT:
      • The level of performance has to be in accordance with these high expectations
    • Experience, expectations, satisfaction
      • 3 phases:
      • Pre-exposure – forming expectations
      • Direct exposure – factual participation (experience)
      • Post exposure – evaluation
      • Satisfaction – repeat visitors, word of mouth
    • The Cultural definition of experience
      • The experience is largely culturally determined
      • The time, society and environment in which we live determine the experience and the way we evaluate it
    • Universal experiences vs. cultural differences
      • The basic human emotions might be the same but experiences are ALSO culturally determined…
      • Time, society and direct environment (family, friends, subculture) partly determine how we judge and experience things…
    • Thank you for attention. Q & A ?