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من هي قوى تونس الحرّة
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من هي قوى تونس الحرّة

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  • 1. ‫ﻗـﻮﻯ ﺗـﻮﻧـﺲ ﺍﻟﺤــﺮّﺓ‬ Forcesde la Tunisie Libre 1
  • 2. ‫ﻗـﻮﻯ ﺗـﻮﻧـﺲ ﺍﻟﺤــﺮّﺓ‬‫ﻣﻦ ﻫﻲ ﻗﻮﻯ ﺗﻮﻧﺲ ﺍﻟﺤﺮّﺓ‬ ‫2‬
  • 3. ‫ﻗﻭﻯ ﺗﻭﻧﺱ ﺍﻟﺣﺭﺓ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﻣﻥ ﻫﻲ ﻗﻭﻯ ﺗﻭﻧﺱ ﺍﻟﺣـﺭﺓ ؟‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺗﺗﻭﻟّﻰ ﻗﻭﻯ ﺗﻭﻧﺱ ﺍﻟﺣﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺑﻳﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺋﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﻌﻠّﻘﺔ ﺑﺗﺭﻛﻳﺑﺔ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻯ ﻣﻥ ﺣﻳﺙ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺍﻧﺗﻣﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ، ﻭﻣﻥ ﺣﻳﺙ ﻣﺭﺟﻌﻳّﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺗﺎﺭﻳﺧﻳّﺔ ﻭﺗﻣﻭﻗﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺣﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺛﻭﺭﺓ 41 ﺟﺎﻧﻔﻲ‬ ‫1102 .‬‫ﻛﻣﺎ ﺗﺗﻭﻟّﻰ ﻗﻭﻯ ﺗﻭﻧﺱ ﺍﻟﺣﺭﺓ ﻋﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻣﺑﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻳّﺔ )ﺍﻟﺧﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻛﺑﺭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻧﺗﻅﺎﺭ ﺻﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﻣﺷﺭﻭﻋﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺗﻔﺻﻳﻠﻲ( ﻟﺑﺭﻧﺎﻣﺟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﻲ.‬‫ﺇﻥّ ﻗﻭﻯ ﺗﻭﻧﺱ ﺍﻟﺣﺭﺓ ﻣﻥ ﺣﻳﺙ ﺍﻧﺗﻣﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺎﺳﻲ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺟﻣﻭﻋﺔ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺎﺿﻠﻳﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻧﺎﺿﻼﺕ ﺫﻭﻱ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺍﻟﺗﻭّ ﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻘﺩﻣﻳّﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺛﻭﺭﻳّﺔ، ﺑﻌﺿﻬﻡ ﺭﺑﻁﺕ ﺑﻳﻧﻬﻡ ﺻﻼﺕ ﻧﺿﺎﻟﻳّﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻝ ﺍﻟﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻭﻧﺳﻳّﺔ ﺑﺩﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺳﻧﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺳﺑﻌﻳﻥ ﻭﺑﻌﺿﻬﻡ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺷﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺩﻳﻣﻘﺭﺍﻁﻲ ﺍﻟﺛﻭﺭﻱ ﻣﻣّﻥ ﺍﻟﺗﺣﻣﻭﺍ ﺑﻬﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺧﺿﻡ ﺛﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﻭﻧﺱ،‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﺛﻭﺭﺓ 41 ﺟﺎﻧﻔﻲ 1102.‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺇﻥّ ﺳﻘﻑ ﺷﻌﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﻗﻭﻯ ﺗﻭﻧﺱ ﺍﻟﺣﺭﺓ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺳﻘﻑ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺗﺣﺩﺩﻩ ﺍﻟﺛﻭﺭﺓ ﻟﻧﻔﺳﻬﺎ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻭﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑﻼ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻣﻳﻊ ﻣﺳﺗﻭﻳﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻣﺣﻠﻳّﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻗﻠﻳﻣﻳّﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻳﺔ. ﻭ ﺑﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺭﺗﺑﻁ ﺑﺄﺟﻧﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﺧﺭﻯ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﻛﺎﻟﻣﺣﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻧﺗﺧﺎﺑﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﻘﺩﻣﺔ ﻣﻥ ﻗﺑﻝ ﺑﻘﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺳﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺎﺳﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺑﺎﺋﺩﺓ. ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺑﺩﺃﺕ ﻗﻭﻯ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺗﻛﺎﻟﺏ ﻋﻠﻳﻬﺎ ﻟﻳﻧﺗﻘﻝ ﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺣﻛﻡ ﻣﻥ ﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺣﺯﺏ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺣﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻣﺣﺎﺻﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﺣﺯﺑﻳّﺔ ‪« Du régime‬‬‫» ‪ . du parti unique au régime de la partitocratie‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﻌﺗﺑﺭ ﻗﻭﻯ ﺗﻭﻧﺱ ﺍﻟﺣﺭﺓ ﺃﻥّ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻧﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﻗﺩ ﺳﻘﻁ، ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺗﺑﺩﺍﺩﻱ ﻻ ﻳﺯﺍﻝ ﻗﺎﺋﻣﺎ، ﻭﻗﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺭﺩﺓ ﻻ ﺗﺯﺍﻝ ﺗﻧﺷﻁ ﻭﺗﺭﺑﻁ ﺍﻟﺗﺣﺎﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﻣﻥ ﺃﺟﻝ‬‫ﻣﺣﺎﺻﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺛﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺯﺧﻣﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻻﻟﺗﻔﺎﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻓﻬﺎ. ﻓﻲ ﺣﻳﻥ ﻻ ﺗﺯﺍﻝ ﺛﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﻭﻧﺱ ﻣﺻﺭّ ﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻝ‬‫ّ‬‫ﻣﺎ ﺗﺑﻘﻰ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺳﻠﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﻣﻭﻣﻳّﺔ، ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺳﻬﺎ ﻣﺟﻠﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻧﻭّ ﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﺷﺎﺭﻳﻥ ﻭﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺟﺎﻟﺱ ﺍﻟﺟﻬﻭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻣﺣﻠﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺭﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﻛﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﺻﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺑﻭﻟﻳﺱ ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻟﺕ ﺗﻭﺟّ ﻪ ﺍﻟﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺗﻘﻭﺩ ﺣﺭﻛﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺗﺧﺭﻳﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﺧﻭﻳﻑ. ﻛﻣﺎ ﺗﺻﺭّ ﻗﻭﻯ ﺗﻭﻧﺱ ﺍﻟﺣﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺷﻛﻳﻝ ﺗﺭﻛﻳﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺟﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺑﻌﺛﺕ ﻟﺗﻘﺻّﻲ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺍﻟﺣﻘﺎﺋﻕ ﻭﺗﺣﺩﻳﺩ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺅﻭﻟﻳّﺎﺕ ﻭﻛﺷﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﺳﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﺗﻭﺭّ ﻁﻳﻥ ﻓﻳﻪ ﺑﻔﺗﺢ ﺍﻟﻣﺟﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻘﺿﺎﺓ ﻟﻠﻘﻳﺎﻡ ﺑﻣﻬﺎﻣﻬﻡ ﻭﺗﻁﻬﻳﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻧﻅﻭﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺿﺎﺋﻳّﺔ ﻣﻥ ﺭﻣﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﻔﺳﺎﺩ.‬‫ﻛﻣﺎ ﺗﺩﻋﻭ ﻗﻭﻯ ﺗﻭﻧﺱ ﺍﻟﺣﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﺳﺭﺍﻉ ﺑﺗﺷﻛﻳﻝ ﻫﻳﺋﺔ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻣﻳﻳﻥ ﻭﻏﻳﺭﻫﻡ ﻣﻥ ﻧﺎﺷﻁﻲ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺍﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﻧﻲ ﻟﻠﻧﻅﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﻭﻣﺭﺍﻗﺑﺔ ﺍﻧﺣﺭﺍﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻣﻣﻛﻧﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺛﻭﺭﺓ، ﻭﺍﻟﺗﺯﺍﻣﻪ‬‫ﺑﺄﺧﻼﻗﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﻬﻧﺔ ﻭﺣﺭﻓﻳﺗﻬﺎ، ﻭﻓﺗﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﺿﺎءﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻣﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺻﺣﻑ ﻟﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﺑﻳﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺎﺳﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻳﺔ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﻳﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﻗﺻﺎء.‬‫ﺇﻥ ﻗﻭﻯ ﺗﻭﻧﺱ ﺍﻟﺣﺭﺓ ﺗﻌﺗﺑﺭ ﺃﻥّ ﺍﻟﺛﻭﺭﺓ ﻗﺩ ﻧﺟﺣﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺣﺩﺍﺙ ﻓﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺩﺍﺧﻝ ﺍﻟﺳﻠﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﻣﻭﻣﻳﺔ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺗﺔ ﺑﺗﺣﻭﻳﻝ ﻣﺟﺎﻟﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻬﻳﺄﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻳﺩ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﺑﻠﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻠﺊ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﻭﻟﻭ ﺑﺻﻔﺔ ﻣﺅﻗّ‬ ‫ﺣﻣﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺛﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺟﺎﻟﺱ ﻟﺑﻧﺎء ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺑﺩءﺍ ﻣﻥ ﺃﺳﻔﻝ ﺍﻟﻬﺭﻡ ﻭﺻﻭﻻ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻣّﺗﻪ.‬‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺛﻭﺭﻳّﺔ، ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺛﻭﺭﻳّﺔ ﻭﻣﻥ ﺿﻣﻧﻬﺎ ﻗﻭﻯ ﺗﻭﻧﺱ ﺍﻟﺣﺭﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺩﻋﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻻﺗﺟﺎﻩ، ﻭﺃﻥ ﻻ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺗﻛﺗﻔﻲ ﺑﻣﺟﻠﺱ ﻭﻁﻧﻲ ﺗﺄﺳﻳﺳﻲ ﻛﺣﻝ ﻭﺣﻳﺩ ﻟﺗﺻﻭّ ﺭ ﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﺟﺩﻳﺩ ﻟﻠﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻳﻬﺩﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺻﻳﺎﻏﺔ ﺳﻘﻑ ﺍﻟﺛﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫3‬
  • 4. ‫ّ‬‫ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺗﺎﺝ ﻧﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺑﺎﺋﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻁﺎﺭ ﺩﻳﻛﻭﺭ ﺩﻳﻣﻘﺭﺍﻁﻲ ﺗﻌﺩﺩﻱ ﻣﺯﻳّﻑ ﻻ ﻳﺳﺗﺟﻳﺏ ﻓﻌﻼ ﻟﺳﻘﻑ ﺍﻟﺛﻭﺭﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺣﻘﻳﻘﻲ ﻭﻳﻘﺻﻲ ﻗﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺛﻭﺭﺓ. ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺑﺈﻗﺻﺎء ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﻬﻣﺷﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺷﺑﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﺭﺃﺓ ﻣﻥ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺣﻘﻬﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺗﻣﺛﻳﻝ ﺑﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻣﺟﻠﺱ، ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻝ ﻫﻳﻣﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺅﻯ ﺍﻟﺣﺯﺑﻳّﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺋﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺿﻳّﻘﺔ ﻭﺗﻐﻭّ ﻝ ﺳﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻣﻠﻳّﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺗﺧﺎﺑﻳﺔ.‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺃﻣّﺎ ﻣﻥ ﺣﻳﺙ ﺍﻧﺗﻣﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ ﻓﺈﻥّ ﻗﻭﻯ ﺗﻭﻧﺱ ﺍﻟﺣﺭﺓ ﺗﺗﺷﻛﻝ ﻣﻥ ﺗﻛﻧﻭﻗﺭﺍﻁﻳﻳﻥ ﺗﻘﺩﻣﻳﻳﻥ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﻠﻳﻥ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻣﻝ ﻣﻥ ﺣﺎﻣﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻣﻠﻭﻥ ﺩﺍﺧﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺅﺳّﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻣﻭﻣﻳّﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺧﺎﺻّﺔ ﻭﻛﺫﻟﻙ ﻣﻥ ﻣﺛﻘﻔﻳﻥ ﺛﻭﺭﻳﻳﻥ ﻭﻣﻌﻁّ‬‫ﺍﻟﺷﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻳﺎ ﻭﻣﻥ ﻏﻳﺭﻫﻡ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﻬﻣّﺷﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﻧﻭﻋﻳﻳﻥ » ‪ « Les marginaux qualitatifs‬ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻳﻳﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻧﺎﺻﺭ ﺍﻟﺗﻘﺩﻣﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻳﻣﻘﺭﺍﻁﻳﺔ.‬‫ﻭﻗﻭﻯ ﺗﻭﻧﺱ ﺍﻟﺣﺭﺓ ﻭﻭﻓﻕ ﺳﻘﻑ ﺷﻌﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺛﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﺃﻫﺩﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﺗﻧﻔﺗﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﻣﻬﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺗﻣﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺍﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺑﻘﻲ.‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﻛﻣﺎ ﺗﺳﺗﻧﺩ ﻗﻭﻯ ﺗﻭﻧﺱ ﺍﻟﺣﺭﺓ ﻭﺗﺳﺗﻣﺩ ﻁﺎﻗﺗﻬﺎ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺋﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺑﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻛﺛﺭ ﺗﺿﺭّ ﺭﺍ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺍﻟﻧﺳﻳﺞ ﺍﻹﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﻫﻥ. ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺗﺷﻛﻝ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻣﻥ ﻓﺋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺷﺑﺎﺏ ﻭﺧﺎﺻّﺔ ﻣﻧﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﺷﺑﺎﺏ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻁﻠﻳﻥ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻣﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻌﻁﻠﻳﻥ ﻣﻥ ﺣﺎﻣﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺷﻬﺎﺋﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻳﺎ ﻭﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻣّﺎﻝ ﻭﻋﻣّﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺎﻭﻟﺔ ) ﻋﺑﻳﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺻﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺣﺩﻳﺙ( ﻭﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺯﺍﺭﻋﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍء ﺍﻟﺫﻳﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺳﺗﻁﻳﻌﻭﻥ ﺍﺳﺗﺭﺟﺎﻉ ﺗﻛﺎﻟﻳﻑ ﺇﻧﺗﺎﺟﻬﻡ ﺑﻌﺩ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻗﺗﺻﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ، ﻳﺿﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﺅﻻء ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍء ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺗﺟّ ﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﻳﻥ ﻳﻌﺟﺯﻭﻥ ﻋﻥ ﺗﻠﺑﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺣﺩ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻳﺵ ﺍﻟﻛﺭﻳﻡ.‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺇﻥّ ﻣﻁﺎﻟﺏ ﻫﺅﻻء ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺛﻭﺭﺓ ﻫﻭ ﺗﺣﻘﻳﻕ ﺍﻟﻛﺭﺍﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﺑﺷﺭﻳّﺔ ﺑﺗﻭﻓﻳﺭ ﺷﻐﻝ ﻗﺎﺭ ﻭﺩﺍﺋﻡ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻻ‬‫ﻳﺳﺗﻁﻳﻊ ﻣﻧﻭﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺗﻧﻣﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺣﺎﻟﻲ ﺗﻭﻓﻳﺭﻩ. ﻟﺫﺍ ﻭﺟﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺛﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺯﻳﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻗﻳﻝ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺣﻭﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﺣﻘﻳﻕ‬‫ﻣﻧﻭﺍﻝ ﺗﻧﻣﻭﻱ ﻧﺎﺟﻊ ﻭﺩﺍﺋﻡ ﻳﻠﺣﻕ ﻣﺋﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﻻﻑ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﻬﻣّﺷﻳﻥ ﺑﻘﻭﻯ ﺍﻹﻧﺗﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺗﻘﻠﻳﺩﻳّﺔ ) ﺍﻟﻁﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼّﺣﻳﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻭﻅﻔﻳﻥ ﻭﺃﺻﺣﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻣﻬﻥ ...( ﻭﻳﺭﻓﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﺗﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺣﻘﻳﻕ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻧﻭﻋﻳّﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻳﻣﺔ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺍﻟﻣﺿﺎﻓﺔ. ﻭﺃﻫﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻗﻳﻝ ﻫﻭ ﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﺳﻳﺎﺳﻲ ﻏﺎﺷﻡ ﻭﻣﺳﺗﺑﺩ ﻭﻫﺯﻳﻝ ﻭﻁﻳّﻊ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺧﻳﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﻟﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﻣّﺭﺓ.‬‫ﻭ ﺗﺗﻧﺯﻝ ﺛﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﻭﻧﺱ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻁﺎﺭ ﺭﻓﺽ ﻋﺎﻟﻣﻲ ﻭﺃﻣﻣﻲ ﻟﻠﺧﻳﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻳﺔ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﻛﺭّ ﺳﺕ ﺷﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺟﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻳﺑﺭﺍﻟﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺟﺩﻳﺩﺓ. ﻭ ﺃﺩﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻔﻘﻳﺭ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﺷﻣﻠﺕ ﻛﻝ ﻣﺟﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺣﻳﺎﺓ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﺎﺻّﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻝ ﺍﻟﺑﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻛﺛﺭ ﻓﻘﺭﺍ ﻭﻣﻥ ﺿﻣﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﻭﻧﺱ.‬‫ﻭ ﺗﻌﺗﺑﺭ ﻗﻭﻯ ﺗﻭﻧﺱ ﺍﻟﺣﺭﺓ ﺃﻥّ ﺛﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﻭﻧﺱ ﺍﻟﻳﻭﻡ، ﺗﻠﺗﺣﻡ ﻣﻊ ﻧﺿﺎﻻﺕ ﺷﻌﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﻭﻗﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺣﻳّﺔ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺿﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﻟﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﻣّﺭﺓ ﻭ ﻧﺗﺎﺋﺟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻣﻔﺯﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﺍﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺑﻳﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺻﺣّ ﻲ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﻲ ...، ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺗﺳﺗﻠﻬﻡ ﺃﺷﻛﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻧﺿﺎﻝ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺣﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻳﺔ ﻟﻣﻧﺎﻫﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﻟﻣﺔ ﻭﺗﻘﺩﻡ ﻧﻣﻭﺫﺟﺎ ﺛﻭﺭﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺋﻌﺎ ﻳﻠﻬﻡ ﺷﻌﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﻣﻧﻁﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺳﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻧﺿﺎﻟﻲ ﻭﻳﺗﺣﺩ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺭﺳﻡ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑﻝ ﺍﻹﻧﺳﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﺟﺩﻳﺩ.‬‫ﺃﻣّﺎ ﻣﻥ ﺣﻳﺙ ﺍﻟﻣﺑﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻳّﺔ ﻟﻠﻣﺷﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﻲ، ﻓﺈﻥّ ﻗﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﻭﻧﺱ ﺍﻟﺣﺭﺓ ﺗﻌﺗﺑﺭ ﺃﻥّ ﺍﻟﻣﺭﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺣﺎﻟﻳّﺔ ﻟﻠﺛﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﺗﻁﻠّﺏ ﻫﻳﻛﻠﺔ ﻣﺷﺭﻭﻋﻬﺎ ﺣﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺷﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻵﺗﻲ:‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫» ﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﺩﻳﻣﻘﺭﺍﻁﻲ ﻳﺿﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺑﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺣﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻝ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻳﺔ «‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫4‬
  • 5. ‫ﻭ ﻳﺗﺷﻛﻝ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻣﺷﺭﻭﻉ ﻓﻲ ﺧﻁﻭﻁﻪ ﺍﻟﻛﺑﺭﻯ ﻓﻳﻣﺎ ﻳﺗﻌﻠّﻕ ﺑﺩﻳﻣﻘﺭﺍﻁﻳّﺔ ﺍﻟﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺿﻣﺎﻧﻪ ﻷﻭﻓﺭ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﺣﻅﻭﻅ ﺍﻟﻣﺑﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺣﺭّ ﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﻫﻳﺎﻛﻝ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻳﺋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ) ﺍﻟﺳﻠﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﻣﻭﻣﻳّﺔ( ﺍﻟﺿﺎﻣﻧﺔ ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺣﺭّ ﻹﺭﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺍﻁﻧﻳﻥ.‬ ‫-‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺗﺷﺎﺭﻛﻳّﺔ ﺍﻟﺣﻘﻳﻘﻳّﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺳﻳﻳﺭ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻣﺅﺳّﺳﺎﺕ.‬ ‫-‬ ‫ﺗﺣﺭّ ﺭ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺗﻌﺎﺵ ﻫﻳﺋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﻧﻲ.‬ ‫-‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺗﻘﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺿﺎء ﻭﺣﺭﻳّﺔ ﺍﻟﺻﺣﺎﻓﺔ.‬ ‫-‬‫ﻓﺑﺎﻟﻧﺳﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﻬﻳﺋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺿﺎﻣﻧﺔ ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺑﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺣﺭّ ﻭﻹﺭﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻣـﻭﺍﻁﻧﻳﻥ ﻓـﺈﻥّ ﻗﻭﻯ ﺗﻭﻧﺱ ﺍﻟﺣﺭﺓ ﺗﺩﻋﻭ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺷﻛﻝ ﻓﻌﻠﻲ ﻟﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺩﺍﺧﻝ ﻣﺟﺎﻟﺱ ﺷﻌﺑﻳّﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﺑﻠﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻭﻛﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻧﻲ ) ﻣﺟﻠﺱ- ﻣﺟﺎﻟﺱ ﺷﻌﺑﻳّﺔ ﻭﻁﻧﻳّﺔ(. ﻭﺗﺩﻋﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﺝ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺳﻠﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﻣﻭﻣﻳّﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻝ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﺳﺗﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺟﺩﻳﺩ ﺑﺎﻋﺗﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻫﻳﺋﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﺑّﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺍﻁﻧﻳﻥ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﻝ ﺍﻟﺷﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺣﻠّﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺭﻭﻱ ﻣﻧﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺍﻟﺷﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺭﻛﺯﻱ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ. ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﺑﺭ ﻓﺭﺽ ﻣﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﻭ ﻓﻌﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺍﻁﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺷﺎﺭﻙ ﺑﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺍﻁﻥ ﺍﻟﻧﺎﺧﺏ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻻ ﻳﺗﻌﺩﻯ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﻛﻭﻧﻪ ﻣﺟﺭّ ﺩ ﺭﻗﻡ ﺍﻧﺗﺧﺎﺑﻲ. ﻛﻣﺎ ﺗﺩﻋﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺧﺗﻳﺎﺭ ﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻧﺗﺧﺎﺑﻲ ﻳﺳﻣﺢ ﻟﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻬﻳﺋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺩﻳّﺔ ﺑﺗﻣﺛﻳﻠﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻳﻘﻳﺔ ﺻﻠﺏ ﺍﻟﻬﻳﺋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻬﻳﺋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻧﻳّﺔ.‬‫ﻭﺗﻌﺗﺑﺭ ﻗﻭﻯ ﺗﻭﻧﺱ ﺍﻟﺣﺭﺓ ﺃﻥّ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺗﻭﺟّ ﻪ ﺍﻟﻼﻣﺭﻛﺯﻱ ﻟﻠﺣﻛﻡ ﻻ ﻳﻛﺗﻣﻝ ﺇﻻّ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻭﻓّﺭﺕ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺷﺭﻭﻁ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﻝ ﻓﻲ:‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻳّﺔ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻋﻣﻝ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻬﻳﺋﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﺗﻣﺛّ‬‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﺷﻛﻝ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻬﻳﺋﺎﺕ ﻓﺿﺎءﺍﺕ ﻟﻣﺩﺍﻭﻻﺕ ﺣﻘﻳﻘﻳّﺔ ﺣﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺷﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺣﻠّﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺟﻬﻭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻧﻲ.‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫1-‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﻛﻭﻥ ﻫﻳﺋﺎﺕ ﺗﺗﻣﺗﻊ ﺑﺳﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭ.‬ ‫2-‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﻛﻭﻥ ﺭﻗﺎﺑﻳّﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻝ ﺍﻟﻬﻳﺋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻧﻔﻳﺫﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﻭﻳﺎﺕ.‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫3-‬‫ﺃﻣّﺎ ﺍﻟﺗﺷﺎﺭﻛﻳّﺔ ﺍﻟﺣﻘﻳﻘﻳّﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺳﻳﻳﺭ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻣﺅﺳّﺳﺎﺕ ﻓﺗﺷﻣﻝ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺅﺳّﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻣﻭﻣﻳّﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺧﺎﺻّﺔ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﻭﻛﺫﻟﻙ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻳﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻣﻭﻣﻳّﺔ. ﺇﺫ ﺑﻔﺿﻠﻬﺎ ﻳﺗﻣﻛﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻣّﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻭﻅﻔﻭﻥ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺷﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺭﺳﻡ ﺳﻳﺎﺳﺔ ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺍﻟﻣﺅﺳّﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺧﻁﻁﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺗﺎﺟﻳّﺔ ﻭﻁﺎﻗﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺗﺷﻐﻳﻠﻳّﺔ ﻭﻣﺩﻯ ﺍﺣﺗﺭﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻟﻣﻘﺗﺿﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺑﻳﺋﺔ. ﻛﻣﺎ ﻳﻣﻛﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ‬‫ﺍﻟﺗﺷﺎﺭﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﺳﻳﻳﺭ ﻣﻥ ﻓﺭﺽ ﺭﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻝ ﻣﺣﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻣﺅﺳّﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﻓﺭﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻥ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﻣﺣﻳﻁﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻭﺑﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺃﺧﺭﻯ ﺑﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺑﺣﺙ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻳﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺧﻳﺻﺔ ﺑﻌﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻛﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻳﺔ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ ﻭﻓﺭﺕ ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺗﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺗﺛﻣﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺋﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻧﺎﺟﻊ.‬‫ﻣﻥ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺭﻯ ﻓﺄﻥّ ﺍﻧﺗﻌﺎﺵ ﻫﻳﺋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﻧﻲ ﻭﺗﺣﺭّ ﺭﻫﺎ ﻳﺟﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺷﻣﻝ ﺃﻭّ ﻻ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﻧﻅﻣﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻧﻘﺎﺑﻳّﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻳﺋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺣﻘﻭﻗﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺟﻣﻌﻳّﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻧﻣﻭﻳّﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﻳّﺔ. ﻭﻳﺗﻁﻠّﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺗﻣﺣﻭﺭ ﻧﺷﺎﻁ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻬﻳﺋﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﺷﻛﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺣﻭﻝ ﻣﺑﺩﺃ ﺍﻟﺣﺭﻳّﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺗﻘﻼﻟﻳﺔ، ﺑﻌﻳﺩﺍ ﻋﻥ ﻫﻳﻣﻧﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﺯﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺎﺳﻳّﺔ ﺑﻣﺎ ﻳﻛﺭّ ﺱ ﺍﻟﺩﻳﻣﻘﺭﺍﻁﻳّﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻧﺗﺧﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺿﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺗﺧﺎﺫ ﻗﺭﺍﺭﺍﺗﻬﺎ.‬‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺿﺎء، ﺗﺭﻯ ﻗﻭﻯ ﺗﻭﻧﺱ ﺍﻟﺣﺭﺓ ﺃﻥّ ﺍﻟﻔﺻﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻧﺯﺍﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﻧﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺟﺯﺍﺋﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺑﻳّﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻣﻛﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻛﻭﻥ ﻋﺎﺩﻻ ﺇﻻّ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻭﻓﺭ ﺷﺭﻁ ﺍﺳﺗﻘﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺿﺎء ﻋﻥ ﻛﻝ ﺗﺩﺧﻝ ﻣﻬﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻭﻗﻌﻪ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ّ ّ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﻋﻣﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺣﺎﻛﻡ ﻭﺗﻭﺣﻳﺩﻩ. ﻭﺇﻻ ّ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻭﻓﺭﺕ ﻟﻠﻘﺿﺎﺓ ﻭﻣﺳﺎﻋﺩﻳﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﺿﻣﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺷﺧﺻﻳّﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻣﻠﻬﻡ ﻭﺿﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺣﻘﻭﻗﻬﻡ ﻭﺗﺳﻣﻳﺗﻬﻡ ﻭﻧﻘﻠﺗﻬﻡ ﻭﺗﺄﺟﻳﺭﻫﻡ ﻭﺗﺄﺩﻳﺑﻬﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻁﺎﺭ ﺗﻣﺛﻳﻠﻳّﺔ ﺗﺿﻣﻥ ﻟﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺳﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﺳﺗﻘﻼﻟﻳﺗﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺑﻘﻳّﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺳﻠﻁ.‬ ‫5‬
  • 6. ‫ﻭﻣﻥ ﻧﺎﺣﻳﺔ ﺃﺧﺭﻯ ﺗﻌﺗﺑﺭ ﻗﻭﻯ ﺗﻭﻧﺱ ﺍﻟﺣﺭﺓ ﺃﻥّ ﺍﻟﺻﺣﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﺭﺁﺓ ﻋﺎﻛﺳﺔ ﻟﻠﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻹﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺳﻳﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﻭﺳﻠﻁﺔ ﺭﻗﺎﺑﻳّﺔ ﻣﻌﻧﻭﻳّﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻡ ﺗﺗﺣﺭّ ﺭ ﻣﻥ ﻗﻳﻭﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻣﺭﻛﺯﻳّﺔ. ﻭﻣﺎ ﻟﻡ ﺗﺗﺟﻪ ﻭﺗﻧﺑﺛﻕ ﻋﻥ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺑﻠﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻝ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻣﻘﺭﻭءﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﺳﻣﻭﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﺭﺋﻳّﺔ. ﻭﻣﺎ ﻟﻡ ﺗﺗﻣﺗﻊ ﺑﺣﻘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺭﻳّﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﺑﻳﺭ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﻗﺻﺎء ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺗﻬﻣﻳﺵ. ﻭﻳﺗﻌﻳّﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺻﺣﺎﻓﻳﻳﻥ ﺗﻛﻭﻳﻥ ﻫﻳﺋﺔ ﻣﺳﺗﻘﻠّﺔ ﺗﻧﻅﻡ ﻣﻬﻧﺗﻬﻡ ﻭﺗﺣﻣﻲ ﺣﻘﻭﻗﻬﻡ ﻭﺗﺭﺍﻗﺏ ﺍﻹﻧﺣﺭﺍﻓﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭﺗﺗﺧﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﻠﺯﻣﺔ ﺗﺟﺎﻩ ﻛﻝ ﺃﺷﻛﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺗﻼﻋﺏ ﺑﺎﻟﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﺳﺗﻐﻼﻝ ﺳﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺎﺳﻲ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺧﺿﻭﻉ ﻟﻪ، ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﺑﺭ ﺿﺑﻁ ﺍﻷﺷﻛﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻭﻧﻳّﺔ‬‫، ﻣﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺗﺣﺩﻳﺩ ﻫﻳﻛﻠﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﻣﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﻭﻧﺳﺏ ﺍﻣﺗﻼﻛﻬﺎ ﻣﻥ ﻗﺑﻝ ﺍﻷﺷﺧﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﻧﻭﻳﻳﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻁﺑﻳﻌﻳﻳﻥ، ﻭﻁﺭﻕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺗﺻﺭّ ﻑ ﻓﻳﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﺭﺍﻗﺑﺔ ﺑﺭﺍﻣﺟﻬﺎ ﺑﻣﺎ ﻳﻣﻧﻌﻬﺎ ﻣﻥ ﺇﺳﺗﺑﻼﻩ ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺍﻁﻧﻳﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻼﻋﺏ ﺑﺎﻟﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﻣﻧﺎﻫﺿﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺛﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺗﻛﺎﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻭﺳﺎﺋﻝ ﺑﺻﻔﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺗﻭﻅﻳﻔﻬﺎ ﻟﻣﺻﻠﺣﺔ ﺃﻁﺭﺍﻑ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﺧﺭﻯ.‬‫ﺃﻣّﺎ ﻣﻥ ﺣﻳﺙ ﺍﻟﻁﺑﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﺈﻥّ ﻗﻭﻯ ﺗﻭﻧﺱ ﺍﻟﺣﺭﺓ ﺗﺭﻯ ﺃﻥّ ﺍﻟﻣﺭﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺣﺎﻟﻳّﺔ ﻟﻠﺛﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺗﺗﻁﻠّﺏ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺗﺄﺧﺫ ﻣﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺧﺎﺹ، ﻭﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺗﻬﻳﻣﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻣﻠﻳّﺗﻲ ﺍﻹﻧﺗﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻭﺯﻳﻊ ﺣﺗﻰّ ﻻ‬‫ﺗﻛﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﺅﻣّﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻣﺅﺳّﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺧﺎﺹ. ﻛﻣﺎ ﺃﻥّ ﻗﻭﻯ ﺗﻭﻧﺱ ﺍﻟﺣﺭﺓ ﺗﺩﻋﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﺗﺧﻠّﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻬﻳﺋﺔ ﺑﻧﻳﺔ ﺗﺣﺗﻳّﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺟﺎﻻﺕ ﺣﻳﻭﻳﺔ ﺃﻫﻣّﻬﺎ :‬ ‫ﺗﺄﻣﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻡ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﺑﻳّﺔ ﺍﻟﺳﺎﺣﻘﺔ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻧﺎﺷﺋﺔ.‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺗﻭﻓﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺻﺣّ ﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻳّﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻐﻁﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺣﻣﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻟﺑﻳّﺔ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺍﻁﻧﻳﻥ.‬ ‫‪‬‬‫ﺗﻭﻓﻳﺭ ﺑﻧﻳﺔ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺳﺭﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺧﺩﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣّﺔ ﻣﻥ ﻣﺎء ﻭﻛﻬﺭﺑﺎء ﻭﺗﻁﻬﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ‬ ‫‪‬‬‫ﺗﺅﻣّﻥ ﺣﺎﺟﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺍﻁﻧﻳﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻳّﺔ ﻭﺗﺷﺟّ ﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻧﺗﺻﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺗﺛﻣﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺑﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﺗﻭﻧﺳﻳّﺔ.‬‫ﺗﻁﻭﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺗﺷﺭﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺟﺑﺎﺋﻳّﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺑﻳّﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺅﺳّﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺗﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻭﺯﻳﻊ ﻭﺇﺷﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻧﺎﺥ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺷﻔﺎﻓﻳّﺔ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﻣﻝ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺳﻌﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺣﺩ ﻣﻥ ﺗﻭﺭّ ﻣﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﺿﺧﻣﻬﺎ.‬‫ﺗﺣﺭﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺗﺟﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺧﻠﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺧﺎﺭﺟﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺗﺧﺎﺫ ﺍﻹﺟﺭﺍءﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺣﻳﻠﻭﻟﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﻏﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﺳﻭﻕ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺳﻠﻊ ﺍﻷﺟﻧﺑﻳﺔ.‬ ‫ﺗﻁﻭﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺑﺣﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺗﺷﺎﺭﻙ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺧﺎﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﺭﻓﻳﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻣﻭﻳﻼﺗﻪ ﻭﺗﺑﺳﻳﻁ ﺇﺟﺭﺍءﺍﺗﻪ.‬ ‫‪‬‬‫ﺇﺣﺩﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻣﺷﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻛﺑﺭﻯ ﻭﻣﻥ ﺃﻫﻣّﻬﺎ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺳﺩﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﺧﻔﻳﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻌﺭ ﺍﺳﺗﻬﻼﻙ ﻣﻳﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺭﻱّ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻲ.‬‫ﺗﻣﻛﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻼّﺣﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺩﻣﻳﻥ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺗﺻﺭّ ﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺑﻣﺎ ﻳﺿﻣﻥ ﻣﺭﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻳﻘﻳﺔ ﻟﻭﺣﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫‪‬‬‫ﺍﻻﺳﺗﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻲ ﻭﻳﺿﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻳﺵ ﺍﻟﻛﺭﻳﻡ ﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍء ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻳﻥ ﻭﺗﺣﻣﻝ ﺃﻋﺑﺎء ﺍﺳﺗﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺑﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺣﻘﻕ ﻣﺭﺩﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻳﻘﻳﺔ ﺗﻘﻁﻊ ﻣﻊ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺣﺭﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻔﻘﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﻧﺎﺗﺟﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺗﺿﺧﻡ ﺃﻋﺑﺎء ﺍﻹﻧﺗﺎﺝ.‬‫ﻓﺻﻝ ﺍﻟﺑﻧﻙ ﺍﻟﻣﺭﻛﺯﻱ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺳﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻧﻔﻳﺫﻳّﺔ ﻭﺗﻣﻛﻳﻧﻪ ﻣﻥ ﺍﺳﺗﻘﻼﻟﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﻭﻭﺿﻌﻪ ﺗﺣﺕ ﻣﺭﺍﻗﺑﺔ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻳﺋﺗﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﺗﺷﺭﻳﻌﻳّﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺿﺎﺋﻳّﺔ.‬‫ﺍﻋﺗﻣﺎﺩ ﺁﻟﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺣﻭﻛﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺷﻳﺩﺓ "‪ " La bonne gouvernance‬ﻛﺗﻣﻛﻳﻥ ﻣﺧﺗﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﻬﻳﺋﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺑﻳّﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺭﻛﺯﻳّﺔ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺗﻘﻼﻟﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺳﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻧﻔﻳﺫﻳّﺔ. ﻭﺗﻛﻔﻝ ﺍﻟﺳﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﺷﺭﻳﻌﻳﺔ ﺑﺗﻌﻳﻳﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻋﻣﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﺳﺎﺋﻠﺗﻬﺎ.‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺗﺷﺟﻳﻊ ﻫﻳﺋﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﻧﻅﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﻧﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﻳﻳﻡ ﺃﺩﺍء ﺃﺟﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﺳﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻧﻔﻳﺫﻳّﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﺳﻠﻭﺏ ﻋﻣﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﻭﻧﻭﻋﻳّﺔ ﻋﻼﻗﺗﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻣﻭﺍﻁﻧﻳﻥ.‬ ‫ﺇﻥّ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﻥ ﺷﺄﻧﻪ ﺿﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺗﻭﺍﺯﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻛﺑﺭﻯ ﻭﻣﻥ ﺃﻫﻣّﻬﺎ :‬ ‫1( ﺍﻟﺗﻭﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻹﻳﺟﺎﺑﻲ ﺑﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺑﻣﺎ ﻳﺗﻼءﻡ ﻭﺧﺻﻭﺻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺟﻬﺔ ﻭﺇﻣﻛﺎﻧﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺣﻘﻳﻘﻳﺔ.‬ ‫6‬
  • 7. ‫2( ﺍﻟﺗـﻭﺍﺯﻥ ﺑﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺋﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﺣﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻬﻣﻳﺵ ﺑﺗﺣﺭﻱ ﺭ ﻗﻭﻯ ﺍﻹﻧﺗﺎﺝ ﻭ ﺩﻋﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﻳﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺩﻋﻡ ﺍﻟﺑﺣﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻣﻳّﺔ ﺑﺟﻌﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺧﺩﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻧﻣﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻳﺔ‬ ‫ّ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺋﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﺇﺯﺍﺣﺔ ﺭﻣـﻭﺯﺍﻟﺑﻳﺭﻭﻗﺭﺍﻁﻳّﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳّﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺳﻳﺎﺳﻳّﺔ ﺍﻟﻧﺎﻫﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻳﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻌﻁﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺗﻧﻣﻳﺔ ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻳﻭﺩ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺑﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺣﺭّ ﺓ ﻭﺇﺷﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺷﻔﺎﻓﻳّﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﺎﻣﻝ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺅﺳّﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺗﺎﺝ.‬ ‫)72-20-1102 (‬ ‫ﻗﻭﻯ ﺗﻭﻧﺱ ﺍﻟﺣﺭﺓ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫7‬