Brain Computer Interface

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  • BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE
  • BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE
  • Brain Computer Interface

    1. 1. BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE
    2. 2. CONTENTS <ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>THE HUMAN BRAIN </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY </li></ul><ul><li>BCI APPROACHES </li></ul><ul><li>HARDWARE & SOFTAWARE REQUIRED </li></ul><ul><li>HOW BCI WORKS </li></ul><ul><li>BCI FEEDBACK </li></ul><ul><li>DRAWBACKS & INNOVATORS </li></ul><ul><li>APPLICATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>CONCLUSION </li></ul>12/29/09 BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE
    3. 3. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>THE BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BCI Systems are systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that uses Brain signals (Electrical, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic , Metabolic) to Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>external devices such as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>computers, switches, wheelchairs, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or neuroprosthesses . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various Techniques used: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FMRI, MEG, PET, SPECT, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical brain imaging , single </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuron recording (with micro- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrodes) & ElectroEnce – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>phaloGraphy (EEG). </li></ul></ul>12/29/09 BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE
    4. 4. THE HUMAN BRAIN <ul><li>MAJOR PART OF BRAIN WHICH SUPPORTS BCI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain divided in 4 parts: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebral Cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebellum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain stem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus & Thalamus </li></ul></ul>12/29/09 BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE Fig 3: Human Brain
    5. 5. ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY(EEG ) <ul><li>CONCEPT OF EEG </li></ul><ul><li>PROPERTIES OF EEG : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RYTHMIC BRAIN ACTIVITY, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COMMON EEG FREQUENCY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RANGES, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EVENT RELATED POTENTIALS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(ERP`S), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EVENT RELATED DESYNCHRO- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NIZATION (ERD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EVENT RELATED SYNCHRINIZATION (ERS) </li></ul></ul>12/29/09 BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE Fig 4 : EEG frequency
    6. 6. BCI APPROACHES <ul><li>TWO DIFFERENT BCI APPROACHES : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PATTERN RECOGNITION APPROACH BASED ON MENTAL TASK . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OPERANT CONDITIONING APPROACH BASED ON SELF REGULATION OF EEG . </li></ul></ul>12/29/09 BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE
    7. 7. HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS <ul><li>ELECTROENCEPHALO PROCESSOR MODEL H11 (EEPH11) </li></ul><ul><li>EEG DEVICE </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTRODE CAP </li></ul><ul><li>EEG AMPLIFIERE </li></ul><ul><li>FIBRE OPTIC CABLE </li></ul><ul><li>COMPUTER OR SUBJECT SCREEN </li></ul>12/29/09 BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE
    8. 8. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS <ul><li>EEP H11 SERVER </li></ul><ul><li>ABI LEARNING PROGRAME </li></ul><ul><li>ABI ONLINE PROGRAME </li></ul><ul><li>ABI VISUALIZATION PROGRAME </li></ul>12/29/09 BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE
    9. 9. HOW BCI WORKS <ul><li>IT HAS SIX STAGES : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GENERATION OF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SIGNALS FROM BRAIN </li></ul></ul>12/29/09 BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE
    10. 10. HOW BCI WORKS <ul><li>MEASUREMENT OF EEG, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PREPROCESSING, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FEATURE EXTRACTION, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CLASSIFICATION, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DEVICE CONTROL. </li></ul></ul>12/29/09 BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE
    11. 11. BCI FEEDBACK <ul><li>BIOFEEDBACK IN GENERAL </li></ul><ul><li>EEG BIOFEEDBACK </li></ul><ul><li>FEEDBACKS IN BCI </li></ul>12/29/09 BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE Fig 6 : BCI Feedback
    12. 12. BCI FEEDBACKS <ul><li>EFFECT OF FFEDBACK : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BENEFICIAL FEEDBACK . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FURNISHES BENEFICIAL MOTIVATION. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ENSURES ATTENTION TO THE TASK BY MAINTAINING SUBJECT`S INTEREST. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IMPROVES PERFORMANCE BY RAPID REACTION TO WRONG CLASSIFICATION. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HARMFUL FEEDBACK . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FEEDBACK STIMULUS MIGHT PREVENT CONCENTRATION ON INTERNAL STATES. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FALSE CLASSIFICATION CAN ELICIT FRUSTRATION & THUS AFFECT THE EEG RESPONSE. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VISUAL FEEDBACK STIMULUS AFFECT ALPHA RHYTHM . </li></ul></ul></ul>12/29/09 BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE
    13. 13. BCI DRAWBACKS <ul><li>THE DRAWBACKS OF BCI : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THE BRAIN IS INCREDIBLY COMPLEX, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THE SIGNAL IS WEAK & PRONE TO INTERFENCE, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THE EQUIPMENTS IS LESS THAN PORTABLE, </li></ul></ul>12/29/09 BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE
    14. 14. BCI INNOVATORS <ul><li>PIONEERS </li></ul><ul><li>NASA </li></ul><ul><li>CYBERKINETICS NEUROTECHNOLOGY SYSTEM, </li></ul><ul><li>JAPANESE REASERCH TEAM </li></ul>12/29/09 BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE
    15. 15. APPLICATIONS OF BCI <ul><li>CONTROL A ROBOT </li></ul><ul><li>PLAYING GAMES </li></ul><ul><li>FOR PHYSICALLY WEAK PERSONS TO HANDLE THE COMPUTER </li></ul><ul><li>CURSOR CONTROL </li></ul>12/29/09 BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE
    16. 16. CONCLUSION 12/29/09 BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE In this work EEG-based brain computer interface systems were reviewed and compared. Experiments lasting five days with three subjects were done with the new Adaptive Brain Interface system. The comparison of the BCI systems, especially their training duration and performance, proved to be difficult. This was because the results were reported differently in most of the papers. Reporting the experiments and results should be standardized.

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