Until very recently, scientists believed that this was the path of our evolution, i.e starting with Lucy. However, this was proved wrong.Briefly discuss the two timelines of the book and how did the author trace both.How did we come to that stage?Timeline of the human evolution and the fossil records
Scientists findings from 1887-2002 over 7 million years. It all starts in 1856, when they found bones of the Homo neanderthalensis and they gave it to Karl Fuhlrott
In 1924, Raymond Dart found a full skull of a child in the Kalahari Desert.He found that it was earlier than the Java Man finding as it is more Ape-like. Similarly, other scientists refused to believe in him, because not only did he propose the creation of a new family to incorporate the "man-Apes“, he went as far as to say that Apes aroused in Africa, when it was believed that they did in Asia. They believed that the skull was that of an Ape, and not a transition to humans. At that time, there were 4 agreed upon categories of ancient hominid.
On the other hand, in 1974, Lucy was discovered in Ethiopia by Donald Johanson. She had made the headlines for long, suggesting she was our ancestor.However, her skeleton was not complete, making scientists doubt that she could be on the linear path to our human evolution. Her hands were missing, as well as her feet, which could’ve made the link possible if they were present. Her pelvis bones on the other hand, falsified the theory, showing that she couldn’t walk much.Two years later, in 1976,they discovered footprints left by 2 individuals of the same family as Lucy.This finding was important because it showed how from little evidence, scientists can assume a lot of details that are enough to distort realities.
Much later on, in 2001, a team lead by Meave Leaky found 4 new specimens of Lucy's age that proved that she was an unsuccessful side branch, because they showed no indication of evolution.In the same year, her team discovered the oldest Hominids yet found (5.2-5.8 Million years) In 2002, they found an older Hominid (7 million years) that was not human like but more of an Ape
The Mysterious Biped
The American University in CairoChemistry DepartmentSCI 120- Scientific Thinking (Spring 2010)The Mysterious BipedTo: Dr. Aziza EllozyT.A: Sandy Barsoum By: Somaya Ismail Yasmine El-Masry Ziad Shaker Ragy Tawadros<br />
Human Ancestry <br />“The Mysterious Biped”<br />
<ul><li>Other researchers looked for more bones in that area, but the findings were lost in an attack in 1941 during the Second World War.
The continuous search for more fossils did not stop, and by the 1950’s, the number of the known categories grew to be over 100. </li></li></ul><li>Ralph Von Koenigswalt<br />1950<br />Solo river<br />JAVA<br />
Francis Clark Howell<br />1960<br />Australopithecus <br />Homo <br />
Credits<br />Dubois: Eugene Dubois." PALEONTHROPOLOGIE. Web. 8 May 2010. http://paleoanthropologie.blogspot.com/2010_02_01_archive.html.<br />Dart:"Raymond Dart." DEN STROE DANSK. Web. 8 May 2010. http://www.denstoredanske.dk/Natur_og_milj%C3%B8/Antropologi/Antropologer/Raymond_Dart.<br />Broom:Robert Broom." WIKIPEDIA. Web. 8 May 2010. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Broom.<br />Davidson black: "Davidson Black." WIKIPEDIA. Web. 8 May 2010. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Davidson_Black.jpg.<br />Howel:"Clark Howell." THE NEW YORK TIMES. Web. 8 May 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/15/obituaries/15howell.html?_r=2.<br />Johanson: "Donald Johanson." REASONABLE KANSANS. Web. 8 May 2010. http://reasonablekansans.blogspot.com/2007/11/early-man-fossil-record.html.<br />Leaky: "Meave Leaky." ON DEMAND. Web. 8 May 2010. http://ondemand.psu.edu/listing.php?cat=1&page=3.<br />Koenigswald: "Gustav Heinrich Ralph Von Koenigswald." INSTITUTE OF NETHERLANDS HISTORY. Web. 8 May 2010. http://www.inghist.nl/Onderzoek/Projecten/BWN/lemmata/bwn3/koenigswald.<br />
Komayakimeu:"KamoyaKimeu." THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR. Web. 8 May 2010. http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Global-News/2009/1201/kenya-peasant-with-no-formal-schooling-becomes-paleontologist-celebre.<br />Hombres prehistoricos: "Hombres Prehistoricos." PREHISTORIA.INFO. Web. 8 May 2010. http://prehistoria.info/hombres-prehistoricos/.<br />HOMONEANDERTHALENSIS SKULL: “Homo neanderthalensis skull La Ferrassie 1 (50,000 years)." SOUTHERN BIOLOGICAL. Web. 8 May 2010. http://www.southernbiological.com/Products/Models/Anthropology/BH019.htm.<br />Hussain, Samir. Tree of Life Web Project. McMaster University, n.d. Web. 8 May 2010. http://tolweb.org/treehouses/?treehouse_id=4446.<br />Foley, Jim. "Prominent Hominid Fossils." Talk Origins. N.p., 31 10 2004. Web. 8 May 2010. http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/homs/specimen.html.<br />Garrett, Kenneth. Photoshelter. Photoshelter, Inc., n.d. Web. 8 May 2010. http://www.photoshelter.com/image/I0000f4Jb8dyErm4.<br />W. Butzer, Karl. Webspace. University if Texas at Austin, n.d. Web. 8 May 2010. https://webspace.utexas.edu/butzerkw/www/.<br />Ciochon, Russell. "Asian fossils reveal humanity's giant cousin." The Ape That was. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 May 2010. http://www.uiowa.edu/~bioanth/giganto.html.<br />
M.E. Sabatini, Renato. "The Evolution of Human Primates." The Evolution of Intelligence. State University of Campinas, 15 02 2001. Web. 8 May 2010. http://www.cerebromente.org.br/n12/mente/evolution/evolution03_i.html.<br />Sanders, Robert. "Ethiopian desert yields oldest hominid skeleton." UC Berkeely News. Berkeley, 01 10 2009. Web. 8, May 2010. http://berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2009/10/01_ardiskeleton.shtml.<br />Exploratorium Evidence. National Science Foundation, 01 10 2009. Web. 8/5/2010. http://www.exploratorium.edu/evidence/.<br />"Human Ancestry: Species." Archeology. Info. Archeology Info, n.d. Web. 8/5/2010. http://www.archaeologyinfo.com/species.htm.<br />"The Human Lineage Through Time." Becoming Human. Institute of Human Origins, n.d. Web. 8/5/2010. http://www.becominghuman.org/node/human-lineage-through-time.<br />Willig, Hans Peter. "Gustav Heinrich Ralph von Koenigswald." Die Evolution des Menschen. N.p., n.d. Web. 8/5/2010. http://www.evolution-mensch.de/thema/forscher/ghr-koenigswald.php.<br />“Building a family tree for all humanity." NarTube. Web. 13 May 2010. http://www.nartube.com/ef41e635efe435d9cba3e5c30239b3cf74fb4235:tmHloU_xEJo.html.<br />Siry, Joseph. "Geological Chronology of Planet Earth." The Giological Record. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2010. http://web.rollins.edu/~jsiry/creation.html.<br />
"Introduction: The long journey of an ancient human ancestor ." Athena Publications. Athena Publications, Inc., n.d. Web. 13 May 2010. http://www.athenapub.com/13intro-he.htm.<br />"Homo Erectus." Homo Erectus. Web. 13 May 2010. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic-art/270386/73034/Artists-rendering-of-Homo-erectus-which-lived-from-approximately-1700000.<br />Gibbons, Ann. "Excerpts from The First Human." Ann Gibbons. Ann Gibbons, n.d. Web. 13 May 2010. http://www.anngibbons.com/FirstHuman/excerpts.shtml.<br />Leaky, Meave. "Rock Art Paintings of Tanzania- Africa." Bradshaw Foundation. Bradshaw Foundation, Dec. 2003. Web. 13 May 2010. http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/tanzania/forward.php.<br />Gee, Henry. "New hominid skull." Nature News. Nature Publishing Group, 22 03 2001. Web. 13 May 2010. http://www.nature.com/news/2001/010322/full/news010322-8.html.<br />"Meave Leaky." Elmundo. Web. 13 May 2010. http://www.elmundo.es/yodona/2009/03/30/actualidad/1238430832.html.<br />"Ancient skull tangles path of human evolution." CBC News. CBC, 08 08 2007. Web. 13 May 2010. http://www.cbc.ca/news/story/2007/08/08/skulls-leakey.html.<br />"Australopithecus." Maropeng. Maropeng, n.d. Web. 13 May 2010. http://www.maropeng.co.za/index.php/exhibition_guide/sterkfontein/australopithecus/.<br />"AfricaQuest: The Original Handyman ." CNN, 16 10 1998. Web. 13 May 2010. http://edition.cnn.com/TECH/science/specials/africaquest/week2/.<br />
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